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GO) 

942.4101 
B77a 
Y. 7 
1396867 

GENEALOGY cou. Ecr , 0N 




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TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

%xt\iVLalaQUKl S>atht£ 

FOE, 1882-83. 



Digitized by 


the Internet Archive 






in 2014 





https://archive.org/details/transactionsofbr7188bris 



TRANSACTIONS 

OP THE *" 



Bristol & mmtmttv&fyirt 

FOR 1882-83. 

Edited by SIB JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., Jcc. 

VOL. VII. 



BRISTOL : 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY C. T. JEFFERIES AND SONS 
CANYNGE BUILDINGS, REDCLIFFE STREET. 



The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological 
Society desires that it should be distinctly understood that the 
Council is not responsible for any statements made, or opinions 
expressed, in the Transactions of the Society. The Authors are 
alone responsible for their several Papers and Communications, and 
the Editor for the Notices on Books. 



4 



1396867 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Transactions at Stow-on -the- Wold - - - 1-35 

Transactions at Bristol - - - * " - - 214-225 

Contents of Temporary Museum - 36-43 
The Church of St. Mary, Nether Swell. By the Rev. David 

Royce, M.A. - - - - 45-55 
Old Bells in Gloucestershire Belfries. By the Rev. F. E. Broome 

Witts - - - - - 56-68 
" Finds" on, or near to, the Excursion of the Society at Stow- 

on-the-Wold. By the Rev. David Royce, M.A. - 69-80 

Bledington Church. By J. Edward K. Cutts - - 81-86 
Oddington Church, Gloucestershire. By J. Henry Middleton, 

F.S.A., &c. - - - 87-89 

The Northleach Court-Book. By the Rev. David Royce, M.A. 90-116 
Notes on the Greyndour Chapel and Chantry in the Church of 

Newland, co Gloucester, and on certain Brasses there. 

By Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., &c. - - 117-125 

St. Peter's Church, Upper Slaughter. By J. Edward K. Cutts. 126-130 
History of the Manor and Advowson of Brockworth. By the 

Rev. S. E. Bartleet, M.A., Vicar - - ' - 131-171 

Icomb Place. By the Rev. David Royce, M.A. - - 172-190 
Notes on the Church Plate at Northleach. By Wilfred Joseph 

Cripps, M.A., F.S.A. .... ]91-193 
Pedigree of Throckmorton, of Tortworth, and Clowerwall. By 

Sir John Maclean, F.S. A., &c. - - - 194 
History of the Manor and Advowson of Staunton, in the Forest 

of Dean. By Sir John Maclean, F.S. A., &c. - 227-226 

History of Prinknash Park. By the Rev. Wm. Bazeley, M.A. 267-306 

The Old Hostelries of Bristol. By J. F. Nicholls, F.S.A. - 307-317 
Discovery at S. Briavels Castle. By t the Rev. W. Taprell 

Allen, M.A. - - - . 318 

In Memoriam — James Fawckner Nicholls \ 

William iEneas Seys J • - 340 



I 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

Ancient Scottish Lake Dwellings, or Crannogs. By Robert 

Munro, M.A., F.S.A. (Scot.) - - - 199-200 

Notes and Queries. The Western Antiquary — The Palatine 
Note Book — Lancashire and Cheshire Historical and 
Genealogical Notes - - - - 195-199 

Records of St. Giles, Cripplegate. By the Rev. W. Denton, 

M.A. - - - - - 200-201 

Some Account of the Oldest Plans of Bristol. By Wm. George 202 

Bristol : Past and Present. By J. F. Nicholls, F.S.A., and 

John Taylor - - - - - 202-204 

Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series. Edited by Wm. 

Douglas Hamilton, Esq., F.S.A. - - - 204-208 
The Early Genealogical History of the House of Arundel. By 

John Pym Yeatman, Esq. - - - - 208-212 

Leigh in the 18th Century. By Josiah Rose - - 319-322 
Record of the Anglo-Norman House of Glanville. By William 

Urmston Glanville-Richards, Esq. - - 322-325 
The Registers of Windlesham, Surrey. By William Urmston 

Glanville-Richarls, Esq. - - - 325-326 
Archreological Handbook of the County of Gloucester. By G. 

B. Witts, C.E. - - - - - 326 
Scotland in Pagan Times — The Iron Age. By Joseph 

Anderson, LL.D., &c. - - - - 327-334 

New Facts relating to the Chatterton Family - - 334 
Le Prince Noir Poem. By Chandos Herald. With English 

Translations and Notes, &c, by Francisque-Michel, 

F.S.A., &c. - - - - - 335-336 

Hanley Castle. By W. S. Symonds, Rector of Pendock. - 336-338 
Early Britain— Roman Britain. By the Rev. H. M. Scarth, 

M.A. - - - - - 338-339 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plate I., Plan of the Church of Icomb 
Plate II., Illustration of the Monument of Sir John 
Blaket - 

Plate III. , Sculptures in the Church of Nether Swell - 
Fig. 13 & 26, Illustrations of Ancient Bell Stamps 
Plates IV. to IX. „ „ „ * " - 

Plate X. , Plan and Sections of Westfield Barrow 
Plate XI. , Plate of Roman Building at Upper Swell - 
Plate XIII., View of Bledington Church 
Plate XIV., Plan of Bledington Church 
Plate XV., Plan of Oddington Church 
Plate XVI., Brass of Robert Greyndour and Joan his 

wife at Newland .... 
Fig. 30, Armour Pin in ditto 
Plate XVII., Plan of Church of Upper Slaughter 
Plate XVIII. , View of Brockworth Court - 
Plate XIX., Monument of Sir Christopher Guise, at 

Brockworth 
Fig. 31, Details in Brockworth Church 
Fig. 32, Head of Stone Cross at Brockworth - 
Fig. 33, View of Brockworth Church 
Plate XX., Plans of Icomb Place 

Plates XXI. -XXIV., Elevations and Details of Icomb 

Place - - ■ 

Plate XXV. , Illustration of a Standing Cup at Bodmin 
Fig. 34, Arms of Hall, of High Meadow 
Plate XXVI. , Details at Prinknash Park House 



To face page 17 



19 
48 
64 
68 
71 
73 
81 
84 
87 



To follow p. 
To face page 



119 
120 
126 
161 

162 
166 
167 
167 
181 



To follow p. 182 
To face page 193 
Page 264 
To face page 274 
» 275 



Plate XXVII., Arms in Windows at do. - ,, ,, 

Plate XXVIII., do. do. do. - „ „ 279 

Plate XXIX., Arms over Fireplace do. - ,, „ 284 

Plate XXX., Jacobean Fireplace do. - ,, ,, 295 

Fig. 35, Bridle Bit, found at Torrs, Kirkcudbrightshire Page 330 

Fig. 36, View of Broch of Mousa, Shetland - Page 332 

Fig. 37, Section of Broch in Glenbeg, Glenelg - Page 333 

Plate I., Drawn by, and engraved at the expense of, Sir W. V. Guise, Bart. 

IV-IX., The Blocks forming these Plates were kindly lent by the Rev. H. T. Ellacombe. 
XL, kindly presented by the Rev. D. Royce. 

XIII. , Block kindly lent by Mr. J. E. K. Cutts. 

XIV. , from drawing presented by Mr. J. E. K. Cutts. 

XV. , from drawing given by Mr. J. Henry Middleton, F.S.A. 

XVI. , from a rubbing taken by Sir John Maclean, F.S.A. 

XVII. , from drawing given by Mr. J. E. K. Cutts. 

XVIII. and XIX., engraved at the expense of Sir W. V. Guise, Bart. 

Figs. 31, 32, and 33, Electrotypes obligingly lent by the Rev. S. E. Bartleet. 
Plates XX. to XXIV , from drawings kindly furnished by Mr. F. S. Waller. 

XXV. , Block lent by Sir John Maclean, F.S.A. 

XXVI. to XXX., from drawings kindly given by Rev. W. Bazeley, 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 

Page 28, note. Here and elsewhere for Lombardic read Early GotJiic. 
68, line 2. For Hendlel read Handlei. 
,, 165, line 8. For Acrio Mastix read Aerio-Mastix. - 
line 9. For Acrians read Acrians. 

Note. — Aerius was a heretic, who, in the 4th century, 
wrote against Episcopacy. 

„ 301, note 1. Dele. 

,, note 2. For Communicants read Communion Plate. 



TRANSAOTI 0,K S 

OF THE 

1881-2. 



Transactions 

At the Annual Meeting, held at Stow-on-the-Wold, 

on 

Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, July 25th, 26th, and 27th. 



The Seventh Annual Meeting of the Society was held on the above-mentioned 
days. The weather for some weeks previously had been very stormy and 
unsettled, and though the first day of the meeting opened fairly, the after- 
noon was clouded with thunder storms. 

The arrangements for the meeting had been very effectively made by a 
local Committee, consisting of the following gentlemen : viz., The .Rev. 
E. F. Witts, Hon. Local Secretary, Chairman ; Revs. The Hon. H. P. 
Cholmondley, Hon. H. Rice, G. D. Bourne, J. W. Clarke, F. E. Gretton, 
R. W. Hippisley, C. E. Hornby, S. J. Httlme, J. McKaye, C. Peach, J. W. 
Sharpe, W. H. Stanton, W. Vigers, W. Wiggin, and A. Williams ; and 
Messrs. R. K Byass, H. I. Chamberlayne, W. C. Coles, R. G. Francis, 
Hubert Freer, E. T. Godman, E. Egerton Leigh, J. Moore, Alfred 
Sartoris, T. W. Stubbs, Piers Thursby, C. A. Whitmore, and G. B. 
Witts, whilst the Rev. D. Royce and Mr. F. R. V. Witts acted as Local 
Hon. Secretaries for the meeting. 

St. Edward's Hall, a new building recently erected, was placed at the 
service of the Society, which afforded a very large and convenient room for 
the meeting, reading Papers, &c 9 and other rooms, to be used as an office, &c, 
and Museum. 

A Meeting of the Council was, as usual, held in the morning. At 1 p.m. 
the Council adjourned to the meeting room, where they were received by 
the Rev, E. F. Witts, Chairman of the local Committee, who on behalf of 
the Committee, expressed the pleasure they felt in receiving in that distant 
part of the country men so well known in the antiquarian world. There 
were present men known as really working archseologists. They did not 
Vol. VII., part 1. b " , 



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Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



mind being laughed at by people who said that it was nothing but old bones 
that they were after. They desired to connect times past with times present ; 
to show how it was that the civilization which now existed had sprung up 
in different forms, and had come through different races of people, and they 
were very proud to receive there that day the wise men of Gloucestershire 
who had given their attention to this subject. There were many objects of 
great interest, he added, in this district of Stow, as might be seen by those 
who walked about with their eyes open, and he expressed a hope that the 
members of the Society and other visitors would find much to gratify them 
during their short stay in the neighbourhood. 

The President expressed the thanks of the Society for the kind manner 
in which they had been received. He fully endorsed all that Mr. Witts 
had said as to the real objects of archaeologists. The condition of society, 
in respect to culture and civilization, at the present time had grown out of 
the past, and the object of archaeologists was to trace, from the evidences 
which remained, the progress of that growth, and to preserve these evidences 
for the gratification and instruction of future generations. He was glad to 
seethe interest taken in this subject, as evinced by so full a meeting, and he 
had no doubt we should all find much of interest at Stow. He would remark, 
as he had often remarked on previous occasions, that we ought to find our 
most intelligent and best archaeologists in the parochial clergy. If they 
would only take up the study of the subject as a relaxation from their 
graver studies and parochial labours, and, to use the words of Mr. Witts, 
walk about their parishes with their eyes open, very great results would be 
attained. They had a conspicuous example of this fact in this district, in 
the person of the Rev. D. Royce, whose name was known far and wide for 
his exploration of the Barrows of Upper and Nether Swell, and for his other 
historical and antiquarian labours. 

The President thereupon took the chair, supported by Sir. W. V. 
Guise, Bart., the Revs. Canon Scarth, R. W. Hippisley, E. F. Witts, 
W. C. Lucy, W. Bazeley (Hon. Gen. Sec.) ; Messrs. E. Rhys WinpxField, 
J. E. Dorington, J. D. T. Niblett, G. B. Witts, and others ; and called 
upon Mr. Bazeley to read the 

REPORT OF COUNCIL. 

The Council submits the following Report to the members of the Bristol 
an. I Gloucestershire Archaeological Society. 

There are at present 44G annual members, and 74 life members on the 
Society's list, giving a total strength of 520 members. 

The income of the Society for the financial year 18S1-2, including the 
balance at the Society's bankers on April 21st, 1881, was £469 12s. 9d. The 
expenditure amounted to £271 10s. lid., and a balance of £198 Is. lOd. 
remained in the Treasurer's hands on the 21st of April last. From this 
balance, however, must be deducted the charge for the annual volume, the 
first part of which has been issued, and the second part is all in type, and 
will be issued soon. Besides this balance the Society has a funded capital of 
£415 in Consols, representing the composition fees of life members, to which 
sum the composition fees of 8 additional life members will be added. 



i 



Report of Council. 



3 



Since the last Report of Council the Society has held its annual summer 
meeting at Chepstow, its annual winter meeting at Gloucester, and three 
local meetings, two in the Forest of Dean, and one at Berkeley Castle. 

If the attendance at the Chepstow meeting was not so great as at most 
of the previous meetings, it is to be accounted for by the fact that the place 
of meeting was not the centre of large populations, like Stroud, Cheltenham, 
Bristol, and Gloucester. The arrangements naade by the local committee, 
and carried out by the two local secretaries, the Rev. K. Shafto Barthropp 
and Major A. E. Lawson Lowe, were so excellent that for the first time in 
the Society's history, the expenses of the meeting were more than covered 
by the receipts. 

Chepstow, although outside the boundaries of Gloucestershire, was 
selected as the head-quarters of the Society, as being the only town in the 
vicinity of the Forest of Dean — the special object of the Society's visit — 
where sufficient accommodation could be procured. 

The Council was most fortunate in enlisting the help of W. iExEAS 
Seys, Esq., who, as chairman of the local committee, rendered invaluable 
service in organizing the meeting. 

On the first clay of the meeting the members visited Chepstow Castle, 
under the guidance of Mr. G. T. Clarke, Offa's Dyke under the guidance 
of Sir John Maclean, and Sedbury Park. 

Sedbury Park was formerly the residence of the late Dr. George Ormerod, 
who contributed several most able papers to the Archseologia and the Archaeo- 
logical Journal, on the district lying adjacent to the confluence of the Severn 
and the Wye. These papers have been collected and privately printed, 
under the name of " Strigulensia. " It is now one of the seats of Sir Samuel 
Marling, Bart., who, with Lady Marling, most hospitably received and enter- 
tained the Society. 

On the second day the members made an excursion to St. Briavel's Castle, 
under the guidance of the Rev. W. Taprell Allen, Tintern Abbey under 
the guidance of Mr. Blashill, and Piercefield Park. At Piercefield Park 
the Society was courteously received at afternoon tea by Mrs. Clay. 

On the third day, by the invitation of Mr. and Mrs. C. Bathurst, the 
Society visited Lydney Park, and inspected the private Museum, and the 
Roman Camps and Villa, under the guidance of the Rev. Prebendary 
Scarth. The Society, and a large number of invited guests, were enter- 
tained at Luncheon, at the Manor-house, by the kind host and hostess. 
During the afternoon the members proceeded by the Severn and Wye Rail- 
way to the Speech House, where the Courts of the Verderers of the Forest 
are held for the administration of the Forest, and the Miners' Laws. Here 
the meeting broke up. 

A full account of the Chepstow meeting, of the Temporary Museum, 
and of the papers read at the evening meetings appears in the 6th volume of 
the Society's Transactions. 

The Winter Meeting, usually held in January, was this year unavoidably 
postponed to April, the Council ventures to think, with some advantage to 
B 2 



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Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold.. 



the Society. It will rest with the members to decide whether a short excur- 
sion, combined with an evening meeting, in the spring or autumn, is not 
preferable to an evening meeting only in the depth of winter. 

The Society, by the kind invitation of B. St. John Ackers, Esq., and 
Mrs. Ackers, visited Prinknash Park, under the guidance of the Rev. W. 
Bazeley, and inspected Brockworth Church and Manor House, under the 
guidance of the Rev. S. E. Bartleet, on their return to Gloucester. 

In the evening papers were read and discussed at the School of Art ; 
and Mr. Cecil T. Davis exhibited a very fine collection of rubbings of the 
Monumental Brasses in Gloucestershire. 

The Local Meetings hold in 1881 have no precedents in the earlier history 
of the Society. The rules, as drawn up and agreed on by its founders, pro- 
vide for Divisional organizations and local meetings, and with a view to such 
meetings being organised, local secretaries were appointed in 18 districts in 
Gloucestershire ; but no use has been heretofore made of this provision. 

Where the general meetings have been held the local secretaries have 
rendered valuable help, but in other districts local organization has remained 
in abeyance. 

A proposal was made by Sir John Maclean, the President for 1881-2, 
at the Chepstow meeting, which met with general approval, that local 
meetings should be held in the Forest of Dean as an experiment. A meeting 
was accordingly arranged by the local secretaries, representing the Western 
Division of the County, at Micheldean, including an excursion to Littledean, 
Abenhall, and Flaxley Abbey. 

This meeting having been successful, was followed by a meeting for 
the Cheltenham, Stroud, and Gloucester districts, at Berkeley Castle, in- 
cluding an excursion to Wanswell Court, under the guidance of Mr. J. H. 
Cooke, F.S.A., and to Slymbridge Church, under the guidance of the Rev. 
W. Bazeley. In May of this year a second meeting has been held in the 
Forest of Dean, including an excursion to Staunton, Newland, and Coleford. 

These five meetings of the Society have been more than self-supporting, 
and have, moreover, produced more than sufficient materials for the 6th 
volume of the Society's Transactions. The surplus matter, with other 
materials in the editor's hands, would form an additional or supplementary 
volume, and he suggested to the Council that such a volume might be printed 
by a small special subscription of the members, of say 5s. or 7s. The 
Council, however, was unable to adopt this suggestion, feeling that there 
were objections, at this time, to inviting an additional subscription. 

The Council has to announce the loss of more than seven hundred volumes 
of the Society's Transactions for the years 1877-81, owing to a disastrous fire, 
which took place last October, at the Society's printers. This loss, which is 
well-nigh irreparable, will diminish the Society's income, which has been 
partly derived from the sale of the Transactions. The Council, however, is 
happy to be able to state that some perfect sets remain, and may be obtained 
at a price corresponding to their enhanced value. 

The Council would take this opportunity of reminding the members of 
the rule that the volumes of Transactions arc issued only to those who have 

i 



Report of Council. 



5 



paid their subscriptions for the corresponding year. It would save the 
officers of the Society much trouble if members would give their bankers 
directions to pay the annual subscription to the Treasurer at the commence- 
ment of each financial year. The General Secretaries would be glad, on 
application, to forward a form giving the necessary directions. 

The Council has had, during the last year, the gratification of announcing 
to the Society that Lord Fitzhardinge has very liberally and courteously 
given his consent to the very valuable MSS. of John Smyth the Antiquary, 
written in the early part of the 17th Century, and the ancient MS. Register 
of the Abbey of St. Augustine at Bristol, which are preserved in the 
Muniment Room at Berkeley Castle, being printed by the Society for its 
Members. 

The MS. Volumes of Smyth have always been jealously withheld by 
successive Lords Berkeley from public inspection or literary use. It is true 
that both Bigland and Fosbroke had access to them, but from whatever 
cause it happened, those Authors made but sparing use of the rich mine of 
genealogical and topographical wealth which they contain. 

No one has so intimate a knowledge of this valuable work as Mr. J. H. 
Cooke of Berkeley, whose lucid description of the volumes in the Transac- 
tions of the Society will be fresh in the memory of the Members. This 
description will clearly show their importance and archaeological and his- 
torical value. 

Smyth's works consist of two distinct parts. The first contains the 
" Lives of the Berkeleys." Under this head we cannot do better than use 
the words of Mr. Cooke. He says: — "In this work he (Smyth) gives a 
" complete biography of every Lord of Berkeley from Robert Fitzhardinge 
"down to his own time, twenty- one in number. The events and transactions 
" of each lord's life are given, with some variations, under the following 
" heads : 1. — His birth and course of youth. 2. — His husbandries and 
" hospitalities. 3. — His foreign employments. 4. — His recreations and 
"delights. 5. — His purchases and sales of land. 6.— His law-suits. 
" 7. — His alms and devotions. 8. — His miscellanies. 9. — His wife. 
"10. — His issue. 11. — His seals of arms. 12. — His death and place of 
" burial. 13. — The lands of which he died seized. The statements under 
" each of these titles are verified by marginal references to the documents 
" and authorities from which they were taken. The first heading contains 
"particulars of each lord's place and date of birth, and the manner of his 
" education and bringing up to man's estate. The second, third, and fourth 
" describe his habits and amusements, and his military and other public 
" services at home and abroad. The fifth and sixth detail his dealings with 
" his estate. The seventh was always a long one with the Berkeleys, who 
"were in all their generations, remarkable for their benefactions to, and 
" endowment of, the Church, and monastic and other charitable institutions. 
" The eighth contains such events and transactions as do not come under 
" any other heading. The ninth and tenth state full particulars of the lady 
"he married, her family and dower, and also of their issue, including the 
"descendants of former branches, down to the latest period. Besides the 
" Pedigrees of the various branches of the Berkeleys, Smyth also gives those 
"of no fewer than 232 other families connected, directly or indirectly, with 



6 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



" them. Under the eleventh head are described the seals of arms and other 
" devices used by each lord, with drawings of many of them, cleverly done 
" with the pen. The twelfth ' last scene of all ' gives the date and circum- 
" stances of his death and place of burial, and is followed by a schedule of 
"the lands of which he died seized; taken, in most instances from the 
" ' Inquisitiones Post Mortem.' " 

The second part contains a descriptive account of the Hundred of 
Berkeley, with all the Manors, Lands, and Advowsons thereto pertaining, 
with their devolution, respectively, from the date of the Domesday Survey 
to Smyth's own time ; and inasmuch as the Hundred of Berkeley was 
anciently accounted one-fourth in extent, and one-third in value, of the 
whole County, the topographical value of this part can scarcely be over 
estimated. To this description is appended a very remarkable collection of 
Old Gloucestershire Proverbs and Folk Lore. 

The details given under these various heads cannot fail to afford most 
valuable information relating to the History, Genealogy, and Topography of 
the County, as well as illustrations of the manners, habits, and customs 
of the various classes of people in the different periods of the history of 
this country ; and the Council cannot but congratulate the Society upon 
obtaining the permission, so generously accorded, to print these most inter- 
esting records. 

The Council has proceeded to print the Smyth MSS., commencing with 
the "Lives of the Berkeleys," which will form two volumes. 

As the expense cannot be paid from the general funds of the Society, a 
special subscription has been invited among the members for the purpose. 

It is estimated that Smyth's works will extend to 3 volumes, demy 
quarto, of about 400 pages each, including a copious index. The impressions 
will be strictly limited to 300 copies ; but at the desire of some members, it 
has been decided to print 50 additional copies upon large paper (royal quarto) 
for those who may wish to possess sumptuous library books. The works are 
being printed by Bellows, of Gloucester, in his best manner, upon Van 
Guelder's thick hand-made, unglazed, laid paper, with new old-faced type, 
and the price of the ordinary size copies will be, to the original Subscribers, 
£1 a volume, and the large paper copies £2. 

The subscriptions are confined to the Members of the Society. 

Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., has kindly consented to edit Smyth's 
works, and Mr. Cooke, who has had the custody of the MSS. for many 
years, has, by the wish of Lord Fitzhardinge kindly consented to revise 
the proofs, and render any other assistance in his power. 

The printing of the Register of St. Augustine's Abbey will be deferred 
until the volumes containing Smyth's works shall have been issued, after 
which it will be immediately proceeded with. 

It is greatly to be regretted that so few of the members have as yet 
availed themselves of the unexpected opportunity afforded them of possessing 
BO very valuable a work, and that the subscriptions already promised will 
be insufficient to cover the expense. 

* 



Report of Council. 



7 



During the present year a very valuable work on British and Roman 
Remains in Gloucestershire will be privately printed by Mr. G. B. Witts, a 
member of this Society. By a careful personal survey of the whole county, 
Mr. Witts has been enabled to discover a great number of chambered and 
round Barrows, of British and Roman Camps, and traces of Roman Villas 
and Roads, which had been heretofore unknown. These are all laid down 
in the map which will accompany his work. f , , 

The Council regrets that with such a work as Smyth's MSS. on its 
hands it will be unable for the present to print the account of Flaxley 
Abbey by A. Crawley-Bcevey, Esq., to which reference was made in the 
last Council Report. 

The Council having heard that it was in anticipation of the Dean and 
Chapter of Bristol to destroy the ancient Minster House of St. Augustine's 
Abbey, or Abbot's Lodgings, in that city, has thought it proper to appoint 
a committee to protest against such destruction. 

During the past year the Council has agreed to exchange Transactions 
with the Shropshire Archaeological Society, and with the Society of Anti- 
quaries of Scotland. 

The following works have been received as donations to the Society's 
libraries :— 

"Life and Letters of Florence MacCarthy Mor," by Daniel MacCarthy; 
and " Scraps of Old Bristol," by F. W. Lockwood. 

( Presented by Sir John Maclean.) 

" Reference List of the Rolls of Arms, and other early authorities, for 
ancient Coat Armour," compiled by James Greenstreet, Esq. 
(Presented by the compiler). 

" Sculptured Monuments of the 15th century, in the Church of S. Dubricius, 
Porlock, Somerset," by Maria Halliday. 
( Presented by the Rev. F. J. Poynton, through Sir John Maclean ). 
" Fosbrooke's History of the city of Gloucester," folio. 
" Jones' Domesday Book for Wiltshire." 
" Remains of Roman Art at Corinium." 

" Report of the Select Committee on Sepulchral Monuments." 
" Webb's Memorials of the Civil War in Herefordshire," 2 vols. 

(Presented by the Rev. E. Estcourt.) 

The nuclei of two libraries have now been established, the one at 
Bristol, and the other at Gloucester. The Council, therefore, appeals to the 
members of the Society and their friends for contributions of works relating 
to the county, and to history and archaeology generally. 

With regard to the internal affairs of the Society, the Council has to 
report the usual changes in its own composition. In the exercise of its 
duty of annual nomination of officers, it desires to nominate for re-election 
the President of Council, Sir W. Guise, Bart., the Vice-Presidents, the 
Treasurer, and the Secretaries, subject to the following additions and alter- 
ations. The following have ceased to be Vice-Presidents through death or 



8 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



other causes : — P. W. S. Miles, Esq., Thomas William Chester Master, 
Esq., Reginald J. York, Esq. 

The Council desires to nominate as Vice-Presidents : Christopher J, 
Thomas, Esq., for Bristol, and Palmer Hallett, Esq., for the Out-District. 

Tne substitution of the Rev. Dr. Caldicott's name for that of Mr. 
Palmer Hallett, as one of the General Secretaries needs some special 
comment. 

The Council deeply regrets the retirement of Mr. Hallett, whose 
eminent services, rendered to the Society at the time of its organization, and 
during the first six years of its history, entitles him to deep and lasting 
gratitude on the part of the members. Mr. Hallett has for some time 
regarded his non-residence in Bristol as a detriment to the Society's interests, 
and has more than once expressed a wish to retire in favour of some gentle- 
man living in Bristol. The kind consent of Dr. Caldicott, Head Master of 
the Bristol Grammar School, to undertake the work of General Secretary, 
has enabled the Council to accede to Mr. Hallett's wishes ; at the same 
time, by offering Mr. Hallett the office of Vice-President for the Out- 
District, it has retained the valuable assistance, which his experience of the 
Society's working enables him to give. 

The Council regrets to report the resignation of Mr. J. Reynolds, as 
Local Secretary for Bristol, and desires to nominate Mr. E. Strickland in 
his room. 

The following Members of Council retire by rotation : J. D. T. Niblett, 
Esq., Granville Lloyd Baker, Esq., the Rev. Canon H. A. Ellacombe, 
the Rev. W. Bagnall-Oakley, the Rev. H. Robeson, Wilfred Crlpps, 
Esq., W. H. Skillicorne, Esq., and Dr. Paine, but are eligible for re- 
election. 

The Council this year has held eight meetings, four at Bristol, three at 
Gloucester, and one at Chepstow, and desires to express its acknowledg- 
ments to his Worship the Mayor of Gloucester, and to K. Hoskyns Fryer, Esq., 
the Town Clerk of Gloucester, for the use of the Tolsey. 

The Rev. R. W. Hippisley moved the adoption of the Report, and also 
proposed that the gentlemen whose nomination had been reported be requested 
to accept office. 

This was seconded, and agreed to. 

The Rev. R. W. Hippisley also proposed that the following gentlemen 
be requested to accept the positions of Members of Council proper : the 
Rev. VV. Bagnall-Oakeley, Granville Lloyd Baker, Esq., Wilfred 
Cripps, Esq., the Rev. Canon H. A. Ellacombe, J. D. T. Niblett, Esq., 
Dr. Paine, W. H. Skillicorne, Esq., J. Reynolds, Esq. 

This was seconded by Rev. D. Royce, and agreed to. 

Sir William Guise proposed a vote of thanks to Sir John Maclean, 
the retiring President. (Applause). The Society had been fortunate in 
having a President so competent to fill the office as Sir John Maclean had 
shown himself to be. As President he had set an admirable example, in the 
active and intelligent interest he had taken at all times in the Society, to 



Inaugural Address. 



9 



all who might follow him in the chair. He had been no merely nominal 
head, but had taken a very leading part in directing the affairs of the 
Society. 

Mr. Niblett seconded, and the vote was warmly accorded. 

Sir John Maclean said he was extremely obliged for the very flattering 
terms in which his friend Sir William Guise* had been pleased to speak of 
his services as President, and for the very kind manner in which his remarks 
had been received by the meeting. He could not, however, but attribute the 
very gratifying words which Sir William had used rather to friendship than 
to facts (cries of No ! No !). It was with much reluctance he had undertaken 
the office of President, fearing lest the Society, in whose welfare he took 
great interest, should suffer through his short -comings. He had not, how- 
ever, experienced any difficulty. Through the kind co-operation of the 
Council, for wliich he was greatly obliged, everything had gone on very 
smoothly, and to this he was indebted for any success which had attended 
his efforts. And he wished to say, for*the encouragement of his successor 
and successors, that they would be surrounded by an able Council, through 
whose judicious advice, if the President entered con amoremto the objects of 
the Society, all apprehended difficulties would disappear. He then introduced 
Edward Rhys Wingpield, of Barrington Park, Esq. , as the new President 
of the Society, and retired from the chair, which was taken by Mr. Wing- 
field,- who thereupon delivered the following 

Inaugural Address, 

in which he said : 

The Society had grown very considerably and was still growing, and 
the reason for its continued growth was that there was more for it to do, 
and that what had been done had been well done. Although Gloucestershire 
had known such able historians as Atkyns, Rudder, Rudge, Bigland, and 
Fosbroke, there were still many precious remains for the Society to explore. 
The locality of which Stow was the centre, was not so full of archaeological 
interest as some districts, but it was nevertheless rich in associations of the 
past and replete with food for the archseological appetite. Mr. Wingfield 
then alluded to the various places which the Society would visit in its three 
excursions. Of Stow, he said that it dated from pre-historic times. There 
had been a Roman occupation here. The place had probably been a look 
out, even as now from its eminence it was a land mark to all the country 
around. The town had been associated with Edward the Confessor, whose 
image was so admirably sculptured over the doors of that hall. Here Essex 
passed on his way to relieve the siege of Gloucester. Near here had been 
heard the clash of arms as Essex has been opposed by Rupert, and near here 
had been heard the aged Sir Jacob Astley, when made a prisoner, saying to his 
captors : "gentlemen, yee may now sit downeand play, for you have done all 
your worke, if you fall not out among yourselves." The church contained a 
Jesus Chapel for the guild of well-to-do wool staplers. The church had been 
converted into a prison during the wars of the Commonwealth. At the Swell 
there were long and round barrows in profusion. The Bolde in Lower Swell 
was enlinked with the names of Richard Earl of Cornwall, and Sir Robert 
Atkyns, the historian. Next came Slaughter, where discoveries had been 



10 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



made by Mr. G. B. Witts. Here was an old gabled manor-house, the old 
family mansion of the Slaughters. This family was traced back almost to 
the Conquest. The church, which had been restored, would provide good 
material for discussion. On the Tuesday it was arranged that they should 
visit Icomb, respecting which the Eev. D. Royce was to read a paper. 
Bledington _ church, with its many singular features, would afford a great 
treat to the excursionists. Chastleton, though not included in the county's 
confines was too near not to be visited. Respecting this place, Mr. Royce 
would also furnish a paper. The manor here was connected with many distin- 
guished personages, among them Catesby, who was involved in the Gunpowder 
Plot. The church here was a study for all those interested in ecclesiastical 
history. On their way home from this place they would pass through the 
ancient domain of the Warren Hastings family. At Oddington they would 
look in at the old church, in which there were some old frescoes. They 
would visit Salmondsbury with its once spacious camps of some 60 acres, and 
its treasures brought to light by the new railway cutting. Of this subject, 
Mr. J. Moore, a gentleman to whom archaeology owed much, would treat 
in a paper. At Farmington they would find traces of Roman occupation, 
and an old relic awaited explanation from some of the learned members of 
the Society. Norbury camp and its long barrow — in line with the Ciren- 
cester, Bourton, and Doon camps — told of British occupation and obstinate 
resistance. Northleach church, with its mighty tower, and perfect porch, 
dating from the 15th century, would also be passed. Hampnett church was 
a surviving specimen of what our small village churches were like in Norman 
days. The register here was of interest in many respects. Lastly there was 
Notgrove, where Lhe manor, or house, was connected with Dick Whittington, 
and he trusted that the success which attended Dick Whittington's career 
would crown the Society's excursion. 

After partaking of luncheon the party made a visit to the fine old church 
of Stow, under the guidance of the Rev. R. W. Hippisley, the Rector. This 
church consists of chancel, 48 ft. x 20*6 ; nave of four bays, 58 ft. 9 in. x 26 ft. ; 
north aisle, 39 ft. x 26 ft. 6 in. ; a transeptal chapel on the north 31 ft. 6 in. 
x 19 ft. 6 in., now called the Donington aisle (because, for some time and up 
to the restoration of the church in 1847, it was appropriated to the inhabi- 
tants of that hamlet) tower opposite on the south ; a south aisle, west of the 
tower, 38 ft. 9 in . x 1 6 f t. , and north and south porches. 

It appears from Domesday that there was a church and a priest here in 
the time of King Edward, and that at the time of the Survey it was held by 
the abbey of Evesham. Mr. Hippisley stated that, according to tradition, 
the site of the church was called "St. Edward's Close," probably after a 
local hermit of that name, from whom the town also derived its name of 
Edwardstow. This hermit is supposed to have been the original founder of 
the church in the time of King zEthclred I. (866-871), and that to him it 
was dedicated. It is said to have been re-built in the Norman style, and 
enlarged, he said, by /Ethelmare, or Aylmare, Earl of Cornwall and Devon, 
in the reign of the second ^Ethelred (979-1015). The north and south aisles 
were added in the Early English period, and towards the end of the 1 3th 
century the church underwent extensive alterations, amounting almost to 
a re-building of the whole fabric. The chancel was re-built on a larger scale, 



Stow Church. 



11 



which led to the removal of the altar. This rendered a re-consecration 
necessary, and on this occasion the dedication was changed from St. Edward, 
an obscure local Saint, to St. Edward the Confessor, at that time the most 
popular saint in England. In the Perpendicular period further changes 
took place. The Early-English lancet windows in Jesus Chapel, and in the 
north aisle, with the exception of three large new windows, were inserted 
in the style of the period, doubtless to receive painted glass, which, at this 
time, was largely introduced ; a clear-story also was erected, and other 
alterations took place of less importance. Between 1445 and 1476 the grand 
tower was re-built. It is about 80 feet high, being 10 feet higher than the 
width of the body of the church, and consists of four stages, with pinacles 
and parapet. Its walls vary from five to six feet in thickness. In it is 
a ring of six bells which Mr. Ellacombe thus describes : l 

Diam. Weight. 

1. WITH A MERRIE NOTE NOW GOD PERMIT THAT I 

LONG TIME MY PLACE TO FIT OCTOBER 16 

ANNO. 1620 - - - - 31 in. 10 cwt. * 

2. PEACE AND GOOD NEIGHBOURHOOD, A & RUDHALL 

1717 -------- ,37£ „ 14 „ 

3. GOD SAVE KING IAMES 1606. WILLIAM FREEMAN 

THOMAS SHAYLER WILLIAM CHADWELL THO- 
MAS COMPTON WARDENS (cracked) - - 39£ „ 18 „ 

4. FEAR GOD LET LOVE INCREASE OBEY THE KING 

AND LIVE IN PEACE OCTOBER 16 ANNO 1620 43J „ 21 „ 

5. RICHARD ARCHER IOHN FOX CHURCH WARDENS 48 „ 25 „ 

6. IOHN FOX AND WILLIAM CHARLES CHURCH WAR- 

DENS . 1811 . IOHN RUDHALL GLOUCESTER FECIT 54 „ 30 „ 

In conclusion, Mr. Hippisley said, perhaps the company would like to 
know that all the painted windows in the church, except one in the south 
aisle, were supplied by Messrs. Wailes & Strang, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne ; 
and that the great picture of the Crucifixion was painted by Casper de 
Grayer, of Flanders, a pupil of Rubens. It was presented, in 1838, to the 
Rev. R. T. Vavasour, the then Rector and his successors in the Rectory of 
Stow, as an Altar Piece, by the late Mr. Joseph Chamberlayne, lord of the 
manor. In the restoration of the church, under the direction of Mr. Pearson, 
in 1847, the funds for effecting which were raised by voluntary contributions, 
it was removed from the chancel to its present position against the Tower 
Wall, on the south side of the nave. He called attention also to the corbels 
which supported the roof timbers of the nave. They are beautifully carved, 
and with the exception of two, which are grotesques, heads of men and 
women, attired in the fashion of the age. They have, from their individ- 
uality, every appearance of being portraits, and probably represent the 
principal benefactors to the church at that time. 

On the suppression of the Chantries, Hospitals, Gilds, Fraternities, &c.,&c, 
by act 37th Henry VIII., there were found by the commissioners appointed 
for the purpose, to be in this church three special foundations : — 

I. (a.) Holy Trinity, founded to find a priest for ever, and he to have 
for his salary £6 by the year. 

(b.) To fynd 9 poor folkes, and they to have yearly, for ever, £16 10 0. 
( c.J To keep two obits yearly, 9s. 2d, 

1 The Church Bells of Gloucestershire. The weights are supplied by Mt« Hippisley* 



12 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



This was connected with a Gild, or Fraternity, for the foundation of 
which a certain Robert Chester, a person of some note in Stow, 1 with others, 
obtained a licence in 23rd Henry VI. The Gild was to consist of a warden, 
or master, and as many persons as should think fit to be of the fraternity, 
which said warden and the major part of the fraternity and their successors 
were empowered to choose annually a warden on the eve of Holy "Trinity, 
&c. , &c. , and they were likewise empowered to erect a chantry and purchase 
lands to the value of £10 per annum for the maintenance of a chaplain who 
should pray at the altar of the Holy Trinity in the parish of Stow St. 
Edward for the good estate of the King and Margaret his queen, and for the 
souls of their progenitors, and for the good estate of Sir Ealph Boteler, knt., 
Lord Sudeley, Treasurer of England, Sir J ohn Beauchamp, of Powick, knt. , 
and for the warden of the said fraternity. William Chester, eldest son of 
this Robert, was a citizen and Skinner, of London, and merchant of the 
Staple at Calais. He was a person of great wealth, as testified by many 
munificent charitable bequests in his will, dated 5th May, 1476. Among 
other gifts he directs that out of certain lands in Southwark, his executors 
shall maintain a chantry in Stow, in worship of Holy Trinity, amortized by 
his father, Robert Chester, then fallen into decay, and that they make 
provision for a virtuous priest to say dirige for his soul, his wife's soul, his 
father's and mother's, his children's souls, and all christians' souls ; also he 
directs that out of the same possessions in Southwark, his executors shall 
purchase, as near the church of Stow as can be had, a piece of ground 
whereon to build an almshouse for the accommodation of 8 poor men and 
women, every of them to have on Saturday 8d., or a man and his wife 
dwelling together 12d., and a woman to wash and attend them every week 
to have 8d. This is the history of the Holy Trinity Hospital, or Alms- 
house, and the two obits were doubtless for Robert and William Chester, the 
founders. 

II. Our Lady Service, of which the net value was £6 Is. 8d. per 
annum, was founded to find a priest to celebrate in the Lady Chapel, who 
received for his stipend £6, leaving 20d. for an obit and to give in alms. 
Belonging to this Service, at the time of the seizure of its possessions, 
was one chalice, double gilt, and one other chalice, parcel gilt, together of 
the value of 24s. 

III. The Service of All Saints, was of the same nature as the 
last. The net revenue was £5 Is. 8d., whereof £5 was to be received by the 

I The Chesters of Chicheley, co. Bucks. , were descended from this Robert Chester. 
His son William had a grant of arms on 22 May, 1467 ; viz., Party per pale ar. and sa. t a 
chevron engrailed between three rams' heads erased, attired or., all counter changed, within 
a bordure engrailed bezantg, which was allowed to his grandson, Sir William Chester, at the 
Visitation of London in 1568. Sir William is honourably remembered in history for his 
courtesy and humanity to the Protestant Martyrs, who were burned in Smithfield in 1554, 
when he was one of the Sheriffs of London and Middlesex. He was Lord Mayor of London 
in 1560, and M.P. for the city in the second Parliament of Queen Elizabeth. His eldest son, 
William Chester, was Constable of Wisbcach Castle, and married Judith Cave the heiress of 
Chicheley, which was thenceforth the seat of his descendants. Their son and heir, Sir 
Anthony Chester, was created a Baronet, by James I., on 23 March, 1619-20, and the title 
became extinct in 1769, on the death of the ninth baronet. For an account of this family, 
which was distinct from that of Bristol, see (Genealogical Memoirs of the Chesters of 
Chicheley, their Ancestors and Descendants, by R. E. Chester Waters, Esq., 2 vols, 4to, 
London, 1878).— Ed. 

i 



,To\vn Cross. 



13 



priest as stipend, and the remaining 20d. to be expended as above. This 
Service possessed one chalice, parcel gilt, weighing 7 oz., value 24s., one 
other chalice, parcel gilt, weighing 10 oz., worth, with the jewels, 72s. 3d. 
Of these last two services we have no further information. 

The lands in Gloucestershire forming the endowment of these chantries 
were granted by the crown in 3rd Edward VI. to John Wilford, citizen and 
alderman of London. 1 £ 

Communion Plate.— The Altar Plate of this church is thus described 
by Mr. Cripps. It consists of a plain straight-sided cup, on a somewhat 
rude conical stem, and with a paten cover, the latter bearing the maker's 
mark only, the cup itself, the full usual hall-marks for London, 1682-83. 
Maker's mark GG, with a dot underneath, upon a shaped shield. 

This maker's mark occurs on a Punch-bowl of the year 1685-6, given by 
Sir Richard Chiverton, in 1686, to the Skinners' Company of London, and 
also on some Communion Plate belonging to the Kensington Palace Chapel 
of the year 1692-3. 

The above cup was given to the parish of Stow by . . . Chamberlayne 
in 1684, as appears by the record engraved on its side. 

Upon leaving the church, in which the party had been somewhat 
detained by a heavy down-pour of rain, they proceeded to inspect the 
ancient town-cross, which had been much mutilated by time and ill-usage, 
and had been recently restored by Mr. Medland, architect, of Gloucester. 
In the absence of Mr. Medland, the Rev. D. Royce kindly stated the 
circumstances which had led to the restoration of the cross. A short paper 
upon this subject was read by Mr. Medland at the evening meeting, an 
abstract of which, as a matter of convenience, we give here. 

Mr. Medland said the original cross is supposed to have been erected 
by one Robert Chester, a wealthy merchant at Stow, who is believed to 
have been also a great benefactor to the church, and to be represented in one 
of the twelve well-carved stone corbels which support its roof. He was the 
same man who was the chief* founder of the Gild of Holy Trinity (before 
alluded to). 

The cross, as it appeared before its restoration, Mr. Medland said, is 
accurately figured in Pooley's "Ancient Crosses of Gloucestershire." It 
consisted of a base about 7 feet square, and 2 feet high, upon which were 
two steps. The shaft was monolithic, about 7 feet high, set in a square 
socket, broached into an octagon. The base and steps had become much 
delapidated. 

The late Mr. Joseph Chamberlayne, lord of the manor of Stow, having, 
in 1871, generously given a sum of £2000 to secure a supply of pure water to 
the town, the inhabitants resolved to express their grateful sense of his 
munificence on this and on other occasions, by the restoration of the old 
cross. Accordingly a subscription was raised for the purpose, and the 
work was entrusted to Messrs. Medland & Sons, architects, of Gloucester. 

1 We are indebted for these notes to a little work on the History and Antiquities of 
Stow, by the Rev. D. Royce. 



14 



TRANSACTION'S AT StOW-ON-THE-WoLD. 



As no portion of the head of the ancient cross remained, nor any record 
of its character, restoration, in its proper sense, was impossible. From 
certain appearances, however, it was supposed that it was somewhat like 
those at Ashelworth and Ampney Crucis, and hence these were taken as a 
guide in designing the new head-stone. The carvings also in the head-stones 
of these crosses being more or less of an historical character, a like principle 
was adopted. 

♦ The new head-stone is gabled at two ends, and has a moulded and 

cusped niche on each of its four sides. That on the south side is occupied 
by a rood. That on the north contains a representation of Robert de 
Jamieges, Abbot of Evesham, then Lord of the Manor, receiving from 
William Rufus, a charter for a market at Stow. In that on the west side is 
a figure representing Robert Chester with a model of the Church Tower in 
his hand, backed by the old Cross and a shield of the Chester Arms. 1 The 
east niche contains a portrait of Mr. Chamberlayne, to whose memory the 
cross was restored, with the Manor House and his shield of arms in the 
back ground. The head-stone is surmounted by a foliated cross, the entire 
structure being 19 ft. 6 in. in height. 

The party then entered the carriages, which were in readiness, and 
proceeded on the first excursion. The first halting place was at the church of 
Nether Swell, near which was situated "The Bowl" [Bolde?] formerly one of 
the seats of Sir Robert Atkyns, author of " The Ancient and Present State 
of Gloucestershire," though it is believed he generally resided at his seat at 
Saperton, in this county. The manor is now the property of Alfred 
Sartoris, Esq. 

The old Manor House, as depicted in Atkyns' Gloucestershire, having 
fallen into decay, has been taken down, but much of the out-buildings 
there shewn still remain as pertaining to the excellent and convenient new 
mansion which Mr. Sartoris has erected not far distant. 

Nether Swell Church was visited under the able guidance of the vicar 
the Rev. D. Royce, and an historical and descriptive paper by him will 
appear in this volume. 

From Nether Swell, the party proceeded to Upper Slaughter, where 
they were received by the rector, the Rev. E. F. Witts, who conducted 
them to the church. This building has been recently restored under the 
direction of Mr. J. E. K. Cutts, architect, of London, who pointed out its 
many specialties. A descriptive paper on this building, by Mr. Cutts, will 
also appear in this volume. 

On the conclusion of Mr. Cutts' remarks, Sir John Maclean called 
attention to several consecration crosses which appeared on the jambs of 
the piscina, and commended the care with which, as was manifested by the 
preservation of these crosses, this church had been restored. In most cases 
they would have been cut away to make the surface clean and fresh. 

The next place visited was the Old Manor House. The Rev. D. Royce 
acted as guide. The present building is of the Jacobean period, but it rests 

1 This is rather an anachronism. Robert Chester was not entitled to bear arms. The 
first grant was made to his son William, on 22 May, 14G7.— Ed. 

i 



Annual Dinner. 



15 



upon a vaulted basement of much earlier date. It is an admirable example 
of a small manor house. The manor was for several centuries held by a 
family who from it derived their name. A shield of the Slaughter arms 
appears on the gable of the entrance. 

After inspecting this old house the party adjourned to the residence of 
the Rev. E. F. Witts, close by, to which they had been kindly invited by 
Mr. and Mrs. Witts to afternoon tea. Having enjoyed this very acceptable 
hospitality, and Mr. and Mrs. Witts having been thanked by the President, 
in the name of the Society, for the cordial welcome they had received, the 
carriages were re-entered for the return journey to Stow. 

The annual dinner of the Society took place in the evening at St. 
Edward's Hall, at which there was a large assemblage of members and 
associates. Many ladies were present. The President took the chair, and 
was supported by Sir Wm. Guise, Sir John Maclean, Eevs. R. W.Hippisley, 
Canon Scarth, E. F. Witts, D. Royce, F. E. Broome Witts, E. J. Selwyn, 
Messrs. J. E. Dorington, Alfred Sartoris, Francis James, E. Egerton 
Leigh, C. A. Whitmore, J. T. D. Niblett, Palmer Hallett, G. B. Witts, 
Wilfrid Cripps, J. Moore,' and others. After dinner was concluded the 
President proposed the health of the Queen and Royal Family, which was 
duly drunk. He then proposed the usual toast of "Success to the Bristol 
and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society," which was warmly received, and 
was acknowledged by Sir Wm. Gttise in his usual frank and hearty manner, 
who, in conclusion, said that the success of meetings like the present was 
mainly dependent upon the arrangements made by the local committee, and 
observed that we had already seen sufficient to assure us that the arrangements 
for this meeting were excellent, and he had no doubt the meeting would 
afford us all much gratification. It must have given the local committee mucl> 
trouble, and he proposed their healths, coupling with the toast the name of 
the Rev. E. F. Witts, the Chairman of the Committee, which was very 
cordially accepted. Mr. Witts returned thanks for himself and his colleagues 
in a humourous speech. The President then proposed "The Ladies," 
which was acknowledged by Mr. C. A. Whitmore, and the company 
adjourned to the room in which the meeting was to be held for reading 
papers. 

The President took the chair and called upon the Rev. D. Royce to 
read the first paper " On the Finds which had been made in the neighbour- 
hood of Stow." He more particularly described a fine round tumulus, which 
had been discovered and destroyed in the construction of the Banbury and 
Cheltenham Railway, near Notgrove station. As Mr. Royce's paper will be 
printed in extenso, we shall abstain from alluding to it more fully here. 

At the request of the President, Sir John Maclean proposed a vote 
of thanks to Mr. Royce for his very interesting paper. He said he had 
listened to it with much pleasure, and it was a confirmation of what he had 
frequently stated, that if the parochial clergymen would only take an 
interest in the subject of Archaeology they would not only themselves derive 
great pleasure from the study, but would contribute very largely to an 
increased knowledge of the history and antiquities of the country. 

Mr. Medland next read his paper on the restoration of the Ancient 
Market Cross. As we have already given the substance of this, it will not 
be necessary to treat of it further here. 



16 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



Mr. Moore then read his paper on Old Bourton and Salmonsbury Camp. 
The camp, which is not far from the Roman Road called The Fosse Way, is 
of a quadrangular form, and occupies a space, he said, of some 70 acres. 
The wall appears to have been from 8 to 10 feet high. Traces have been 
found shewing that the camp had been destroyed by fire. Salmonsbury- 
stone is fixed in the wall which bounds the north side of the camp, and at 
this stone the courts of the Hundred of Salmonsbury were nominally held 
some few years ago. Roman Remains had been found to a large extent at 
the camp and in the neighbourhood. Coins had been found in such large 
numbers that they have been known to have been taken to Stow and sold 
by the peck. Roman architectural remains were almost daily being brought 
to light in Bourton. In 1876 some important remains were discovered in 
the construction of the Banbury and Cheltenham Railway, and some few years 
previously, while digging in his home ground, a man had come upon some 
stone foundations, most of which bore traces of fire. 

The Rev. F. E. Broome Witts then read his Notes on the Old Bells in 
Gloucestershire Belfries, and the meeting closed with thanks to the several 
gentlemen who had contributed papers. Mr. Witts' notes will be printed 
in extenso. 

WEDNESDAY, 26th JULY. 

The aspect of the morning promised a fine day, which the result fully 
justified. The members and their friends therefore entered upon the day's 
excursion in high spirits. Taking the southern road out of Stow, bordered 
on each side by fine beech wood, the branches of which gracefully drooping 
over the road, led one to picture to the mind the gorgeous beauty they would 
display when their rich autumnal tints were lighted up by an October sun. 
Turning off the road to Bourton- on-the- Water, and climbing a steep hill, the 
party reached a tower-like building, called Icomb Round House, where 
the carriages stopped for a few minutes to breathe the horses. This gave 
an opportunity for enjoying the magnificent panorama which the spot 
commanded. The view extended many miles on every side. On the north, 
the country might be seen as far as Evesham, and on the east, spread into a 
large area of the County of Oxford. 

Descending the hill, the village of Icomb was reached, where the party 
was received by the Rev. A. Williams, who, for many years, was Rector 
of the parish. By him they were conducted to the ancient Parish Church, 
where he kindly read a paper on the Church and Parish, which he said he 
had compiled chiefly from a monograph by the Rev. David Royce, read by 
that gentleman in 1869, before the " Worcestershire Diocesan Architectural 
Society," and subsequently printed in the Reports of that Society. 

We shall abstain, on this occasion, from following Mr. Williams in his 
derivation of the name of Icomb, and in his early history of the place, and 
shall confine ourselves to the description of the fabric of the church, and to 
such historical incidents as directly relate to it. Mr. Williams said the 
name Icombe was not originally confined to its present limits, but embraced 
Icomb in Worcestershire, Icomb in Gloucestershire, Gawcomb and Westcote. 
With the two latter we shall not concern ourselves, but direct our attention 
to the two former. The church is situated in that portion which formerly 
lay in the County and Diocese of Worcester, for the reason that, about the 



tcoMB Cmmcn, 



11 



year 790, under the name of Icancumb, it was granted by Offa, King of 
Mereia, to the church of Worcester, Ethelred being then Bishop of that 
diocese ; and Edgar includes it in his Charter of Oswaldeslaw. Forming a 
distinct and isolated portion of the county of Worcester, it was transferred 
to the county and Diocese of Gloucester by the Act 7 & 8, Victoria, cap. 61, 
for the readjustment of county boundaries. In the Domesday Survey, under 
Worcestershire, it is stated, under the name of Jacumbe, to be set apart for 
the provision of victuals for the monks of Worcester. 1 In 1292 Henry de 
Antioch, monk and eleemosinary of the church of Worcester, sued Richard 
Michen, rector of Icumb, for that for four years last past he had refused to 
pay 3 marks yearly, wont to be paid to the eleemosinary for the time being 
for the use of poor itinerant strangers, which was first settled to their use 
19 Cal., Dec, 1239, by Walter de Cantelupe, then Bishop of Worcester, to 
which he answered that only 20s. were due to the eleemosinary, which he 
was ready to pay, and this sum was settled to be paid for the future. 2 

Upon the dissolution of the Monasteries, when the value of the benefice 
was stated to be £36 3s. a year, it was granted to the Bishop of Worcester. 
He, however, resigned the Manor of Icomb, among other manors, to be 
relieved from supporting twelve scholars to study Divinity in the University 
of Oxford, each of whom was to receive annually the sum of £6 7s. 4d. 
Edward VI., however, regranted to the Dean and Chapter of Worcester, 
inter alia, the Manor and Advowson of Icombe, in exchange for the Manors 
of Grimley, Hallow, &c. , and until recent times the Dean and Chapter held 
yearly Courts of the Manor at Icombe, in a house which is still pointed out. 
They are still patrons of the benefice. 

The church consists of chancel, 28 ft. 6 in. by 15 ft. 2 in. ; nave 38 ft. 
7 in. by 19 ft. 6 in. ; transeptal chapel on the south, 12 ft. by 10 ft. ; western 
tower and south porch ( see Plate I.J. It is said to be dedicated to the 
Blessed Virgin Mary. The chancel is a beautiful example in a village church 
of the Early English style. In the east wall is a triple lancet window (the 

1 The words in Domesday are : Ad supradicta Manerium (Blochelei) jacet i hida ad 
Iacumbe. Pertinent ad victum monachorum. Ibi ij carucatse et iiij villani et ij bordarij et 
iiij servi cum ij carucse. Haec appreciatur in capite manerij. Ibi xij acras prati.— Domesday, 
Vol. J., p. 173a.— Ed. 

2 Wore, Bp. Gifford's Register. 

3 In the Register of the Priory of Worcester, of about the end of the 13th century, the 
Prior and Convent are stated to be patrons of Iccumb by the collation of Offa, King of Mercia, 
in the time of Bishop Alchered, and that it is of the liberty of the hundred of Oswaldeslawe. 
Now then, the record says, follows the hundred of Wiburnestre, and pays for one hide. Our 
portion of this ville was assigned to the Almoner in the time of St. Wolstan (1002-1023). The 
almoner receives half a mark of the ancient pension of the church and two-and-half marks by 
the grant of Bishop Walter de Cantilupe. The church is free from all jurisdiction of the 
Archdeacon and Dean. The court and eight virgatesof land of demesne, with appurtenances, 
were given to the villans to farm from the Incarnation of our Lord, 1242, for the term of 15 
years, out of which the Almoner receives every year, at each of the four terms, 20 shillings. 
Furthermore, to find every year, for the Almoner, one day and one night's entertainment, 
with all necessaries for five horses and their grooms, and four times in the year they shall find 
hay for his horses if he shall come there. For the villanage there are twelve virgates, with 
appurtenances, whereof each virgate let to farm pays at each of the four terms 20 pence. 
The Almoner receives the produce of lands that are to let, and for the marriage of a tenant's 
daughter, and on the death of the tenant the best chattel, &c, &c. (Camden Soc, 1865, Ed. 
by Archd. Hale, p. 104a).— Ed. 

Vol. VII. , part 1. c 



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Transactions at Stow-on-tiie-Wolp. 



central light being the highest), with broad divisions between each light, 
well splayed, having banded detached shafts and richly-moulded arches, 
with dripstone following each light. There are three lancets in each wall, 
north and south, with rere-arches, supported by corbels of various designs, 
some of them being well carved heads. The most westerly one on the south 
side forms two heads, conjoined, supposed to represent the founder and his 
wife. On the east of this window is a priest's door. A string-course runs 
under the east window, and extends about 3 ft. 6 in. along the north and 
south walls, where it drops and runs at the base of the windows on both 
sides of the chancel. On the south-east of the chancel is an elegant piscina 
of two trefoil headed compartments, divided by a chamfered shaft, the 
chamfer being continuous round the arches. In the eastern-most is a pro- 
jecting basin and drain. The other would serve as a prothesis or credence. 
On the north side of the chancel was a stone bench against the wall. This 
was removed when the church was "restored." Externally the east gable 
coping is enriched with the dog-tooth moulding, and surmounted by a frag- 
ment of an ornate Early English cross, which has been restored. 

The chancel arch is Early English, consisting of two plain orders, 
resting on square piers, with abaci chamfered underneath. An arch at the 
south-east of the nave, handsomely moulded, rising from clustered shafts, 
opens into the chapel. In the angle inside this is the entrance to the rood- 
loft stair-case. On the south, clumsily cut through the angle which the wall 
of the chapel makes with that of the nave, is a passage which gave access 
to the chapel without passing through the arch (see Ground Plan, Plate I.) 
Close on the west of this passage is the south door leading to the porch, 
which is also of Early English date. The outer doorway is composed of 
two orders resting on shafts with moulded capitals. The inner door is very 
graceful. It has shafts and capitals enriched with singular foliage, having 
the appearance of buckles. West of the porch a debased window has been 
inserted. At the west end of the nave is a door opening into the tower of 
Late Decorated, or Early Perpendicular, work. There is a round-headed 
door, and two late square-headed windows in the north-wall of the nave. 
Against the jamb of the eastern-most window, close to the pulpit, is fixed 
an hour-glass stand of good design. 

The tower is of much later date than any other part of the fabric. Its 
walls are of ashlar work, and it has a parapetted saddle-pack roof. It was 
probably rebuilt by one of the Whitney family, about the time of Elizabeth 
or James. 

One of the most interesting parts of the church is the chapel. This 
was originally of Early English work, as beautiful as the chancel, but it 
has been much pulled about. On taking down the south gable to rebuild it, 
at the time the church was restored, all the quoins of both angles were found 
to be capitals, bases, bands, arch mouldings and shafts of an Early English 
window, similar to the chancel triplet. They were all, except two or three 
stones, replaced. In the cast and west walls are two lancets, blocked up. 
The present east window is square-headed, of two lights, with ogee heads 
and quatrefoils. In the south gable is a Perpendicular window of two 
lights, under a depressed arch, ogee, cinquefoilcd, with basement lights trc- 



t 



Icomb Church. 



19 



foiled. It was originally filled with heraldry. Previous to the "restoration" 
of the church, in one of the openings was a shield quarterly of arms as on 
the knight below : viz., Blaket, quartering Hacklttyt, but the Hackluyt 
quarter only remained. In another opening was a fragment of a shield (one 
fourth part) charged with the arms of Martival, of Noseley, co. Leic. : viz. , 
ar. a cinque/oil sa. , pierced of the field. Nash states that there was also a 
shield charged with a raven for Corbet. The jambs and sections of both 
these windows are of 15th century work, temp. Henry vj. In the east wall, 
on the south of the altar, is a pretty piscina, with a projecting basin, of the 
same design as that in the chancel, but the cinque-foil recess above it was 
constructed when the tomb and effigy were introduced, to make room for 
which the piscina was, probably, removed from the south wall to the east. 

In the south wall is a recessed tomb with a straight-sided arch, hand- 
somely and doubly cusped. The tomb has in front seven arched niches, and 
one at each end, each containing a figure. In the centre the Eternal Father 
supporting the crucifix. On each side is a kneeling figure, that on the east 
representing the knight, that "on the west his wife in horned head-dress. On 
each side are angels bearing shields, and beyond these St. John Baptist and 
St. Michael. 

The recumbent effigy of the knight, which lies on the tomb, is thus 
accoutred entirely in plate : his head, incased in a pointed bascinet with 
gorget, rests on his tilting helm, surmounted by his crest, which is a cap 
of maintenance with a horse's, or ass's, ears erect, like feathers on each 
side. He wears a jupon charged with armorial bearings ; viz. , Quarterly 
1 and 4, az, a bend between six trefoils fitcMe, or. (Blaket). 1 2 and 3: Ou. 
three battle axes or. (Hackluyt). Three epaulieres, or over-lapping plates, 
edged or picked out with gold, protect the shoulders, rere-braces and vam- 
braces sheath the arms, and he wears a collar on his neck, with tre-foil 
clasp, the legs are enclosed in plate ; the genouillieres and elbow pieces 
are fan-shaped ; sollerets and spurs protect and arm the feet, which rest 
against a dog. On the right side is an Anelace, or Misericorde, attached 
to a baudric passing horizontally over the hips, and a studded belt, passing 
diagonally from the waist, carries the sword on the left side. The hands, 
which are gauntletted, are clasped in prayer {see Plate II. ) 

The Rev. D. Royce, after much and careful research, assigns this effigy 
to Sir John Blaket, who died on the feast of St. John Baptist, in 1431, 
and in his will, proved in P.C.C., bequeathed his body to be buried, in the 
Chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the Church of Icumb. 

The following Inventory of Church Goods at Ickombe was made 6th 
Edward vj. 

A Chales, with a paten sylver; ij. vestments, j. red chablet with a blew 
crosse, the other blew damaske with a red crosse ; a coope of satten of brugs 
(Bruges) with opene borders ; iij. belles in the steple ; j. saunce bell. 

Will. Pye, parson. 

Houselling people 80. 

Chantry of Our Lady, founded by Simond Mylborne. 

1 These arms differ from those on the Seal of John Blaket {see post p, 42). 

c2 



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All the Church goods have passed away. There are, it is true, three 
bells in the tower, and a sanctus bell, but they are all modern. They bear 
the following legends : 

Diam. 

1. Blank .. .. 22 in. 

2. IOHN BRYAN AND IOHN ROBERTS CHURCHWARDENS. 1662 23 in. 

3. PROSPERITY TO THIS PARISH. A. R. 1717 .. .. 27 in. 
Sanctus Bell .. .. ... ... .. 14 in. 

At present the Church Plate consists of the following articles : 

(1) Plain Cup, somewhat V shaped, on baluster stem; a shape that was 
usual from c. 1615-1650, but is not found earlier or later. It is inscribed 
as follows : Icomb. DD. T. J. Rect r ., 1758. It was made in London in 
1616-7 by a goldsmith, whose mark : on a shaped shield, the letters R.B 
over a pellet, is very well known. He made plate for the Clothworkers' 
Company of London, and also some pieces found in the Russian Imperial 
Treasury of the Kremlin at Moscow. His mark is found from about 
1614 to 1635. 

(2) . A small circular paten on central foot with the same inscription as on 

the cup on a plain circular escutcheon, surrounded with mantling in 
the style of the period of George I., a crest is engraved above the 
inscription. The marks shew this paten to have been made in London, 
by one Humphrey Payne, in 1713-4. It is made of the higher standard 
of silver then in use. Humphrey Payne & Co. made most of the 
splendid plate of the Salters' Company in London, also a communion 
flagon 1709-10 at Winchcombe Church in this county, and other well 
known examples. 

The number of houselling people (80) shews that in 1552, the population 
was about 120 ; this will be for the Worcestershire Icomb. Mr. Williams 
states that in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Gloucestershire Icomb contained 
12 families. At the usual average, in this district, of 4^ to the family=54 ; 
and in 1776, 18 families, at 4^ = 81. According to the Census Returns in 
1801, the population of the two portions was 112 ; in 1811 it was 143 ; in 
1821, 164; in 1831, 148; in 1841, 162; in 1851, 140; and in 1861, 164; 
later than which we have not the Returns. 

From the church the party proceeded to the Old Manor House called 
Icomb Place, where the Rev. D. Royce and Mr. F. W. Waller acted as 
guides. Entering the quadrangle, Mr. Royce read a very interesting historical 
and descriptive paper, which will be printed in the Transactions. On the 
conclusion of Mr. Royce's description, the company divided into two parties. 
One party, under the guidance of Mr. Waller, made a circuit and inspection 
of the building externally, while the other, under the direction of Mr. Royce, 
examined the interior, the first entering the house when the second left it to 
sec the outside. By this arrangement, to a great extent, crowding was 
avoided. 

From Icomb, the excursionists proceeded to Bledington, where the 
church was inspected, under the guidance of Mr. J.E. K. Cutts, under whose 
direction it has recently undergone considerable repairs. It was originally 
a Norman building, but has been subjeeted to alterations in the Transition 
and Early-English periods, but still greater in the Perpendicular. It 



i 



Chastleton House. 



21 



like Upper Slaughter, remarkable for having a tower erected within the 
western end of the nave. A monograph on this church, by Mr. Cutts, will 
be printed in this volume. 

From Bledington, the party drove to Chastleton House, the seat of Miss 
Whitmore Jones, where, by her courteous and obliging permission, the 
members were allowed to have their luncheon. This magnificent old Eliza- 
bethan, or Jacobean, Mansion is, however, within the borders of Oxfordshire, 
and hence beyond the sphere of the Society's labours, nevertheless, we 
cannot pass it by without a few words on its sad history. It was for 
six generations the seat of the Catesby family. They were of the Roman 
Catholic Communion, and Robert Catesby took part in all the intrigues and 
conspiracies which arose in the latter part of the reign of Elizabeth down to 
the culminating atrocity of the Gunpowder Plot, when he met his death at 
Holbeach House. It has been said that he greatly wasted his estate to 
obtain funds for carrying out his various schemes, and that he sold Chastleton 
to obtain gunpowder for the Gunpowder Plot, but this is not correct, for it 
was alienated in the last year of Elizabeth. What manors and lands remained 
to him at the time of his death became escheated, and were immediately 
granted away. From this date the Chastleton estate passed through several 
families, and was eventually purchased in 1790 by John Jones, the ancestor 
of the present proprietor. 

Mr. Royce read a paper in the hall on the devolution of the manor, 
after which the members visited the ancient church, and inspected the 
Communion Plate, which was described by Mr. Wilfrid Cripps. Then 
resuming their carriages, they proceeded to Chastleton Camp, upon which 
some remarks were made by Mr. Royce. A discussion ensued, and the con- 
clusion generally arrived at was that the structure was originally a circular 
British Camp, but that it had been considerably altered by Roman and 
other occupants. 

The next place visited was Oddington, whose ancient and singularly 
interesting church is fast becoming a ruin. It is not now used for Divine 
service, a poor substitute for it having been provided in the village, though 
the chancel continues to be used for funerals. Some notes on the church, by 
the Rev. W. Wiggin, who for many years was rector of the parish, were 
read, and a coloured diagram, by the same gentleman, of the several paint- 
ings, was exhibited. Some notes on the church were also supplied by Mr. 
J. H. Middleton, which, in the absence of that gentleman, were read by the 
Secretary. Mr. Mlddleton's paper was accompanied by a plan shewing the 
different styles of architecture in the structure. A monograph on this very 
interesting church will be printed hereafter. 

This completed the programme for a very pleasant day's excursion, and 
the party returned to Stow. 

In the evening a meeting was held in St. Edward's Hall for reading 
of Papers. The President took the chair, and there was a fair attendance. 

Mr. G. B. Witts gave an address on the "March of Essex," illustrated 
by diagrams. He explained that when the Civil War broke out, Bristol, 
Gloucester, Tewkesbury, and Cirencester declared for the Parliament. Oxford 
was the head-quarters of the King, and Stow-on-the-Wold, Sudeley Castle, 



22 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



Cheltenham, and Berkeley Castle were loyal. On Jan. 29th, 1643, Massey, 
the Governor of Gloucester, took Sudeley Castle. In Feb. , Prince Rupert took 
Cirencester. A few days afterwards Sudeley Castle again fell into the hands 
of the Royalists. Tewkesbury fell into the hands of Prince Rupert. In 
February, Rupert demanded the surrender of Gloucester, and was flatly 
refused by Governor Massey. In April, the Parliamentarian people, who 
had left Tewkesbury, went back to their native town with fellow Roundheads 
from Gloucester, and took it for the Parliament. In April, 1643, Massey, 
being desirous of knowing what was the state of feeling at Stow, took 120 
dragoons with him and came to Upper Slaughter. The first fighting in the 
neighbourhood of Stow then took place. Massey took prisoners a party of 
Royalists, who had been left at Upper Slaughter. From Upper Slaughter 
he marched on to Oddington, leaving Stow on the left. When he attempted 
to return to Gloucester he was intercepted. A Royalist force which had 
been stationed at Stow drew out with all speed and fell on him, and pursued 
his men as far as Andoversford. Here the Parliamentary soldiers obtained 
a reinforcement from Sudeley Castle which had again surrendered to the 
Parliamentarians. Massey, with own hand, killed the captain of the 
Royalist party, but very narrowly escaped with his own life. Bristol was 
taken by the Royalists on July 26th. Gloucester was then the only 
garrison held for the Parliament in the western part of the country between 
Land's End and Scotland. Under these circumstances the Parliamen- 
tarian party were very determined to hold Gloucester. The Londoners 
perceived that London would not be long in safety if Gloucester were lost, so 
all the citizens were ordered to close their shops and not to open them again 
until forces had been sent to relieve Gloucester. August of 1643 was well 
advanced when the trained bands marched from London towards Gloucester, 
joining the force of Essex at Aylesbury, when the united army numbered 
15,000 horse and foot. Essex could not go the direct way, through Oxford, as 
that was the King's head-quarters. He passed therefore through Beacons- 
field, Hook Norton, Chipping Norton, and " Stow the Old," as it was called. 
Gloucestershire people never seem to have been able to pronounce the "w." 
Part of Essex's forces went to Oddington, where they were surprised by 
Royalists. The surprised Roundheads withdrew to the top of a hill, when 
they found that 4,000 or 5,000 Royalists, under Rupert, were close upon 
them. They hasted to inform Essex. In the meantime the Roundheads, 
and the Royalists opposed each other for about half-an-hour. Rupert, 
it seemed, withdrew from Oddington, and formed up again at Stow. Some 
very serious fighting took place very soon after in the neighbourhood, at 
Upper Slaughter. The Roundhead forces were so arranged as to make 
them appear very numerous, and the "goodly show," says one who wrote 
not long after, " did so much more daunt the enemy, and Rupert swore that 
he thought all the Roundheads in England were there." When the King 
heard that Essex was coming, he withdrew from near Gloucester to Pains- 
wick. He knew that Essex, after relieving Gloucester, would wish to get 
back to London, as there was no place in the country that could support his 
army. The King accordingly endeavoured to intercept him. At last, after 
various marches and counter- marches, at a very early hour one morning, before 
the King was aware of the movement, Essex marched to Cirencester Charles 
did not hear of this till late in the afternoon, but the next day he inarched 



i 



March of Essex. 



23 



30 miles to Alscot, with the intention of cutting off Essex between Cirencester 
and London. After taking Cirencester, Essex marched to Cricklade, and the 
day after he arrived at Cricklade he went to Swindon. A cavalry skirmish 
took place between Essex's men and some Royalists before Essex got to 
Newbury. On arriving there he found the King there before him. Then 
was- fought that memorable battle, in which Lord Falkland was slain. 
It was about a drawn battle, and each army withdrew from Newbury to 
head-quarters, the King to Oxford, and Essex to London. Mr. Witts gave 
some further particulars of events at Stow after the battle. On the 8th of 
May, 1645, the King slept at Stow, " at Mr. Jones " — probably at the King's 
Arms. He also passed a night at the White Hart, Moreton-in-the-Marsh. 
In the room in which he slept at Moreton one reads that he slept there July 
2nd, 1644. He might have slept both times. The final overthrow of the 
Royalist armies occurred near Stow, on March 21 st, 1646. Some authorities 
gave the date 1645. The fact that under the old style of reckoning — which 
obtained until 1752 — March 25th was New Year's day, explained the dis- 
crepancy. In this fight the Royalists were totally routed and 200 were 
killed. Fifteen hundred prisoners were guarded in Stow church that night, 
and shortly afterwards these prisoners were taken to St. Mary Lode church. 
In some church books occurred the following remarkable entry : — For mend- 
ing the bars of windows to keep those Cavaliers safe that was taken at Stow, 
£1 10s. Thus at Stow-on-the-Wold, March, 1646, terminated the open 
struggle between the King and the Parliament. From that day His Majesty 
could never raise a force sufficient to confront his opponents. 

An interesting discussion followed the address, several speakers remark- 
ing upon the use, or rather misuse, of the "w" in Gloucestershire. The 
Rev. W. Bazeley mentioned that the fact that Robins wood Hill had been 
called Robinhood's Hill had led some old county historians to say that 
Robin Hood fought on this ground, whereas the hill had nothing whatever 
to do with him. 

The Rev. D. Royce then read a paper on Northleach Court Book, which 
will be printed in the Transactions. 

Thanks having been given to Mr. Witts and Mr. Royce, the meeting 
broke up. 

THURSDAY, July 27th. 

In the morning a Council Meeting was held at St. Edward's Hall, after 
which the concluding meeting of the Society took place. The President was 
in the chair. 

It was proposed by the President, and unanimously resolved : That the 
Annual Summer Meeting be held next year at Bath, and that the selection 
of the President and arrangements for the meeting be left to the Council. 

It was also proposed by the President, and unanimously resolved : That 
the thanks of the Society be given to the trustees of St. Edward's Hall for the 
excellent accommodation, &c, afforded to the Society in this noble building, 

The Rev. E. F. Witts responded. 

It was further proposed by the President, and unanimously resolved 
That the thanks of the Society be given to the Rev. R. W. Hlppislky, the 



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Transactions at Stow-on-tiie-Wold. 



Rev. D. Royce, the Rev. E. F. Witts, Mr. Iles, Mr. Hampidge, the Rev. 
J. A. Hartshorne, Miss Whitmore Jones, the Rev. F. E. Gretton, the 
Rev. J. W. Sharpe, the Rev. W. Wiggin, and the Rev. D. F. Vigers, for 
the services they had rendered to the Society in allowing the members to 
visit and inspect the antiquities under their charge respectively. 

The Rev. R. W. Hippisley replied, saying it had given him, and he 
doubted not the other persons named also, great pleasure in being able, in 
any way, to contribute to the gratification of the members of the Society 
and others present at the meeting. 

It was proposed and seconded, and unanimously resolved, That the 
thanks of the Society be given to the Rev. E. F. Witts, and Mrs. Witts, 
and to E. Rhys Wingfield, Esq. , for their courteous hospitality. 

It was proposed by the President, and unanimously resolved, That the 
thanks of the Society be given to the Chairman, the Secretaries, and other 
members of the local Committee for the efficient manner in which they had 
organized and carried out the general arrangements of the meeting. 

It was further proposed by the President, and unanimously resolved, 
That the thanks of the Society be given to such inhabitants of Stow as have 
generously placed rooms at the disposal of the local Committee for the 
accommodation of the members attending the meeting. 

He further proposed, and it was unanimously resolved, That the thanks 
of the Society be given to the Rev. D. Royce for his great care in the dis- 
tribution of the tickets, to Mr. F. V. Witts for his efficient management of 
the excursions, and to Mr. Hippisley for his successful exertions in procuring 
lodgings for the members. 

He further proposed, and it was unanimously resolved, That the thanks 
of the Society be given to the Rev. D. Royce, Mr. Cutts, Mr. Witts, Rev. 
W. Wiggin, Mr. J. Moore, Mr. Medland, Rev. F. Broome Witts, for 
kindly preparing and reading Papers, and also to the ladies and gentlemen 
who had contributed to the museum. 

Sir John Maclean proposed that the cordial thanks of the Society be 
given to the President for his readiness to assist the Society by undertaking 
that office, and for the urbanity and kindness with which he had presided 
over the meeting. 

After a few words of acknowledgement from the President, the meeting 
broke up. 

The members then proceeded to take their places in the carriages, which 
were in waiting to convey them on the last excursion of the meeting. The 
first place to be visited was Salmonsbury Camp, a Roman station close to 
Bourton-on-the-Water, upon which Mr. J. Moore read a Paper at the 
evening meeting on the previous day. This occupied a considerable time, 
during which some few of the members, by invitation of Mr. Rivett-Carnac, 
inspected some iron swords and other relics which were said to have been 
dug up in the garden of Buryficld. The swords were very rude in con- 
struction, and appeared to be unfinished. 

As time would not admit of the intended visit to Norbury Camp, the 
next object visited was Farmington Church, There aeemed to be no one 

i 



Farmington Church. 



25 



prepared to offer any remarks upon it, and Sir John Maclean was invited 
to say a few words. In acceding to this request, he said he had never seen 
the church, except for the few minutes during which they had all been in it, 
and therefore what he had to say was derived from a very hasty observation. 
The church, he remarked, as you all see, consists now of chancel, nave, north 
aisle to nave, south porch, and western tower. The original church was a 
small Norman edifice, consisting of a chance], and nave only. Afterwards, 
however, it was found desirable to enlarge it by building a north aisle. This 
was done in the period of transition from Norman to Early English, as shewn 
by the arcade which separated the aisle from the nave. You will observe, 
he said, that this work is executed in a very clumsy manner. The some- 
what small circular piers are surmounted by very large capitals, of a decidedly 
Norman type, supporting pointed arches of two members. The chancel, he 
said, had been re-built, but at what period it was difficult to say without a 
closer examination than could then be given of it. 

Being asked how he accounted for a pointed tower arch underneath a 
Norman window, he said the reason was evident enough. The little Norman 
window had been, manifestly, from the deep internal splay, an external 
window in the west end of the nave, and the late Perpendicular tower having 
been built up against the west end of the nave had blocked this window, 
and the tower had been opened out to the nave by the pointed arch in 
question. It was afterwards observed that the external Norman corbel- 
table on the south side was matched by a similar table in the north aisle 
over the arcade, thus confirming the soundness of Sir John's conjecture, and 
shewed that the Norman wall had not been taken entirely down, but simply 
pierced for the arcade arches. 

In the Tower are three Bells, the third being ancient, bearing the 
following legends : — 

1. [22*] EDMVND BARTON ••• IOHN ••• TAYLOR . C.W. 1650 •;• 

2. H HENRY : NEALE : MADE : MEE : EF : RS : CH : WA 1637 

3. -k [6] SANT3 & [is] NICOTAVS & [15] ORA PRO & [15] NOBIS 

The letter N, in both the instances in which it occurs in the second legend, 
is turned upside down. This bell is said, traditionally, to have been cast 
at Burford, co. Oxon. The Neales had a foundry there. Edward Neale, of 
Burford, probably son of this Henry, Mr. Ellacombe says (Church Bells of 
Gloucestershire, p. 9), has left us twenty bells. One of these is the Sanctus 
Bell in the church of the adjoining parish of Turkdean, and bears the legend : 

EDWARD NEALE OF BURFORD MADE ME— 1663. 

Mr. Ellacombe gives his trade-mark, which bears the date 1657, inter- 
sected by a shield of arms : a chevron betw. three Bells ; with a heart on each 
side of the shield, and, below, his name divided by two lozenges. The initials of 
the churchwardens on this bell probably represent : Edmund Fox, buried 
in 1643, and Robert Spencer, the elder, buried 1639. 

It will be noticed that in the legend on the third bell, which is in 
Lombardic capitals, E in Sante and L in Nicolavs are also set upside down. 
* These figures refer to the Engravings on Plates IV. to IX. inchtsive. 



26 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



The editor here desires to offer his warm thanks to the Rev. George 
Goldie, for the trouble he has very kindly taken in assisting to verify and 
elucidate the legends on the bells, and for the following extracts from his 
Parish Registers : — 

1653, August 7. Collected then in the church of Farmington towards the 
relief of the distressed towne of Marlborough w h was burnt by fyer, 
the sume of twelve shillings and nine pence . 

Humphrey Smith, Rector. 

1660, March 10. Collected then for John Davis of Hereford the sum of two 
shillings and two pence. Humphrey Smith, Minister. 

1660, March 24. Collected then for the inhabitants of Milton Abbas in the 
County of Dorsett the sum of two shillings and eight pence. 

Humphrey Smith, Minister. 

John Pearce, who was born in this Parish was buried in this Churchyard 
January the second, 1758, aged ninety, sowed the first wheat that was 
sown in this parish, as he told me. C.S.R. 

A short drive from Farmington brought the excursionists to Northleach, 
formerly an important centre of the Cotteswold wool trade, but now a purely 
agricultural town. Here, at the Wheatsheaf Hotel, the President entertained 
the Society at luncheon. The President took the chair, supported by Sir 
Brook Kay, Bart., Sir John Maclean, Rev. E. F. Witts, &c, &c, &c. 
On the conclusion of the lunch, Sir Brook Kay proposed the health of the 
President, which was very warmly received and drunk with three cheers. 
The Rev. E. F. Witts also addressed the meeting. 

The Parish Church was next visited, on the invitation of the Rev. J. W. 
Sharpe, the vicar. This is a very magnificent structure of the 15th 
century, bearing many evidences of the former opulence, piety, and muni- 
ficence of the Northleach wool merchants, some of whom are commemorated 
in the fine series of Brasses with which the church is enriched. 

The excursionists then visited the Church, where they were received by 
the Vicar. The edifice is a lofty, spacious, and grand structure, bearing 
testimony to the wealth, piety, and munificent zeal of the 15th century 
inhabitants of the town and to the general prosperity of the place. It con- 
sists of chancel, nave, north and south aisles, with chapel at the east end of 
each of the latter, a chapel on the north of the chancel, south porch, 
and a western tower. The whole church would appear to have been re- 
built from about the middle to the end of the 15th century. 

The Rev. D. Royce kindly acted as cicerone, and read a paper on the 
Church, pointing out the most striking features of the building. The clere- 
story, he said, was erected by John Fortey, who died in 1458. William 
Bicknell built the south chapel, while the north aisle, he considered, was the 
gift of a Beauchamp and of those who repose before the altar there. Fortey, 
Scors, and Agnes, widow of both. Mr. Royce then gave the following 
particulars of the architecture of the building :— 

The Porch, one of the finest in the kingdom, has two bays. Each lateral 
lofty wall is enriched with pointed and traceried arcading. The central com- 
partment of the quasi- windows was once pierced for a window, the frames of 



i 



NORTHLEACH CHURCH. 



27 



which may still be seen outside. On each side are pedestals, resting on carved 
corbels. The lofty roof is richly groined, fretted and studded with heads : one, 
the head of the Saviour with cruciform nimbus. The ribs rest on elegant shafts 
with foliaged capitals. The sections of the inner and outer door are of the 
same type. Over the inner door is a large niche for the Patron Saint. The 
corbels of the latter door are large, the one on the right is a bare head, that 
on the left, has pyramidal head-gear, with cresting over large bandeaus. 
The outside front has escaped the hand of the destroyer. In the upper, of 
two large central canopied niches, is the representation of the Blessed Trinity, 
but the Rood and Holy Dove are lost ; in the lower, S. Mary, with the Holy 
Child standing on her knee. On each side of the last niche is a window of 
a chamber above ; and flanking the windows, niches with pedestals, all with 
crock eted pediments. Other smaller figures, under canopies, remain at the 
springer of the bell-cote, on the sides of the upper niche, and in the buttress 
angles. The angle-buttresses are diagonal and have fine niches in lower stage, 
with fretted and crocketed canopies; on each weathering, apparently, are 
remains of the symbols of the four Evangelists. The central buttress, on the 
west, is cleverly adapted to a chimney with a crocketed open pinnacle. In 
the south-east angle is a fine octagonal staircase, with crocketed spire ; in 
the north-east, a smaller projection to correspond. Over the porch is the 
chamber before alluded to, above the square side-lights of which is sunken 
tracery of flowing Decorated outline. In this chamber is the original mantel- 
piece, battlemented, with pretty brackets on each side, also a cupboard. 
Access to this room is from the stair by a flat tre-foiled arch ; then through 
the doorway, in which remains the original door. In the bell-cote is a stone 
seat below ; and side projection resting on rounded corbels. 

South Aisle. — This is lighted by fine large pointed windows, of four 
lights, cinque-foliated, with tracery sub-divided into two arched compart- 
ments, having the usual batements, and embattled transoms, with quartre- 
foils in spandrils, choice relics of stained glass : one, a figure of St. 
Lawrence. The roof has well moulded principals, purlins, rafters, and carved 
bosses. At the east end are the battered remains of a once elaborate 
reredos, with seven niches below and four above— the colour on the backs 
of the niches remains. A square aumbrey, which has a stone shelf in its 
recess, retains the original hinges and half the door. A square double niche, 
with pedestals, remains over the small plain Tudor arched doorway into the 
south chapel ; traces behind indicate an arch here corresponding with that 
to north chapel. 

South Chapel. — Two windows on the south, like those in the aisle ; one 
east, of five lights, with flatter head. Corbels : a queen, king, and small 
angel bearing a shield, with ano. dni. 1489. This, which is called BicknelPs 
chapel, opens into the chancel by two plain arches and a pier under one 
wide plain rear-arch. This aisle is said to have belonged " to Sir Ralph 
Dutton, but is repayred by y e Parish." 

The Chancel has a fine lofty pointed five-light window, occupying the 
entire width of the east end, resembling those in south aisle, except that it 
has converging cinque-foils in the apex, and quartre-foils in spaces below. It is 
filled with modern stained glass. There are two windows on the south, of 
four lights, separated by a narrow strip of wall. They are like the east 



28 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



window in south chapel. A window, on the north, of three lights, is like the 
east window. The sedilia is of good workmanship, the three seats are 
level, cinque-foiled, with double cusped heads, well moulded shafts ; a double 
rose and lily foliage under the embattled cornice. A north door, opposite, 
opens into a small chapel, having the original stone altar in situ, and over 
it a square three-light window ; in north wall a pointed one of two lights, 
A bit of the chancel plinth is within this chapel, as if the chapel were a 
later addition. Very singular are the pastoral staves, one on each wall of 
the chancel, mid-way and high up. 

The North Chapel, of two bays, overlaps the chancel by two arches, of 
two orders, resting on octagonal shafts, with moulded capitals. The windows 
here and in north aisle, are pointed, of four lights, with a concave curve 
over each light, in the tracery. In two quatre-foils remain monograms of S. 
Mary and of Jesus. The altar-steps remain. The timbers and bosses of the 
flat-gabled roof retain their gilding and colour. There are exquisite corbels 
of the founders. The rood-loft doors are in the north wall. A plain arch, 
resting on the wall, communicates with the north aisle. A. processional 
door has a deep outer jamb, on which is a repetition of hollow chamfer and roll 
mouldings. Here stands the Font, which is octagonal, having on each cusped 
face, a bold head. The bowl rests, on angels issuing forth, on a shaft, with 
small panels and buttresses, on' a base of heads, with bent forelegs triple- 
clawed, in symbolical contrast with the angels. In the roof are bosses, on one 
of which is carved a bear and ragged staff, for Beauchamp, whose arms were 
formerly in the window glass, and another with a /esse between six martlets, 
Beauchamp. 

Nave, beautified by John Fortey, is of five bays. The pillars are lofty 
and the arches flat, with drip-like outer mouldings on nave side. Piers and 
caps fluted — a small ogee bracket balances the cap under soffit of the arch. 
In the second north bay are semi-caps, half-way down the piers (such as 
those in Campden church), possibly to carry a canopy over a chapel, as at 
Burford, Oxon. The Clerestory is a succession of large pointed windows, 
sub-divided by branching mullions. In the east gable, a broad elliptical 
window of nine lights, cinque-foiled, has an arched pair, on either side a central 
light and sex — and trefoils in the spaces in the head. The Parapets, outside, 
are embattled with a diagonal pinnacle to each battlement. On the eastern 
apex, is an elegant little canopy, occupied by S. John Baptist, perhaps 
John Fortey's Patron Saint. The parapets elsewhere are plain. The pin- 
nacles rise from the buttresses, square and crocketed. The chancel-corner 
buttresses have very fine niches, with remains of sculpture on the weather- 
ing. 

Last. The Mighty Tower. — An enduring illustration to the good North- 
leach people of The "High " and " Strong Tower." Verily there was not only 
the counting of the cost but the ability to finish. This grand pile consists 
of four stages. The Belfry windows in the one uppermost, have side com- 
partments, with pedestals, all of which are pedimented, pinnacled and croc- 
keted. The pinnacles above the embattled and pannelled parapet are gone. 
The surprising discovery is, that preparations inside prove the project of a 
spire. Grand, too, is the interior as well as the exterior. The lower portion 
is really a lofty lantern, lighted by a large double-arched window, with 



NORTHLEACH CHURCH. 



29 



t re -foliated and transomed tracery. In the groined roof are heads of queen, 
abbot, king, civilian, and figures engaged in a " Divine Liturgy." The tower 
arch is elegant, lofty, and moulded with hollows, hollow chamfer wave, and 
ogee. The two inner orders rest on moulded caps, shafts, and elaborate 
bases. This part of the Church will be very striking when all the unseemly 
lumber, now burying it, shall be swept away. The west door, within and 
without, is very fine. 

We have been favoured by Mr. Royce with the following additional 
interesting particulars : — 

It should be here recorded that the present Altar Cloth is made up of 
magnificent copes preserved until a few years since. The monograms IHS, 
MARIA, on triangular-winged labels (red letters on gold ground), with the 
prayer SALVA NOS, pines and diaper retain their costly magnificence even 
in their dismembered state. 

Since the above hurried and, therefore faulty, notes were taken, the 
mensa of the High Altar buried in the foot-space, has been found. It 
measures 10 ft. x 3ft. and 8^ in. thick. 

Every well-wisher to the best interests of Northleach will congratulate 
the town on the town's glory and pride being restored, it is to be hoped in 
the true sense of the word, to somewhat of its former dignity and beauty. 
We must, however, take the liberty of urging upon the vicar and architect 
the utmost care in the execution of this work. Entreating them to bear in 
mind that alterations, though fancied improvements, are not restorations. 
It would be difficult to improve upon the structure as it left the original 
architect's hands, and the sole object should be to restore it to that state. 
As many years were occupied in the erection of this grand edifice, notwith- 
standing the zeal of the inhabitants and the wealth lavished upon the work, 
so, perhaps, in less favourable circumstances, many years may be required 
for its renovation and decoration. With these feelings we say " God speed." 

On the conclusion of Mr. Royce's paper, some observations were made 
on the church by Mr. Brook, the architect, who, it was understood, would 
be commissioned to restore the fabric as soon as the requisite funds can be 
obtained. Mr. Brook assured the meeting that the work would be executed 
in the most conservative spirit, that every item of old work would be pre- 
served, and that the alterations would chiefly consist in the removal of the 
pews with which the church is encumbered, in re-seating it and necessary 
repairs. 

Sir John Maclean called attention to the unusually fine collection of 
Monumental Brasses, and expressed a hope that not one of them would be 
removed from its proper site. He mentioned the great danger to which 
these most interesting and valuable works of art and historical monuments 
were exposed. They are, he said, fast disappearing from various causes, 
the chief being the neglect of their proper custodians. Many are now lost 
which only a few years ago adorned our churches, and of which rubbings had 
been recently made. In order to preserve some record of those at Northleach, 
in case of any accident happening to them, he said, he thought it very 
desirable that, if possible, some arrangement should be made for engraving 



30 



Transactions at Stow-on-tiie-Wold. 



the whole series, and printing some account of the worthies personified, in 
the Transactions of the Society, in connection with this visit. He thought 
that the cost of the engraving of the eight Brasses would not exceed £20, 
but added, that the funds of the Society would not admit of the expenditure 
of so large a sum upon one object, and expressed a hope that the inhabitants 
of Northleach might be induced to make a small subscription in aid, say half 
the expense. The Rector, however, said that he could not, in the present 
circumstances of the parish, with the cost of the restoration of the church 
impending, hold out much hope of this being done. 

After leaving the church, the President expressed his regret that he 
was obliged to leave the meeting, and requested Sir John Maclean to act 
for him during the remainder of the day. 

The next place visited was Hampnet Church, where they were received 
by the Rev. W. VViggin, the Rector of the parish, who read a shor paper 
on the ancient edifice. He pointed out that the original church was of 
Transition Norman work, and consisted of a chancel and nave, with central 
tower, the basement of which was perhaps used as a choir. The chancel is 
vaulted with quadripartite Transition Norman vaulting, with very bold ribs 
springing from a string-course and corbels, about 3 feet above the original 
floor, and externally, the walls are strengthened by Norman buttresses. The 
circular eastern arch of the tower, opening into the chancel, is composed of 
two plain chamfered orders, resting upon engaged columns, with Transition 
Norman capitals, and single columns at the westernmost angles. The 
western arch of the tower is also of two orders, the inner one being plain, 
whilst the outer one, against the nave, has Norman diaper decorations, and 
rests upon disengaged shafts with sculptured capitals, one representing two 
birds drinking from the same cup, whilst on the other, are two birds addorsed. 

Towards the end of the 15th century, he said, probably the tower at the 
west end of the nave was built, and he thought that, at that time, the upper 
part of the Norman central tower was taken down to the level of the roof of 
the chancel and covered with a roof to range with it. Underneath this roof is 
now a flat modern ceiling. Mr. Wiggin supposes that at the time of these 
alterations the nave was widened by the erection of a wall more to the south 
than the original wall. This wall is of Perpendicular date, and has, towards 
the east, a two-light square-headed window, with cusped tracery, and a 
doorway and porch in the same style of architecture ; and he thinks that 
probably it was at this time that these Perpendicular windows were inserted 
in the north and south Norman walls of the chancel and in the south side of 
basement of the former tower. In the north wall of the nave is a small 
Norman doorway, the jambs of which are modern, but the original Norman 
diapered tympanum remains ; as does also the rood-loft staircase in the south 
wall. 

The tower, with its square-sided turret on the north side, occupies 
almost the whole width of the church. It is of three stages, marked by bold 
string-courses, the upper one having a boss in the centre of each face. It 
has bold angular buttresses, and a crenelated parapet, with prominent 
gurgoyles on the north and south sides. There is a two-light window in 
each face of the bell chamber, a single-light window in the second 
stage, and a three-light window in the west face of the basement. 



NOTGROVE. 



31 



The tower arch, opening from the nave, is very lofty, of two orders chamfered, 
resting on Perpendicular piers and capitals. There are three small bells, 
one cast by I. Rudhall in 1832. The font is of Perpendicular date. 

Mr. Wiggin exhibited his Parish Register, which commences in 1591, 
and pointed out that from that date to 1601, it is a transcript from the 
original record. He also called attention to, and asked for an explanation 
of, the remarkable fact that for the six years^ from 1591 to 1596, inclusive, 
the entries for each year commence with the words : " The Seconde Mar die,' 
from 1591 to 1602 with the word : " Marche " only, and, subsequently, simply 
with the date of the year. 1 

The Communion Plate consists of an Elizabethan Cup, with a paten 
cover, upon which is engraved the date 1576. The Hall mark is almost 
obliterated, but the bottom of the small text letter "t " shews that it was 
made in the same year. 

" Mr. Wiggin remarked that the Churchwardens' Accounts for the year 
1613, contained an item of £2 10s. paid for a copy of the authorised version of 
the Bible, for the payment of which a special rate was levied. 

Mr. W. George observed that there were two folio editions of the so- 
called authorised version of the Bible, bearing the date of 1613. On the title 
page of the New Testament of one of these, had been retained the date of the 
first edition, "1611." Copies of both editions were in the Caxton Exhibition, 
1877. In the accounts of the Churchwardens of Minehead, in Somersetshire, 
which were in his possession, he found that in 1641 their Church Bible cost 
£2 17s. 6d., which amount was paid out of the church " stocke," and not by 
a special rate as here. 

Sir John Maclean said that many years ago he was in Minehead church, 
and he remembered seeing there, chained to a desk, in the eastern part of the 
south aisle, several old books, among them he recollected a copy of Erasmus' 
Paraphrase, and he hoped that they were still preserved. 

Mr. George replied that they were. In 1876 he had made a list of them. 
Amongst them was the folio bible in black letter, which he had just men- 
tioned, which, however, was not, and never had been, chained. 

Sir John Maclean then, in the name of the President, tendered the 
thanks of the Society to the Rev. W. Wiggin for the cordial reception the 
members had received on visiting Hampnet, and for the interest he had 
taken in the success of the meeting. 

The members then proceeded under the guidance of Mr. J. E. K. Cctts to 

NOTGROVE CHURCH. 

Mr. Cutts, in describing this church, first pointed out the similarity 
in the plan of the original church, to that of several others that had been 
visited, it having, originally, consisted of chancel, nave, and one aisle (north 
in this case), and, no doubt, there were also a porch and bell -cote. The 
church is dedicated to S. Bartholomew, and in plan, now consists of chancel, 
nave, and one aisle and transept, west tower, south porch and modern 
vestry, of the original church we still have the western end of the south 
wall, the west wall of the nave, part of the west wall of the aisle, and the 

1 Mr. Wiggin has communicated to " Gloucestershire Notes and Queries," notes on, and 
extracts from, these Registers, and also Notes on the old Parish Accounts, (See Nos. cccclxii. 
and dlxxviii.) 



32 Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 

nave arcade and font. The arcade consists of three round arches in two square 
orders, resting on corbelled shafts with cushion capitals at the ends, and on 
two stout pillars with bold cushion capitals between. Though the west 
wall is, undoubtedly, in great part, of the original Norman wall, the only 
feature of that date in it is the plinth, which is continued round the remain- 
ing Norman buttress and south portion of the nave wall also. In the west 
end of the aisle was found traces of a small Norman window. During the 
restoration of the church, it was found necessary to pull down the aisle 
wall (which was very dilapidated, and of 1 7th century date, and it was 
then found that this wall had been built half on the old (? Norman) foundation, 
and partly projecting beyond it without any foundation at all ; during the 
progress of this portion of the work a white metal chalice and paten were 
found and portion of a second chalice. The Norman font is flower-pot 
shaped and has a cable-mould round it near the top. It is perhaps here that 
we should note that, in excavating for the heating apparatus, under where 
the font stood, a large cinerary urn with two handles was found ; other 
fragments were also picked up in the church, and it is worthy of note, that 
several churches in the neighbourhood seem, originally, to have been Roman 
burial places. Some fragments of sculptured Norman work were found 
during the restoration, and have been built into the porch for preservation and 
inspection. The east wall of the nave was probably Norman, for under the 
chancel arch were two low walls, which formed part of the very small old 
Norman arch, the upper part of which had been taken out, probably at the time 
the present chancel was built, to insert a larger (but still small) arch, which 
was put in quite out of the centre of the nave and chancel. The whole 
wall was so ruinous that it was found necessary to take it down, and in the 
re-building a larger arch was inserted. The chancel walls are probably Early- 
English— though the remaining features are late Decorated — for portions of 
the conventional painted masonary lines with a rose in each square, were 
found on the walls, and in pulling down the south wall (which had been 
undermined by graves outside and cut half through by monuments inside), 
a silver penny of Henry III. was pulled out with the piscina, and another 
of Edward I. was found in the soil at the foundation of the south wall. 
The chancel has no east window (an arrangement to be found at the adjoining 
church of Aston and several others in the county), but outside, at a few feet 
from the ground, is a crucifix under a canopied arch with pinnacles on each 
side, all carved in low relief. The interior of the chancel possessed but little 
interest before restoration, beyond its monuments ; the process of stripping, 
however, revealed the whole scheme of its sculptured and painted decoration 
— and most lovely the small chancel must have looked in its palmy days, 
indeed, it is to be doubted whether a more beautiful work could be found 
in so small a compass. The description of these decorations would be too 
long for our notice of the church, but may be found (together with notes of 
the trace of paintings in the nave) in " The Church Builder" and "Glouces- 
tershire Notes and Queries," at note No. CCCLXII. The north transept 
is of rather later date than the chancel, the window in it being two light, of 
early plate-tracery, with a pretty ball-flower in the label. The tower, which 
contains three bells, is of late Decorated work, and is one of the few in the 
neighbourhood that possesses a stone spire. Some of the old scats, the screen, 
and the pulpit panels remained, and have been worked in again in the re-fitting 
of the church, which was restored some 10 years ago by Mr. Cutts, and 
it may be noted that it was his first work. 

i 



NOTGROVE. 



33 



In the tower are three bells with the following legends, the first in 
lombardic capitals : — 

Diam. ins. 

1. MISSI § DE § CELIS § BABET § NOMEN § GAER1ELIS - - - 31* 



[ 



SING 


U+S.I | 


MNOS 




I.HS 


W. 28 


i 


1 











3. THOMAS RUDHAL ■ GLOUCESTER FOUNDER • 1770 ... 29 

No. 2 is a most indistinct casting. 

In the church-yard are two recumbent effigies, with respect to which, 
after leaving the church, a discussion arose, in which several members took part. 
These effigies had, without doubt, been formerly in the church. One of them 
is very much worn, so much that some of the members were doubtful 
whether it represented a man or a woman, Sir John Maclean said it appeared 
clearly to him to be the figure of a vested priest, and he pointed out the lines 
of the folds of his chasuble, his amice, and the faint remains of his tonsure ; 
and in this view the meeting generally concurred. The other effigy is in 
good condition. It also represents a priest in eucharistic vestments, and lies 
upon a delapidated altar tomb. The Rev. W. Bazeley was much interested 
in this figure, believing it represented William Parker, the last Abbot of 
Gloucester, and he has since favoured the Society with the following remarks 
upon it : 

Some Notes on an Effigy in Notgrove Churchyard. 

Rudder tells us in his History of Gloucestershire, page 583, that there 
is in the north cross aisle of this church a very ancient freestone figure in a 
long robe, and two other such ancient figures in the churchyard. He also 
tells a strange story which he has found in Dr. Parsons's manuscripts about 
the disturbance that was caused amongst the cattle of a farmer on his daring 
to remove one of these stones that was hollow that he might make a drinking 
trough of it. The people were all so frightened that they quickly restored 
the stone to its former position. In 1871, when the church was being 
restored, a chalice and paten, such as were buried in olden times with a 
priest, were found just outside the walls of this north transept. The effigy 
which stood there has disappeared. 

Now tradition says that the effigy which stands nearer to the church in 
the churchyard, is that of William Parker or Malverne the last abbot of St. 
Peter's, Gloucester, that the effigy was brought to Notgrove about the time 
of the Dissolution, and also, I believe, that Gloucester was its original 
abode. 

How such a tradition could have arisen in a place so far removed from 
the scene of William Malverne's life and work, unless he had some connection 
directly or indirectly with Notgrove, it is impossible to imagine. 

The panelled sides that support the lid on which the effigy is carved 
have quartre-foils containing a Tudor, or combined red and white, rose, and 
may be assigned to the style of architecture of the 15th and 16th centuries* 

But the effigy, at first sight, is that of one who was a priest, and 
nothing more. There is no mitre; there are no such robes as an abbot would 

Vol VII., part 1, i». 



s 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold 



wear. And why should abbot Malverne have been buried at Notgrove ? Or 
why should his tomb have been removed there from some desecrated abbey 
or priory ? Does he not lie in the Choir of Gloucester Cathedral in the chapel 
that he built, and beneath the tomb which he erected during his abbacy ? 
There is no proof that he lies there. True, his effigy is there with mitre, 
pastoral staff, and full pontificals : but there is no record extant of his burial 
beneath. Had he died in 1539, before the surrender of the abbey, there would 
have been some mention of his death and some discussion at least with regard 
to the election of his successor ; but the records are silent. Had his body 
been brought to St. Peter's after the surrender, it is most improbable that 
permission to bury it in the choir would have been obtained. His refusal, 
or if we have no proof of his actual refusal, his non-compliance, when the 
king demanded a surrender of his abbey, would have made him an outlaw in 
the eyes of the Minister of the Crown, who had charge of the abbey and the 
abbey lands in 1540 and 1541, and also of the Dean and Chapter who were 
entrusted with the new cathedral in September of the latter year. There 
is every reason to believe that the tomb abbot Malverne prepared for him- 
self in his abbey church is still empty. 

The account given by church historians, who have alluded to the 
subject, is that Malverne, when the day came for his resignation, had not the 
heart to perform the odious task. He did not risk his life like the abbot of 
Glastonbury and endeavour to resist the king's commands ; but he fled from 
his post, and left the Prior to surrender the abbey, thus losing a pension 
from the king, " that monarch," as Browne Willis says, " being not willing 
to oblige one whom he found so stiff in maintaining the rights of the abbey." 

If this be true, the abbot probably retired to the house of one of his 
nephews, the sons of his deceased brother Humphrey Parker, to whom he 
had granted many leases of abbey-manors and other rights. One of his 
last acts, as abbot, was to grant in November 1538, to his nephew, John 
Parker, for the term of 81 years absolute, the manor of Barnwood, which 
his father had held, as tenant of the abbey. The descendants of John 
Parker held it, as the parish registers and the family monuments in the 
church show, till the end of the next century. Another nephew, Thomas 
Parker, is described in a pedigree of the Parkers as ' of Notgrove ' and his 
descendants were owners of land, and donors to the church of Northleach 
long after the representative of that branch of the family had migrated to 
Hasfield about the time of the Restoration of the Monarchy. 

Barnwood was probably too near Gloucester to be a safe retreat for 
one who for well nigh six and twenty years had held the most influential 
position in the city and neighbourhood. 

It is far more likely that Notgrove was the residence of the last, and 
by no means the least, famous of the abbots of Gloucester. 

This effigy bears a trace of the lofty position once held by the priest 
it commemorates. On the right side of the figure is a groove, where once 
may have lain an abbot's pastoral staff. The staff might no longer rest on 
his right bosom enfolded in his right arm, as it does in Gloucester Cathedral. 
He had involuntarily laid it aside before his death ; he had no longer the 



1396867 

Notgrove Church. 36" 



right of wearing it. It is possible that the staff was never there, and that the 
sculptor merely carved the groove to show what in happier times had been 
the authority of the deceased. 

Strange to say, there are two broken pastoral staves or croziers built 
into the walls of the' choir of Northleach church. I do not know whether 
there is any record how they came there. Can they have any connection 
with William Malverne ? It is far from improbable that the Parkers on 
settling down at Northleach should have wished to preserve these as 
memorials of their noble kinsman's dignity. 

Rudder mentions a William Malverne as Prior of St. Mary Magdalene's 
Hospital, which lay between Gloucester and Barnwood. He says that this 
prior died sometime after June, 1551. Can it be possible that this was 
' the abbot of Gloucester ; and that, when the excitement of the Dissolution 
of the Monasteries was over, he obtained this lowly position of authority 
over a few decayed yeomen, their wives and daughters ? If it were so, the 
effigy in Notgrove Churchyard may be that of William Malvern, as prior 
rather than as abbot. 

It is only fair that I should mention another account of William Malvern's 
last days, altogether different from the former. Sometime ago the following 
memorandum was found on the fly-leaf of a copy of Heylin's Help to English 
History, Ed., 1671 : "I find by a letter written by my uncle Mr. Daniel 
Parker S.T.B., Brazenose Coll: Oxf : that his g fc grand father, Humphrey 
Parker was elder brother unto William Parker last abbot of Gloucester, 
who had his conge d'e'lise for the first bishop of Gloucester from Henry 8th, 
but died on the way, and so was not installed." I have not succeeded in 
finding the slightest proof of this statement ; it must be taken for what it 
is worth. 

The subject of Abbot Parker's death and burial is full of interest. I 
I trust that I may be able to obtain some facts which will throw light on 
the mystery that at present surrounds it. 

The next object visited was 

NOTGROVE TUMULUS. 

The Rev. D. Royce acted as guide and pointed out the specialities, the 
plan of the chambers which he said very closely resembled that of Uley, 
which had been described in the 5th Volume of the Society's Transactions : — 

On the conclusion of Mr. Royce's remarks, no other gentleman having 
any further observations to offer, Sir John Maclean, on behalf of the Pre- 
sident, declared the Meeting concluded, and congratulating the company 
on the success which had attended it, and the favourable weather which 
had added so much to the enjoyment of the excursions, expressed a hope 
that he and they would meet again at no very distant time in like cir- 
cumstances, till when he would say ADIEU, 



36 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



TEMPORARY MUSEUM. 



Catalogue of the Articles exhibited in the Temporary Museum. 



By Mrs. Paul Butler — 

Fine amber-coloured hatchet- shaped Celt, found in Wyck Risington. 
By Rev. E. F. Witts— 

Sixty-eight Roman Coins, from Bourton-on-the- Water — from Nero 
Claudius to Valens. 

Three Celts from Carnac. 

Three Roman Swords from Bourton. 

Crusie, from the Isle of Skye. 
By Mr. C. A. Whitmore — 

1. 27 Edw. I. Quit Claim of Matilda, relict of Will de Sloutre, of a 
tenement of Walter de Westmuncote, in Nortone, which Diis Henricus, 
Gerad de Sloutre, and Will, his son, husband of Matilda, held. Seal, 
green, round. On it, a rabbit, couchant, with illegible inscription. 

2. 33 Edw. I. Charter, of Ralph de Gorges, of land, and houses, with a 
certain cellar of stone, under the house of Peter son of Martin de 
Ferraund, in Melkstrete and St. Laurence lane, in Judaismo, London. 
Boundaries and tenants given. 

3. 6 H.V. Court Roll of the Hundred of Slaughter. The account of the 
Bayliff of Sir John Cornewall, of Fawnhope, and Elizabeth his wife, 
Countess Huntingdon. Affixed to it are acknowledgements of the 
latter, in Norman-French, with small round red seals, with crown and 
I.S in Monogram. One has the autograph signature, "Elizabeth 
Lancastre." 

4. 10 Edw. IV. Power of attorney, from Norman Wassheborne to 
Nichasius Snowe, to deliver to John Wassheborne his son, and Joan 
his wife, full seisin of all his lands in Nether Sloughtre. Seal, round, 
red ; on it, shells, spiral and cockle, radiating. The letters between 
the shells broken and undecipherable. 

By Mr. G. B. Witts — 

A fine Celt of the Palaeolithic period, seA r en inches long, three inches wide. 
Perfectly flat on the under side, and on the upper side rising towards the 
centre in the form of a shoe, the thick end (heel) almost unworked, 
the sides and the rounded part (toe) brought to a sharp edge. Found 
by Mr. Witts on the Dorsetshire coast, near Lyme Regis, A particularly 
good specimen of a Palaeolithic rliut implement* 



t 



Temporary Museum. 



37 



2. A Celt, of the Neolithic period, 5£ inches long, probably of green 
stone ; found near Andoversford, Gloucestershire. 

3. A Celt, Neolithic, 5 1 inches long, highly finished, and having grooves 
on each side, to prevent it slipping out of hand or handle ; found in 
the parish of Whittington. 

4. 5, 6. Celts, Neolithic, one found near Elkstone, another near Birdlip, 
and the third near Andoversford. 

7. A small Flint Axe, 1\ inches long, evidently fixed to a handle at an 
angle of 78° — precisely the angle now adopted to the newest steel axes — 
found on the Cotswolds. 

8. A model of a fine Neolithic Axe and Hammer, found in a round barrow, 
at Snowshill, 6^ inches long, 1\ inches broad, an axe at one end and a 
hammer at the other — a hole through the centre for a handle. 

9. A grand specimen of a Flint Spear-head, 4 inches long, If inches wide — 
having a "tang " — found, close to Birdlip. 

10. Leaf-shaped Arrow-head, of flint, 1^ finches long, from the Notgrove 
barrow. 

11. An Amulet, of Kimmeridge Shale, highly polished, \\ inches long, 
with a hole bored through the centre — a rare ornament in a long 
barrow — found with No. 10 in the Notgrove barrow. 

12. A collection of Flint Arrow-heads, Scrapers, &c. ; found on the 
Cotswolds. 

13. British Pottery, from the Notgrove barrow. 

14. Roman Pottery, from the Roman Villa, at Bourton-on-the-Water. 

15. A collection of Roman Coins, from the same Villa. 

A series of Photographs of the " West Tump " long barrow. 

17. A specimen copy of the Archaeological Handbook of Gloucestershire, 
by Mr. G. Witts. 

18. The Stock of a Petrified Flint and Steel Gun, from the bottom of the 
sea, near Gibraltar. 

19. A curious Iron Lamp and other articles of metal, from the Bourton 
Roman Villa. 

By Mr. H. Paget Moore, Tewkesbury — 

Chased Steel Key, from Manor House, Bourton-on-the-Water. 

Do. do. Gloucester. 
Early-English Key, from cutting, near the Abbey, Tewkesbury. 

Do. do. from excavation in High Street, Tewkesbury. 

Do. do. from Teignmouth. 
5 Do. do. do. 
A steel Roman Key, from Cirencester. 
Early-English Silver Key. 
A small Roman Bowl. 
A Patera. 

A Samian Fragment— potter's mark, ADVOCIS. 



38 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



Card of Roman Coins. 

Ancient British Coins ; from Bredon Hill. 

Of Valens ; from Evesham. 

Of Honorius. 

Henry 8th (crown). 

Quarter Noble (Edward III.) ; from battle field, Tewkesbury. 
Quarter Noble (Edward III.) ; from Chipping Norton. 
Quarter Guinea (George III. ) 

Iron— CASE I. 

By Mr. J. Moore, Bourton-on-the- Water. 

Two Knives ; from graves on W. bank of camp. 

Steel Sword Handle ; from E. do. 

Steel Knife, with bone handle. do. 

From Villa, Bourton Bridge — 
Three Knives. 
Head of Hammer. 
Two large Hasps. 

Spinning Machine, with spring for affixing to stand. 
Two Rowels of Spurs. 
Roman Horseshoe. 

Spring of Lock, and Key to the same. 
Large Roman Key ; small do. 
Calumistrum. 
Ring. 

Nails, Hinges, Tweezers, and portions of other implements unknown. 

Tin— 

Large Handle. 

CASE II. 

Deerhom — Scoop. 

Point, for marking pottery . 
Whorl. 

Pectinard Implement, of deer horn, for indenting pottery ; found 

a grave, 100 yds. N.W. of Bourton Church. 
Flint Arrow-head ; found under Foss Road Railway bridge. 
Head of Bronze Statue of Mars ; found at Chedworth. 
Bronze Ring for finger (stone lost) ; found at Lower Slaughter. 
Amber Bead do. 
Two Bronze Fibulte. 

Bronze Buckle ; found on site of Gas Works, Bourton. 
Mediceval — 

Thumb Screw (steel) ; site unknown — Bourton. 
Pair of Scissors. 



Temporary Museum. 



39 



Four Gold Rings — (1). may god above increase our love ; found at 

Bourton. (New Inclosure). 

(2) . no love so true as mine for you. do. 

(Bury fields). 

(3) . B true love is the bond of peace : found at Not 
v ' T.I 

grove. 

(4) . no frende to faith ; found at Upper Slaughter. 

4-' ' 

Two Bronze Signet Rings, inscribed S C, and 3 crescents ; found at 
Bourton. 

One do. do. IHS and cross within legend est amor 

meus. 

Two Bronze Bells ; found at Railway cutting, Bourton. 
Red Flint Flake ; from trench containing numerous skeletons, near 
Bourton Church. 

Bronze — 

Three Buckles ; from Villa, Bourton Bridge. 

Three Armillee. 

Two Rings. 

Three Ear-rings. 

Three Pairs of Tweezers. 

Seven Hair pins. 

One do. gilt. 

One Finger Ring, with symbol of Concord ; found at Bourton Camp. 
A Ligula. 

Four parts of Tweezers for removal of superfluous hairs, found at Villa, 

Bourton Bridge. 
A Stilus. 

A Lid of Box, 3x2 inches. 
Two Fibulse, with pins. 
Bronze Key 

A Narrow coil of sheet copper. 

Palm-branch, used at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Procession of 
Pilgrims. 

Silver — A Hairpin, 10 inches long. 
Ivory — Three Hairpins. 
Glaus — Eleven pieces of Plain Glass. 
Two do. embossed 

CASE III. 

Samian Ware. 

CASE IV. 
Samian and Richborough Ware. 



40 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



Potters' marks on Samian : — 

VICTOBINVS F QVINTI 
RIAV F BORILLO M 

SACERO M LVCINI OF 

MACERAII CALAVA F 

SAVNAI On raised medallion on outer surface. 

CASE V. 
Five Gold and Silver British Coins. 
Ten Silver Family Coins (Roman). 

Two-hundred-and-seven Imperial Coins (Roman), from Tiberius to 
Honorius. 

Thirty-five Gold and Silver Coins, from William the Conqueror to Anne 
(English). 

Specimens not Enclosed in Cases. 

Roman Ware, Flue Tiles, Flooring and Gutter Tiles, Six Necks of Vessels 

Cinerary Urn, specimens of Red, White, and Black Ware. 
Roofing Slates, Flooring Stones. 
Quern. 

Roman Sword, or Spear, found with 146 others in Bourton. Large Hone 

found near to them. 
Four Mediaeval Swords. 
One Battle Axe, emblazoned with gold. 
One Mediaeval Iron Helmet. 
A Dish (Toft ware), 1714. 
A Dish (Pretender). 

Rubbing of Brass, from Blockley Church. 

A Map, illustrating route of body of French soldiers which invaded 

Pembrokeshire in 1797. 
Ancient Coloured Engraving of Queen Anne. 
By Mr. J. Rushton — 

Two Antique Iron Candlesticks. 
A pair of Mediaeval Steel Spurs. 
Antique Steel Cross-bow. 
By Rev. W. Wiggin— 

A splendid Pedigree of the Rice (Dynevor) family — represented by the 
President. 
Mr. C. F. Davis, Painswick. 

A large contribution of Brasses, from Campden, Cirencester, Northleach, 
Fairford, and other churches, which shewed to great effect on the walls 
of the grand room in St. Edward's Hall. 

By the Rev. D. Royce— 

Ancient Deeds. 

2 Edw. III. A grant of John Midelwynter to Will, le Rag, of a messuage in 
Stow St. Edwards, next the Fosse. The line of buildings there is 
called Rag's Row, to this day. 



i 



Temporary Museum. 



41 



21 Edw. III. A grant of Thomas le Trillowe and Will, de Brokende, 
capellane, to John le Rag and Isabella his wife, of a messuage in Stow 
St. Edwards, in which Senchia daughter of John had enfeoffed 
Thomas, &c. 

22 Edw. III. John de Sloughtre quitclaims to Robt. le Waryner, of 
Nether Sloughtre, capellane, all his right in lands which he had from 
the demise of John Large, capellane thene. 

39 Edw. III. Grant of a tenement in Stow St. Edwards, from Richard 
Rag to John Herbard, capelane. 

1 Hen. IV. Grant from Will, and Thos. Lysanne, of Wyke, near Rysing- 
ton, of messuage and land in Wyke, to Henry Donne. 

2 Edw. IV. Grant from John Peret, of Nether Slaughter, of a tenement 
called Kyngton, to Rich, and Thos. Mynchin, Robert Spencer, Thos. 
Tomnys & others, which tenement he had of a gift from John and Joan 
Swetenote — to the honour of the B. Virgin and S. Laurence. 

18 Edw. IV. Manumission by Will, the Abbot of Evesham, of Will, son 
of Thos. Rag, a " native " of the Manor of Malgaresbury, near Stow. 

19 Edw. IV. Grant from John Deye and Agnes his wife, to Thos. Mynchin, 
of Wyke, of lands & tenements in Nether Sloughter, acquired from Rich. 
Jelyff, of Stow St. Edwards. 

21 Edw. IV. John Deye, of Wyke, to Thos. Mynchin, of Wyke, of a 
messuage called Larges, in Nether Sloughtre. 

2 Hen. VIII. Thos. Kenche, of Wyke Resyndon, to Will. Minchin of the 
same, of an acre of land in Vytockysham (Fittoxham). 

3 Hen. VII. Feoffment of Will. Martyn to John Sandford, clerk, and 
other honest men of Seynt Edwardes Stow, of 25 messuages with 36 
gardens in S. Olaves, Southwark. — Will. Chester's endowment of a 
chantry in Stow in Cotteswold, &c. — after a recovery against Joan wife 
of Thos. Bullisden, daughter of Richard Chester, son of William. 

8 Hen. VIII. Ralph Sandford, John Wynsford, of Stow, to Thos. Decon, 
Rector of Stow, Symon Mylborne, Gylberd Slaughter, Arthur Sandford, 
and others, grant of the above messuage, &c. 
23 Eliz. Theophilus and Robt. Adams, of London, sell the endowment of 
the Chantry in Stow, in Cotteswolde, to Richard Shepham, merchant- 
tailor, of London. 

CASE II. 

A very large collection of Flints, mounted, consisting of a fine javelin, 
arrow-heads, tanged and barbed, leaf-shaped and triangular ; cores, 
scrapers, knives and needles used in making wicker-work. 
CASE III. 

Armilla, Pruning Knife, Iron Head ; from Roman building, above Abbots- 
wood. 

Prick Spur, Javelin Head (iron), Pruning Knife, part of Saxon Fibula, 

part of Bronze Tweezers ; from Church Field, Nether Swell. 
Whorl and Armlet ; from Kineton Quarry. 
Whorl and Bone Pins ; from Copse Hill. 

Two Roman Knives ; from foot of Copse Hill, near Lower Slaughter. 
Arrow-head (iron) ; from Wyck Risington Churchyard. • 



42 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



CASE IV. 

Saxon Spear and Long Knife ; from Hayle Knap, Upper Swell. 
Saxon Bronze Buckle ; from barrow near Hayle Knap. 
Stone Amulet ; from Swell Hill. 
Amber Ring ; from Lower Slaughter Quarry. 

Saxon Spear-head (long) and Buckle ; first quarry, on Moreton Road, from 
Stow. 

CASE V. 

. Collection of Roman Pottery, mentioned in "Finds." 
Seal of Sir John Blaket (found in a Blacksmith's Box at Deddington. 
Arms : a chevron between three trefoils fitchie), and of Gilbert de Blondiel 
(found at Gaucombe). 




Remains of Priests' Chalices ; from Notgrove and Bourton Churches. 
Gypciere Handle — Swell Bowl. 

Political Tobacco-stopper. The handle the size of half-a-crown, having, 
on the one side, a Cardinal's head ; reversed, a buffoon's, with legend, 
" Sapientes aliquands, stulti ;" on the other side, the Pope, with triple 
crown; reversed, Satan. Legend: " Ecclesia perversa tenet faciem 
diaboli ;" found Bourton- way. 

Large Iron Key and Bronze Fibulae ; found at Dorn Camp. 

Roman Horseshoes ; found at Copse Hill. 

Roman Nails — coffin, and of soldiers' boots ; found at Kineton Quarry. 

Not in Cases — 
British Vessel (black clay) ; found at Copse Hill. 

Urn, red, Roman, full of small bones and ashes ; found at Kineton Quarry. 
Urn, red ; found in Nether Swell Churchyard. 

Series of Diagrams of Barrows at Hayle Knap, Swellwold, Eyford, West- 
field. 

Halberds — one from Icomb Place. 

Fine Green Celt ; found at Copse Hill. 

Hammer, made from stag's horn ; found at Copse Hill. 
By Rev. M. M. Lamb— 

Map of Gloucestershire, last century, with the chief houses and their 
owners' names. 
By Mr. Medland— 

Drawing of the Market Cross ; as lately restored by him. 
By Mr. Waller — 

Ground Plan and Drawings of Icomb Place. 



Temporary Museum. 



43 



By Rev, K. Jennings — 

A fine, long Pedigree of the Somers family . 
Rev. R. W. Hippisley— 

Silver Coim— obv; : , Aureliaims Aug. — rev. Jovi Conser. Exergue, pec. 
Rev. J. W, Sharpe and Mr. Dyer, North leach — 

The Northleach Court-book. 
Mr. Upton, Stow-ori-the-Wold — 7. 

190 specimens of Foreign Produce from every quarter of the world, well- 
arranged in a cabinet — For Sale. 
By Mr. Blackman— 

A Case contalnlnrj — 

Nubian Basket. 

Pilgrim's Staff, from the Jordan! : 
Ornaments, from the Tombs of the Kings of Thebes. 
Shells and Stones, from the Sea of Galilee. 
Coffee Cups, from Damascus. 

Nubian Woman's Nose-ring, Armlets, and Necklace, Scarabaei, from 
Egypt. 

Cones, from Cedars of Lebanon. 
Fir Cones, from Mount Carmel. 
Fragment of Pillar, from Temple, Baalbec. 
Olive Branches, from Mount of Olives. 
By Mr. John Badger — 

African Chief's Hat and Gown. 



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53 43 



Church of St. Mary. 



45 



THE CHURCH OF ST, MARY, NETHER SWELL. 

By the Rev. DAVID ROYCE, M.A., Vicar. 

On the late welcome visit of the Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Archaeological Society to this church, a few minutes only could be 
awarded for its inspection. Points to occupy the time and attention 
of the ecclesiologist were necessarily few where the original fabric 
was so small. Nevertheless, this little church contains work, 
which, if not unique, is very rare. It thus contributes an inter- 
esting and important complement to the detail furnished by the 
larger edifices examined on this occasion. 

The origin of the building, like that of most of our time- 
honoured fanes, is veiled in obscurity, and can only be matter for 
surmise. 

In the Domesday Survey, Ralph de Todeni and William de 
Ow held Swell. The whole, afterwards, became part of the revived 
Honour of Gloucester. As such, it may, possibly, have become 
parcel of the re- endowment of Tewkesbury Abbey. Drogo, filius 
Puntii, or Eitz-Pons, was sub-feudatory. From his brother Osborn 
(Transactions of this Society Vol. IV. p. 165.) the family of Pointz is 
said to descend. This family appears to have inherited this place 
for several generations. Simon Eitz Poinz granted to the church 
of Tewkesbury, in the time of Simon, Bishop of Worcester (1105- 
1150), in perpetual alms, the tithes of the whole of the lord- 
ship of Swell. Erom this family, indeed, the village acquired, 
once, the distinguishing appellation Swell-Poinz. The above 
stated facts suggest two origins of the earlier church. In return, 
it may be, for the liberality, possibly, of Eitz-Hamon or of Eitz 
Pointz, the abbey of Tewkesbury felt constrained to provide 
a church here. The other conjecture is, that Simon Eitz Poinz 
himself was concerned in erecting the older portion of the present 



46 



Transactions at Stow-ox-the-Woljd 



fabric, temp. Henry I., circa a.d. U00. 1 This latter theory s 
in some degree, sanctioned by the recorded fact that Nicholas 
Pnnis, or Pointz, afterwards gave to Nutleigh Abbey his chapel of 
Swell with all the appurtenances and liberties, 2 whilst Hugh, his 
son confirms to that abbey what his father Nicholas had granted. 

The fabric itself consisted of chancel, 15 ft. by 14 ft. ; nave, 30 ft. 

by 19 ft. ; and south porch. Small as it was, it would be more 

than adequate to the sparse population here, in the 12th century. 

The church thus given was granted to Nutleigh by William, 

Bishop of Worcester. 

1 Carta Simonis filii Poinz concedentis ecclesise de Theok. tempore 
Simonis Wigorniensis Episcopi, in perpetuam eleemosynani decimam totius 
Dominii sui de Suella, tarn de Aldebiz, quam de alio Dominico. Et ne aliqua 
in posterum oriretur controversia inter preedictam ecelesiam de Theok. et 
capellam de Suelle dedit eidem Capellse in perpetunm unam virgatam terra?, 
prseter illas duas virgatas quas prius habebat. 

2 William, Bishop of Worcester, with the assent of the whole Chapter, 
grants to Nutleigh Abbey " duas partes decimarum garbarum totius villate 
"de Suelle, cum antiquo manso eiusdem ecclesias in usus proprios conver- 
" tendas. Itaque prsenominati Abbas et Canonici immunes a prsestacione 
" decimarum de dominio suo tarn de garbis quam de minoribus-totum antem 
"residuum, quod ad prsefatam ecelesiam procedit in usum vicarii qui pro 
"tempore ibidem ministrabit qui etiam omnia onera episcopalia sustine- 
"bit." 

The said grant was exemplified by Wolstan, Bishop of Worcester, 6th 
March, 1342, — Christ Church Evidences. 

In a terrier of the early part of the 17th century, the following state- 
ment (some four centuries after) explains the foregoing grant : — 

" The parson hath but two parts of the Tythe Corn, in three parts to be 
" divided, of the tenements only, excepting certain lands out of the tenements 
" which pay tithe to Mr. Carter (then lord of the manor) only ; and the 
"vicar hath the third part of com of all the tenements, except the certain 
" lands out of the tenements which pay tithe to Mr. Carter only." 

Another document connects Tewkesbury and Nicholas Poyntz with the 
parish. In an Inquisitio ad quod damnum, taken at Swell, 23th Edw. I. 
(1300), Richard, E. of Cornwall, is said to have had a pasture of 140 acres in 
exchange from the abbot of Tewkesbury, and from Nicholas Poyntz, deceased, 
which Richard imparked (1254) to give to Hayles, and which his son Edmund 
would give to the abbey. " In another Inquisition (33 Edw. L), Ricardus 
quondam Comes Cornubie villain de Netherswell perquisivit " elsewhere, 1 
'* manerium, dedit postea Abbati de Hayles," Yet, 8th Edward II., in an 
Inquisition at Tewkesbury, Hugo le Pointz held of Gilbert de Clare, six 
knights' fees in Tokynton and Suelle, and of Hugh de Audele the same fees, 
21st Edw. III. 

1 The Hundred KoIIs, 



Church of St. Mary. 



47 



Even after the lapse of four centuries and more, there was ample 
room in the Norman building. In a Diocesan return to the Privy- 
Council between 1563-5, Richard Yonge is vicar, resident, and 
the number of households, fourteen — whereas, now, there are more 
than six times that number. 

The most striking features of Norman design and construction 
are the South doorway, the chancel arch, and a small window in 
the South chancel wall. 

The South Doorway is, in outline, lofty, and, in its degree, 
imposing. It consists of two orders resting on cushioned caps — the 
inner, with double cable ; the outer, with roll on edge. The drip is of 
two rolls and an outer fillet. The singular tympanum is composed 
of ten stones, wedged together so skilfully, as, at first sight, to pass 
for one block. By some sudden emergency, the chisel of the 
sculptor was, apparently, stayed. The subject, little more than 
roughed out, is a rude branching plant, representing a lily. This 
interpretation of it is confirmed by the fleur-de-lis on the top 
of the central stem. A dove, on the right side, is billing a lobe, 
or bud, on a side spray. The device is probably intended to 
symbolize the Conception. The church is dedicated to the Blessed 
Virgin Mary. Over this emblem are a few escalloped sinkings, 
specimens of the contemplated ground ornamentation. One 
laments the interruption. Nevertheless, additional interest is 
hereby given to this doorway. This unfinished sculpture will 
not fail to exercise the intelligent spectator, and to supply an 
item for the ecclesiologist's note-book. Much more, however, will 
this be the case with 

The Chancel Arch. This is of three* orders, set on the usual 
shallow abacus, resting on cushioned caps and shafts on rudely 
moulded bases. The inner order is quite plain. The middle one 
has a roll on the edge. The third is enriched with diaper, fleur-de- 
lis, knot, pellet and star-pattern on the several voussoirs. Above 
all, projecting and supported by a double cable, flush with the 
plaster, is a remarkable band of twenty-six stones. On eighteen of 
these, in sunk squares, are carved, in symbolic medallions, the 
first chapters, in brief, of the Sacred History of mankind. This 



48 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



hieroglyph, from left to right, seems to read thus : — two apples, one 
larger than the other, on separate stones, encompassed, for the 
most part, by a double arched raised band — then three rings 
enlinked (emblems, perhaps, of the Ever-Blessed Trinity) — then, 
the above-mentioned fruit on one stone, unprotected — then a coiled 
serpent — a crouching hare or rabbit — a man (seated or supine 1) 
the salamander and three fish (the emblems of baptism) — on the 
central stone, a man (defaced by iconoclastic axe), approached, 
on the right side of the arch, by a line of creatures — a bird, 
hanging from a bough — kneeling or crouching figures of stag, dog, 
cat, lion, &c. This side of the arch, it may be, represents the 
dominion of man over creation — Ps. viii., 6, or its homage, Phil. 
ii., 10. On the left capitals are — a man with outstretched arms, 
grasping the serpent by the neck and tail (dominant over evil) — 
a woman holding the serpent to her breast (fostering evil) — and on 
the inner side of the inner cap, a man, lying along with apron of 
three leaves hanging by a cord from his neck, with the serpent 
under foot (fallen yet superior to evil). On the right caps (broken 
away by a later screen) nothing is left but the claw and the tail of 
the dove. 

Upper Swell and Conclicote have small Norman churches such 
as this was. The chancel arch of Upper Swell has the ordinary 
zig-zag. Condicote has some star-like and pellet ornament. Neither 
has anything analogous to this arch. An original mind, fraught 
with distinctive dogmatic truth, designed what an original hand 
executed — both combined to set before the unlettered church-goer 
of the 12th century the first principles of his Faith. Such is 
the interpretation offered by the writer of this account. Never- 
theless, the Society will have done good service by its visit, if 
it can suggest a different exposition supported by analogous 
example. 

Above the arch, now concealed by plaster, on a block of stone, 
about 3 ft. square, is a once small^Norman Rood, sadly shattered 
by the hand of the destroyer. The rood itself is demolished and 
the stone is cleft. Two small rude figures standing on either side, 
represent S. Mary and S. John. 



PLATE HI 




Church of Nether Swell. 



49 



Here it may be mentioned that in the south wall of the nave, 
Perpendicular doorways into and out of the Rood-stair (once in a 
thickness of the wall) remain. A Norman recessed arch was found 
at the back of the lower doorway, and is there still, walled up. 

The shafts on the inner angles of the splays of the south 
chancel window are noticeable, with their bases, the one cabled 
and the other striped. The volute on the capital exhibits the 
foliage of that member in its first stage. The Norman window 
opposite to this in the north wall, removed on adding the new 
chancel, was of the same size as that in the south, but totally 
destitute of ornament. 

Under the east window there is a small original Norman 
hollow-chamfered bracket, .with the mortice for a crucifix, a little 
on one side, as if to give room for the figure of the Virgin. 

A low-side window, plain and oblong, with wooden lintel, was 
discovered in 1852. The sill, flat and as wide as the wall is thick. 

The inserted east window, small, square, of two lights (having 
La Yierge a la Chaise, and the Christ Church arms, in coloured 
glass: and below, Johannes Perkins, Vicarius, mdcccxli.) The 
Ptood-loft doorways, the square south window of the nave, of four 
lights, with the late bi-cusped lobe in the tracery, the three-light 
pointed west window, the porch, and the font, are late Perpen- 
dicular. The font, octagonal, has the lily-flower and leaf in 
quatrefoiled panels and S. Andrew's saltire on four shields under 
the bowl. It has suffered from a re-facing in order to remove the 
injuries sustained during a temporary exclusion from its proper 
place. Then " Gothic " was misinterpreted " rude," and through 
this prevailing delusion fonts were misapplied to secular use, and, 
as was this, to garden-ornament. 

The North side of the former nave was a blank wall, excepting 

a square-headed transomed window, blocked up, but once lighting 

the Atkyns' pew in the North-east corner of the nave. The doable 

chamfered string in the west wall, outside, ran all along this north 

side. Corbels (with a roll on one and a hollow chamfer on another, 

alternately) supported the eaves. Two courses down, ran a 

band of zig-zag work, one piece of which, with a corbel, exists in 
Vol. VII., part 1. e 



50 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



the south wall, outside, above the porch. This disturbance of the 
zig-zag, and the ashlar coating of nave and chancel (excepting 
where the rood-stair was removed) indicate a restoration or re- 
casing of the church, somewhat early, perhaps by a later member 
of the Poyntz family. In this north wall was a plain square 
door ; the lintel proved to be a carded stone, broken and battered, 
yet retaining a very early flowing pattern below, with traces 
of imbrication above, in pattern not unlike a fragment figured 
in the Archaeological Journal, Vol. III., p. 258, fig. 4. The 
knotted cross in the north wall, inside, and the fragment in the 
south wall, were found near the base of the present central pier. 
The latter may represent S. Michael, although the head of the 
spear does not appear, or it may symbolize — Ps. xci., 13 — 
" Conculcabis draconem." A roll on the arris of the knotted 
stone suggests that these stones may once have enriched the first 
chancel window. 

The latest additions to the church were rendered necessary for 
the increased population and for more convenient and seemly 
worship. 

The nave of the old church had been monopolized by a few 
high pews, pulpit, reading, and clerk's pew leading to the expul- 
sion of the font. Hence the erection of a gallery which ran along 
the north wall from the west window, and concealed a portion of 
the chancel arch. 

In 1852, by the effectual aid of Mr. J. Sewell, of Cirencester, 
the present nave was added, and by the generosity of Mr. Sartoris, 
owner of Abbotswood, the spacious chancel (1870). The church 
awaits the erection of a tower in the angle made by the new nave 
overlappping the old. Thus the close of the nineteenth century 
would complete what the close of the eleventh, or the dawn of the 
twelfth, century began. 

The glass in the north nave windows was inserted in this order : — 
first, " The Good Shepherd," in the central lancet, contempor- 
aneously with the laying of the foundation of Abbotswood (Aug. 
23rd, 1866); second, "The Light of the World," a memorial to 
Rev. H. Hayton ; third, " The Sower of the Word," (April 22nd, 



Church of Nether Swell. 



51 



1868). In the east chancel triplet " The Crucifixion," (Aug. 11th, 
1874); in the south-west lancet, "The Agony and Betrayal" 
(Christmas, 1878), gifts of Mr. and the Hon. Mrs. Sartoris. The 
organ is due to the efforts of Mrs. Royce (July 14th, 1872). 
These may be considered modern churcji notes. Time, however, 
rolls on apace. The instant and the present will become the 
distant past. To-day's familiar facts will be to future ages what 
the merest scrap of earlier record would (if preserved) have been 
to us. The Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society has, 
happily, become the Chronicler. 

As a complement to the foregoing account of the church, is 
appended a list of some of those who have, for the last six centuries, 
served in sacred things within the walls. 

1282, John Alweston, presbyter fateor me teneri nomine vicarie 
de Swelle Inf eriori ad solucionem et satisfacionem omnium onerum 
ordinariorum et singulorum necnon ad librorum et ornamentorum 
sustentacionem in ecclesia prsenominata quamdiu contigerit me 
moram tenere ibi; and moreover promises faithfulness and obedience 
to the Abbot and Canons of Nutleigh, Bector of the aforesaid church 
of Swelle, nec aliquo tempore facto vel verbo porcionum vicarie in 
ecclesia memorata augmentacionem in prejudicium dictorum 
Religiosorum et gravamen procurabo. 1 

12 Kal., Sept., 1282. Apud Weston sub Egge ad presenta- 
tionem p'dni Reg. admissus Bicardus de Stethe Capellanus ad 
ecclesiam de Suella et institut sitr in eadem. /. 146 Godfrey 
Giffard. Next to this : — 

9 Cal., Sept., 1282. John de Alescote was admitted to the 
vicarage on condition that if William, son of Walter person de 
Stow, formerly vicar, wished to return, he should resign it into 
the hands of the bishop ; to which he is bound by oath, in the 
presence of Masters W. de Pikerel (Chancellor of Oxford, 1284), 
S. de Balynden, B. de Wycheo. / 146. Godfrey Giffard. 

1 The above bond, which each vicar in turn accepted, is from the Christ 
Church evidences. Walter, son of Walter Tinctor de Stow, Clerke, acknow- 
ledges the charity of Nutleigh in presenting him, and swears faithfulness to 
them in all things, and binds himself not to trouble them for augmentation 
to his vicarage. — (Ch. Ch. ) 
E 2 



52 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



7. Id. April, 1292. Walter (Tinctor Ch. Oh.) de Stow, cleric, 
was admitted at Blockley, at the presentation of the Abbot, &c. 
of Noteleye, but not instituted, " quia non fuit tunc infra sacros 
ordines constitutos." / Godfrey Giffard. 

30 May, 1340. Roger de Colecote pEr, admitted at Codrynton, 
on the death of Walter de Stowe, at the presentation of the 
Abbot, &c. of Nottele. f. 38. Wolstan de Braunsford. 

.... 1340. John Crowe, Rector of the chapel of Arlee dio. 
Sarum, exchanged with Roger Colecote. 

10 Jan., 1348. John de Wytchurche, admitted, at the presenta- 
tion of the Abbot, &c, of JSTotteley. f. 118. Wolstan de 
Braunsford. 

6 April, 1368. — Richard Wodeford, pfir., admitted at the 
presentation of brother John, Abbot, &c, of Nottelee. 

f. 24. Wittleseye. 

12 April, 1403. William Hall, pftr. in the Palace, Worcester, 
was admitted on the resignation of Richard Woodford, at the 
presentation of the Abbot, &c, of Nottelee. 

Unknown. Walter Rose. 

15' April, 1411. William Spicer, 1 deacon, admitted on the 
death of Walter Rose, last vicar ; collated by Bishop Peverell, at 
his Manor of Withyndon. fo. 33 Peverel. 

1 March, 1430. Thomas Trewpenny, capellanus, admitted to 
the perpetual vicarage of the church of Netherswell, at the presen- 
tation of the Abbot, &c, Nottelee. fo. 87 Pulton. 

27 June, 1435. John Jakes, capellanus, admitted to the perpet. 
vie. of Netherswell, at presentation of the Abbot, &c, of Nottelee. 

fo. 2. Bourchier. 

27 June, 1442. William Egynton, capellanus, admitted, in 
Hertilbury Castle, at the presentation of the Abbot, &c, of 
Notteleye. f. 81 Bourchier. 

Unknown. Henry Pantrye. He resigned Stow, 20 April, 
1472. 

1 William Spicor, vicar, makes same acknowledgment as John Alwes- 
ton did (Ch. Ch.) 



i 



Church of Nether Swell. 53 



1 March, 1457. William Boswell, admitted — Henry Pantrye, 
last vicar, having vacated — at the presentation of the Abbot, &c, 
of Nottely. "Walter Budde, rector of Stow, acted as his Proctor. 

fo. 144. Carpenter. 

13 January, 1486. John Avys, capellanus, admitted (by 
Robert Cuckbarowe acting for Rob. Mbreton, Bishop-elect), on 
the death of William Boswell, at the presentation of the Abbot 
of Notteley. fo. 2. Moreton. 

Unknown. Robert Colman. 

24 July, 1512. Dominus Johannes Chalver, pbr, admitted 
"per privacionem (sic) magistri Robti Colman ultimi vicarii," at the 
presentation of the Abbot, &c, of Notleye. fo. 83. Gyglis. 

13 January, 1528. Edward Borstall of the monastery of Not- 
leye, conf rater, pbr., on the death of John Chalver, the last presen- 
tation per venerabiles et religiosos viros, Abbatem et Conventum 
beatse Marie Yirginis et Sancti Johannis Baptiste de Notleye, 
ordinis Sci Augustini veros patronos. fo. 37. Jerome Ghiucci. 

, . . , 1534. Edward Machyn, Bigland's Gloucestershire, part 4. 

May 23, 1554. Thomas Hanckes, per [legi] tumam privacionem 
ulti vicarii. Ch. Ch. evidences. 

20 July, 1554. Richard Beche, elk., admitted, pres. by the 
the Dean and Chapter of Ch. veros et indubilatos patronos. 

Institution Bk. vol. J., p. 43. 
1558. John Webster, Bigland's Glouc, part 4. 

I April, 1560. . Richard Yonge, admitted — "by death" — pres. 
7 March, by the above. Abstract, p. 17. 

9 Aug., 1566. Robert Wyndeley, admitted, pres. by the 
above. Pleno jure, Id. p. 21. 

26 Febr., 156-f . John Feaser, (Fraser, Bigland) adm., pres. 
by the above. Id. p. 21. 

13 March, 1573. John Foyser's (sic) resignation and repeal 
thereof. Id. p. 28. 

II July, 1593. John Wright, adm., pres. as above. 

Ins tit, vol. 96. Abstr. p. 44.. 



54 Transactions at Stow-on-the- Wold. 

9 

2 Jan., Wednesday, 159 J. Samuel Burton, M.A., adm., pres. 
by the above, on the resignation of John Wright, 15 Dec., 1593. 

Instit. vol. 2, p. 98. Abstr. p. 45. 

7 Aug., Wedn., 1597. William Busteed, M.A., 1 elk., per. 
lapsum temporis presentatus per Heginam d'nam n'ram veram, ut 
asserebatur, in hac vice, patronam. Instit. vol. 2, p. 3. 

12 Septr., 1642. Thomas Wilde, 2 adm—" by death"— pres. by 
the Dean and Chap, of Ch. Oh. Instit. vol. 3, p. 57. Abstr. p. 78. 
Jan. 15, 1642. Rowland Wilde, per cessionem Thomse, Wilde. 

Ch. Ch., Evidences. 

July 25, 1673. Benjamin Callow, 3 adm. on the death of 
Rowland Wilde, per Dec. et Capit. Ecctie Cathedralis X^i ex 
fundacione Regis Henrici Octavi veros et indubitat patronos. 

Instit. vol. 3, p. 85. Abstr. p., 95. 

25 March. Richard Bliss, A.B., adm. on Benj. Callow's death, 
pres. by the above. Abstr. p. 130. Book of Subscriptions, p. 58. 

June 10, 1743. James Martin, pres. by the above. 

Ch. Ch. Evidences. 

Mar. 1, 1745. Henry Brown, 4 on the resignation of James 
Martin, pres. by the above. Ch.Ch. Evidences. 

May 25, 1795. Charles Sandby, on the death of Henry 
Brown. Ch. Ch. Eyid. 

21 Dec, 1832. John Perkins, on the death of Charles Sandby, 
adm., pres. by the Dean and Chap, of Ch. Ch., Nov. 14. 

1 9 Septr., 1614. William Busteed became also Rector of Stow-on- 
the-Wold, pres. by King James, pro hac vice. Abstr. p. 38. 

2 8 Aug., 1642. Rowland Wilde became also Rector of Stow, pres. by 
Sam. Fell, D.D., Dean of Christ Church, pro hac vice. 

3 Benj. Callow was likewise Rector of Stow, 17 July, 1673, pres. by 
Hugh Naish, Clerk, pleno jure, on Roland Wylde's death. Abstr. p. 94. 
On his neglect of a monition to reside at Nether Swell and find a resident 
curate at Stow, " which is a large market town," the glebe land and tithes 
of Maugersbury were sequestrated — to pay the curate £30 at least, yearly, to 
repair the parsonage house and pay the King's taxes. 

4 He was likewise Rector of Upper Swell. A tablet to his memory 
is in the chancel of Upper Swell. 



Church of Nether Swell. 



55 



Aug. 19, 1850. David Royce, adm., on the death of John 
Perkins, presented by the Dean and Chapter of Christ Church. 

The earliest Register of the Parish extant begins in 1678. In 
the first book (injured by fire) are six entries made by Sir Robert 
Atkyns the elder, lord of the manor, residing here. Of these the 
last is of his grandchild, Ferdinando Tracy, entered by Sir Robert, 
in the 87th year of his age. 

The first is, the baptism of Robert, the son of Anne Dacres, a second 
wife, and thus half-brother to his son Robert, the historian of the County — 
which second Robert lived only to the March following. A second entry is 
as follows : — Ann Atkyns, y e daughter of S r Robert | Atkyns, Knight of y° 
Bath by Dame j Atkyns, his wife was married to | John Tracy of Stanway, 
in this | county of Gloucester, Esq., on Monday | y e seventh day of August 
in ye year | of our Lord Christ one thousand | six hundred and ninety and 
nine in y e | Church of Lower Swell by M r Callow, | y e vicar of y e said 
Church who had | christened y e said Anne in y e same | church, y e eighth 
of | November, in y e year 1683. Written by y e said Robert Atkyns. 

being in y e 79 th year 

of his age without 

Spectacles — Blessed 

bee God. 



56 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



OLD BELLS IN GLOUCESTERSHIRE BELFRIES 
By the Rev. F. E. BROOME WITTS. 

Read at Stow-on-the-Wold, 25th July, 1882. 

Into the antiquity and history of bells in general I do not propose 
to enter. Old Church bells — more especially those found in the 
belfries of this county — are the subject of the present paper. 

All enquirers as to whether bells were adopted into the 
Christian church from heathen temples, or whether they are the 
legitimate offspring of the church itself, are referred to the stan- 
dard works on bells, especially those of that able writer, the Rev. 
H. T. Ellacombe. 

In passing, let me acknowledge how deeply indebted I am to 
that venerable gentleman for most of the matter contained in these 
pages. Were it not for the kind permission that nonagenarian 
author has given me to make full use of his lately published book 
on "The Church Bells of Gloucestershire," I should not have 
ventured to write one word on my present subject. 1 His most 
interesting book — a work that should find a place on the shelves 
of all archaeologists in the county — is my authority for most of 
what I shall now say. 

There seems to be but little in common between the bells that 
have for many centuries occupied the belfries of this and other 
lands, and the bells mentioned in scripture and the classics. The 

1 The Society also is greatly indebted to Mr. Ellacombe for his liberal and 
special courtesy in lending a large number of the engraved wood blocks, 
prepared at a considerable expense for his exhaustive and valuable work on 
" The Church Bells of Gloucestershire," for the illustration of Mr. Witts' 
paper, and for many other similar acts of kindness. — Ed. 



Old Bells in Gloucestershire Belfries. 



57 



last mentioned bells were called, in Latin, Tintinnabula, a word 
derived from the sound, in the same way as the word Ting-tang, 
still in use in our villages for the sanctus, or parson's bell, is 
derived from the sound that bell is supposed to give forth. Such 
bells would probably rather correspond to the horse, cow, and 
sheep bells of the present day than to anything else of the kind. 

The best authorities tell us that bells of the class now known 
as church bells first came into use about the 7th century. To 
quote the words of Mr. Amherst-Tyssen, in his paper on the 
Church Bells of Sussex : " The Latin words for bell are Kola and 
Campana, they are not classical, but mediaeval words. Being new 
words, they show that some new thing was introduced, of which 
they were the names, and they point to the town of Nola, in 
Campania, as its birth place. There were also extensive copper 
mines in the neighbourhood of that town. Again, an anecdote is 
related, showing that bells were used in the west of Europe in 
the beginning of the 7th century, and that they were then a 
novelty. For it is said that " Clothaire II. laid siege to the town 
of Sens, in Burgundy, whereupon the citizens rang their bells, 
and frightened away the besiegers, who had never heard the sound 
before." 

But whenever or wherever these bells were first made, there 
is no doubt but that they were in use amongst Christians at the 
beginning of the 7th century, and they were probably introduced 
into England soon after its conversion to Christianity. Once 
introduced into this country, they were, without doubt, soon 
made here, as there are parts of our land in which the requisite 
metals, — copper and tin, — are found in abundance. 

That large bells existed here at the time of the Norman Con- 
quest, the size and strength of the towers built to contain them, 
and the mention of the curfew, is a sufficient proof; and it may be 
safely asserted that at that period, and in the succeeding three or 
four centuries, great numbers were in general use in this country. 

Now it is a circumstance to be exceedingly regretted by archae- 
ologists, to whom the older bells alone are, I presume, interesting, 



58 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



that so few of the bells that undoubtedly occupied our belfries in 
these early times are still found there. 

The comparative rarity of these older bells is not sufficiently 
accounted for by the losses occasioned by accidents that may have 
occurred to the belfries, nor by the wear and tear of the bells 
themselves, nor yet by the re-modelling of old rings to accommodate 
them to the new fashion of change-ringing. That rarity is chiefly 
caused by the spoliation which took place about the 1 6th century. 

Bells were sometimes removed to be cast into cannon, either at 
home or abroad. (The exportation of bell metal for that purpose 
was prohibited in 1547). At other times they were taken down 
to pay a king's debts, — even his gambling debts, as we learn from 
Weever, who tells us that " in St. Paul's churchyard there was a 
bell-house with four bells, the greatest in London. They were 
called Jesus bells, and belonged to Jesus chapel. The same had a 
great spire of timber, covered with lead, with the image of St. 
Paul on the top, which was pulled down by Sir Giles Partridge, 
knight. He won it at dice from Henry VIII., and then caused 
the bells to be broken as they hung, and the rest pulled down." 
Spelman, in his history and fate of sacrilege, tells us that the 
sum Partridge staked against the bells was <£100. But he goes 
on to say " in the 5th year of Edward VI. this gamester had 
worse fortune when he lost his life, being executed on Tower Hill 
for matters concerning the Duke of Somerset." 

Weever tells us bells were sometimes removed by private in- 
dividuals out of covetousness. From records still in existence we 
learn that such instances of covetousness were not unknown on 
the Cotswold Hills. John Brydges, Constable of the Tower, when 
Lady Jane Grey was executed and the Princess Elizabeth was taken 
there as a prisoner, was created Lord Chandos, and presented with 
the manor of Sudeley by Queen Mary. He was shortly afterwards 
called to account by the Commissioners for the goods of the late 
Monasteries for appropriating the bells of the neighbouring Abbey 
of Winchcombe. A letter of his is extant, in which he acknow- 
ledges having taken and sold them, but he goes on to say "he toke 
them to be his own, for that the Queue's highness had freely given 



i 



Old Bells in Gloucestershire Belfries. 



59 



me all things there as I toke it." He sold them for £42 of money, 
which sum he offered to return should it not be the Queen's plea- 
sure that her gift should include the bells. 

There is an entry in the Record of Church goods, showing that 
Lord Chandos did pay back that sum. 

We are enabled to trace one, if not two, of these Winchcombe 
Abbey bells, and discover what became of them after they were 
sold by Lord Chandos. These were not broken up to be cast into 
cannon, but were removed to Stoneleigh, in Warwickshire. 

On the treble bell there is inscribed, in lombardic capitals : 

" MICHAELE TE PULSANTE WYNCHELCOA1BAM A PETENTE DEMONE 

TU LIBRA." 

" Michael, when thou art struck, free Winchcombe from the 
seeking devil." 

This bell bears the arms of Richard Kyderminster, Abbot of 
Winchcombe, 1488-1531. There used to be another bell at Stone- 
leigh, dedicated to St. Kenelm, the patron saint of Winchcombe, 
which Mr. Ellacombe also claims as one of the original ring of 
eight at that Abbey. 

The pilfering of bells was not confined to the laity. A Welsh 
bishop, as well as a Cotswold lord, took part in it. Spelman tells 
us that " in the year of our Lord, 1541, Arthur JBulkeley, Bishop 
of Bangor, sacrilegiously sold the five fair bells belonging to his 
cathedral, and went to the sea-side to see them shipped away, but 
at that instant was stricken blind, and so continued until the day 
of his death." And we are not told that the bishop made any 
restitution, as did the lord. 

We know that curses used to be pronounced on sacrilege at 
the consecration of churches and abbeys. On one of the ancient 
bells of Malmesbury abbey, which have long since disappeared, 
was the following epigraph : " Elysiam Coeli nunquam conscendit 
ad aulam qui furat hanc nolam Aldelmi sede beati." 

" In heaven's blest mansion he ne'er sets his feet 
Who steals this bell from Aid elms sacred seat." 



60 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



It is, then, to the spoliation that was carried on in the 16th 
century that it is principally owing, that out of the bells at present 

existing in this county — and they number some 1500 or 1600 

only between 80 and 90 can be claimed as old bells. These are, 
for the most part, to be found in out-of-the-way places, where they 
would appear to have escaped notice. 

With the notable exceptions of the cathedral towers of Glou- 
cester and Bristol, old bells have disappeared from the most 
prominent belfries of our county. Taking this northern part of 
the county, it will be found that no bells of an earlier date than 
the 17th century exist at Cirencester, Northleach, Stow, Campden, 
Winchcomb, and Tewkesbury. The old bells that do exist usually 
bear a Latin legend of scripture character, a dedication to some 
angel, or saint, to the Saviour, or the Trinity. In the earlier 
bells, the name of the saint, or angel, stands alone, but in most 
cases the words : or A pro nobis, " Pray for us," are added. 
The legend is usually preceded by a cross, and the words are 
separated by stops. These crosses and stops are sometimes of an 
elaborate character. As no date, or founder's name, appears as a 
rule on old bells, it is only by the character of these letters, 
crosses, and stops, that the probable date of a bell can be deter- 
mined. 

In the immediate neighbourhood of Stow, there are only too 
belfries which contain old bells, the ancient tower of Upj)er 
Slaughter church, and the modern spire of the church at Lower 
Slaughter, which received the bells of the original church on its 
erection by the late Mr. Whitmore in 1869. 

The first bell at Ujiper Slaughter bears the following legend, 
in lombardic capitals : 

[5 1 ] SERVA [io] CAMPANA [l2] ROGO LAVRETI FORE Q SANAM. 

" I ask you, Laurence, to keep this bell sound." 

At the commencement a cross is stamped, and the stops between 
the words are formed by a king's and queen's head placed alter- 

1 The figures within the square brackets refer to the wood-cuts in Plates 
IV. to IX. inclusive. 



i 



Old Bells in Gloucestershire Beleries. 



61 



nately. These royal heads, as they are called, are supposed to be 
those of Edward L and Queen Eleanor. They are exceedingly 
rare ; only nine, I believe, have been found between Stow-on-the- 
Wold and the Land's End. Not a single one has been found in 
the three counties of Somerset, Devon and Cornwall ; all the nine 
are in Gloucestershire, five on the Cotsw^olds, at Upper Slaughter, 
Winstone, Dyrrham, and Coberley, where there are two, one in 
the vale at Boddington, near Cheltenham, and three in the 
Newent district at Huntley, and in the interesting old church of 
Kempley, where there are two. 

The second bell at Upper Slaughter, prior to its being re-cast 
in 1867, was a most interesting bell. The original legend has 
been preserved on the present bell, but the old lettering crosses 
and stops have been lost — a circumstance much to be regretted, as 
they might have thrown some light on the bell's history. The 
legend stood thus : 

DNS. THOMAS KINGHAM AD LAUDEM DEI FECIT ISTAM CAMPANAM. 

" Sir Thomas Kingham made this bell to the glory of God." 

If this means that he cast the bell, we have a rare instance of 
a mediaeval founder leaving his name on his bell. The third bell 
at Upper Slaughter bears the following legend : in lombardic 
capitals : 

[2] EIDANVS \ DICOR \ FACTORIBVS \ OMNIBVS j I. \ COR. \ 

These words long baffled the efforts of would-be translators ; 
eventually it was discovered that " I. Cor." stood for John Cor, 
the name of a founder of Aldbourne, in Wiltshire, who flourished 
at the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th centuries. He 
had doubtless become possessed of the mediaeval stamps of some 
earlier founder, and the lombardic lettering is thus accounted 
for. 

There are no other instances of bells dedicated to St. Aidan, 
or St. Lawrence, in Gloucestershire. 

At Lower Slaughter, the fifth bell bears the legend in lombardic 
capitals : 

^ SANCTA & [15] ANNA & [15] ORA ft [15] PRO NOBIS. 



62 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



The cross with which it commences is one peculiar to the 
County of Gloucester, and crowns, as distinct from crowned heads, 
form the stops. 

Other bells dedicated to St. Ann are found at Siddington, 
Tiberton, Alveston, Kingswood, in Bitton, and St. Thomas' (Bristol). 

The third bell, at Lower Slaughter, though not one of the older 
bells, is interesting as bearing the arms of Whitmore, fretty im- 
paling Weld (1683), a fess, wavy, between three crescents, with 
royal arms of Charles II. 

Shields bearing arms of private individuals are also found at 
Campden on a bell bearing the following inscription : 

" CAPTAIN THOMAS KEYTE GAVE MEE LEDAR OF THIS RING 
TO BE . . . 1683." [J 

Capt. Keyte's arms are a chevron between two kites' heads 
erased. 

At Kempsford we find Thynne : barry of ten, impaling. Coven- 
try: a fess ermine between three crescents. 

At Hill, several shields with the arms of Fust. On a Chevron 
between three woodbills, paleioays, three mullets pierced. 

At Gloucester Cathedral the arms of Gloucester abbey are : a 
sword in pale, point downwards, surmounted by two keys in saltire 
{fig. 1). The shield of the founder on the shoulder (fig. Jf). 

At Bristol Cathedral the treble has the arms of J ohn ISTewland, 
or Nailhead, Abbot of St. Augustine, who died in 1515 : a heart 
pierced by three nails and gidtec, betw. the initials I. N. 

In the vicinity of Northleach old bells are found at Farmington, 
Sherborne, Aldsworth, Compton Abdale, Turkdean, Rendcombe, and 
Notgrove. 

At Farmington, the bell is dedicated to St. Nicholas, 1 as is also 
one at Oxenhall, near Newent. 

At Sherborne, the fourth bell bears the following in lombardic 
capitals : 

v^[l7] AVE \ MARIA I GRACIA PLENA \ DNS \ TECVM. 

" Hail, Mary, full of grace. The Lord be with thee.' 
1 See ante p. 25. 



Old Bells in Gloucestershire Belfries. 



63 



Other bells of the same, or like import, occur at Gretton, 
Aldsworth, Coberley, (on the royal head bell), Woodchester, and 
Leig liter ton. 

There are no less than twenty-six bells in the county dedicated 
to the Virgin Mary, namely : , 

List of places with bells dedicated to the Virgin Mary : 



Sherborne 
Gretton 
A Idsworth 
Coberley 

Duntsborne Rous 
Harescombe 
Shipton Moyne 
Woodchester 



Hardwick 
Matson 
Standish 
Abson 

Bristol ( Temple ) 
Hewelsjield 
Stoke Gifford 
Woolaston 



A Iderley 

Bristol (St. Thomas ) 
Kempley 
Westerley 

Gloucester Cathedral 
Charlton Abbots 
Compton Abdale 
Driffield 

Tate 

At Matson, the word >k g^NCta tttatt'a appears without any 
addition, but it is usually coupled with ora pro nobis, or the name 
forms part of a Latin verse, as at Compton Abdale, where a bell, 
in lombardic capitals, bears the words : 

VOCOR & [15] CAMPANA MARIE ►J* [l6] & VIRGINIS ^ [15] EGREGIE 

" I am the bell of Mary, the illustrious virgin." 

A somewhat similar epigraph occurs at Hewelsfield, in the 
Forest of Dean. 

All three bells at Aldsworth are ancient ones dedicated respec- 
tively to the Virgin Mary, Mary Magdalen, and St. John the 
Baptist. The only other bells in the county dedicated to the two 
last mentioned saints are found at St. Nicholas, Gloucester. 

At Turkdean, the second bell bears the legend, in lombardic 
capitals : 

►{< [29] ETERNIS § ANNIS § RESONET § CAMPANA § JOHANNIS. 

" For eternal years may the bell, John, sound." 

A like verse occurs on a bell in Gloucester cathedral, at Sap- 
perton, Brookthorpe, and on a bell lately in St. Werburgh, Bristol 
while at Pitchcomb, it is tersely put, [24] JfdfjaUWCS bOCttfcftttt, 
It shall be called John. 



64 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



At Rendcombe, the fourth bell is dedicated to St. Katherine, 
and bells dedicated to the same saint are at Wimtone and Horton. 

The tenor bell at Rendcombe bears an elegant stamp, the only 
one in the county, consisting of the words : 

[13] Elm Plmt3Lailt%elp, with cross, (jig. IS) also Tudor arms 
and crown (jig. 26.) 




(Fig. 13) (Fig. 26) 

The bell is dedicated to the angel Gabriel in the Leonine 
Hexameter : 



[13] fflte&t Be celts fjafeeo Nomen ^afcrtelts* [26] 

" Sent from heaven, I have the name of Gabriel." 

Other Gabriel bells occur at Notgrove, 1 Boddington (on the bell 
bearing the royal head stop, already mentioned), Sevenhampton, 
Swindon, Wapleg, Stanley St. Leonard 's, and Gloucester Cathedral. 

In most of these cases the same verse is introduced, while at 
Gloucester Cathedral the letters are set in backwards, beginning 
with the " s," at the end of " Gabrielis," and ending with the 
" M," at the beginning of " Missi." The bell on which this is 
found is probably a reproduction of an older bell. 
1 See ante p. 33 



Old Bells in Gloucestershire Belfries. 



65 



There are also seven other bells dedicated to angels in the 
county — five to St. Michael, at the Leigh between Gloucester and 
Tewkesbury ; at Driffield, near Cirencester ; at Cromhall ; at 
Oldbury-on-the-Hill, (on a bell bearing the curious ship stop [19], 
which also occurs at Staverton, Wapley, and Tortworth); and at 
Staunton, near Coleford, where the following verse is found : 

>h [19] Etttonat IE celts too* &ampana 0Ltifywlw* 

"There sounds from heaven the voice of the bell Michael." 
There is another ancient bell in this church bearing the legend : 

Saitcf &omma <£ra pro nofrts 

The remaining angel-bells are dedicated to St. Raphael, and 
are found in the adjoining villages of Boddington, and Elmstone 
Hardwick, near Cheltenham. 

I have mentioned one or two epigraphs that occur in the form 
of Latin verses. Others of the kind should now be mentioned. 

At Gloucester Cathedral the 6th bell bears : 

*b b] &um 2&osa ^itlsata Uftuwtft J&arta Focata, [7] ^ 

" I am the stricken rose of the world, called Mary." 
The same epigraph occurs at Shipton Moyne, near Tetbury. 
At Syde, Ampney, and Compton Abdale, we find : 

►J* [l6] PROTEGE VIRGO MARIA QUOS CONVOCO SCA MARIA. 

"Protect Virgin Mary, whom I call together S. Mary." 
At Standish on a post-Reformation bell, in lombardic capitals : 

►J* [6] SANCTA \ MARIA \ TUO \ SUCURRE \ PIISSIMA \ SERVO 1 1 

At Dyrrham, in lombardic capitals : 

+ [5] SERVA [io] CAMPANAM [l2] SANCTA [12] MARIA [io] SANAM 

On the royal head bell at Winston : 

+ [5] KATERLNA [io] PRECE [12] NOS [io] NOS [12] CIIRISTVS [5] 
[5] SERVAT [5] A [5] NECE [20] 

" Pray Katherine Christ may keep us from death." 

1 This Epigraph was probably copied from a former bell. 
Vol. VII., part 1. f 



06 Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 

Bells dedicated to the Saviour are found at Huntley and 
Kempley, with the following verse, in lombardic capitals : 

+ [5] IESU [30] CAMPANAM [12] TIBI [io] SEMPER [12] PROTEGE 
[io] SANAM 

" Jesu always keep thy bell sound." 

(At Kempley the bell is cracked). 

At Siddington, 3 in lombardic characters : 

JHESUS | NAZARENVS j REX j 

At this Church there is another ancient bell, with the legend : 

[28] &anc ta [28] an na [28] 0 ra pro no fets* 

And Ilorton in old English is the same epigraph. 

At Coberley, in lombardic letters, on royal head bell : 

[5] JHESUS [io] NAZARENVS [l2] REX JUDEORUM 

At Brimpsfield, also in lombardic character : 

\fa [3] IHESUS j FILIVS [ • 8] DEI [ j 9] MISERERE ■ MEI. 

Three bells are dedicated to the Trinity, one of which I 
discovered at Snowshitt, in this neighbourhood. It bears, in lom- 
bardic capitals, the words : 

+ [24] IN j NAME j OF j TRINITE ; GILLIS j BELLE • MEN 
• CALL • ME. 

At Tate, in the like letters : 
+ [9] o [i8]trenitassca[i7] campanam[i8] ista[i8] conserva 
Also at Ilorton: 

+ [2] IN ^ [ 1 5] C ARITATE [ 1 5] PER FECTA [ 1 5] CONFIR M AT ^[15] 
NOS |& TRINITAS SANCTA 

On the bell in Gloucester Cathedral called Great Peter is 
found : 

□ [4] We D L 1 ! Jfttft 0 [1] tfitxi 0 [i] fSto&tittit* 
0 [i] Nomine 0 M iPctru 

Bells dedicated to St. Peter also occur at Doivdesivell, Wapley, 
and St. Stephens, Bristol. 

Bells dedicated to St. Paul, at Abson, Stoke Gifford, and perhaps 
at Staverton. 



t 



Old Bells in Gloucestershire Belfries, 67 

Bells dedicated to St. Margaret, at Randwick, Sapjwrton, Tort- 
worth, and Bristol Cathedral. 

Bells dedicated to St. Thomas, at Staunton, Saul, Charfield, and 
Elberton. 

Bells dedicated to St. Clement, at Bristol Cathedral. 

Bells dedicated to St. Andrew, at Alveston. 

Bells dedicated to St. George, at Leighterton, Hanham Abbots, 
Hartbury, and Sudeley. The last-named bell has been re-cast of 
late years, but the exact lettering, stops, &c, have been preserved. 
The bell is engraved in Mrs. Dent's most interesting book "Annals 
of Winchcomb and Sudeley," p. 222. It bears the legend : 

"sane it qtovqi ora pro nofr's tfte latrt trovatte tfian&os 
tottftrotoe mato tfjts mtrtoxbu* 

This lady was, I believe, daughter-in-law of the Lord Chandos, 
who, as above stated, removed the bells of Winchcombe Abbey. 

At Notgrove one of the bells bears a portion of the Alphabet ; 
a perfect alphabet in lombardic capitals is found at Syde, near 
Cirencester. 

The impression of coins is sometimes found on bells, as at 
Snowshill, and Gloucester Cathedral. 

sanctvs, sanctvs, sanctvs is found on the Sanctus bell, in 
the interesting old church of Buchland, near Broadway. 

A paper on Gloucestershire bells would hardly be complete 
without a word or two on the birthplace of most of them, the 
Gloucester bell foundries. 

There was a bell foundry at Gloucester in very early days. 
Bells were founded by John of Gloucester, in the reigns of 
Edwards II. and III. He was so renowned that the monks of 
Ely sent for him in the 19th year of Edward III.'s reign, to cast 
four bells for them. He did so at Ely, buying materials for the 
work on the way, and sending them to that place by water. 

Some years ago a bell-founder's seal was found in the river 
Thames, the date of which is supposed to be about 1330. It is 
vesica shaped, and upon it are the emblems of the founder's craft, 
viz. : a laver pot or ewer, and above it a bell. Around, in lom- 
bardic capitals, is the legend : 

S. SANDRE DE GLOVCESTRE. 

£< 2 



68 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



A bell at St. Nicholas, Gloucester, was cast by a Robert 
Hendlel, about the year 1400. 

[Other bell founders connected with district : Roger Pardue, of 
Bristol ; Edward Neale, Burf ord ; J ames and Richard Keen, 
Woodstock ; Bay ley, Ohacombe, Oxon ; Cor, Aldbourne, Wilts.] 

William Henshaw, Mayor and Sheriff of Gloucester, about 
1500, was a bell founder ; Richard Atkyns was a bell founder in 
1529 ; and though no doubt others intervened, the next of whom 
we have any notice is the celebrated Gloucester founder Abraham 
Rudhall, whose family carried on the business of the foundry for 
several generations, and whose name appears on so many bells in 
this county. There is a tablet to his memory in the cloisters of 
the Cathedral. The two earliest bells by Rudhall are found at 
Oddington, near Stow, and at Norton, near Gloucester. At both 
these places the name is spelt Ridhall, giving some slight found- 
ation for a legend that exists as to the origin of the name. 

Mr. Lukis, in his Church Bells, says : The family of Rudhall 
must have been of that class of Englishmen who were once more 
common than now, called good church and state people. Nearly 
all their bells bear such epigraphs as the following : " Prosperity to 
the Church and Queen." " May the Church of England ever 
nourish." " Free from rebellion God save the king." "God send 
peace," and so on. 

The oldest bell in Stow tower, cast, indeed, before Rudhall 's 
time in 1606, and now, alas, cracked, bears the loyal legend : 

GOD SAVE KING JAMES. 

The treble bell 1620, at Stow, is inscribed thus : 

" WITH A MERRIE NOTE NOW GOD PERMIT, 
THAT I LONG TIME MY PLACE TO FIT. 

The fourth bell : 

FEAR GOD, LET LOVE INCREASE, 
OBEY THE KING, AND LIVE IN PEACE. 

And Rudhall has placed on the second bell, a motto which all 
at present in Stow will, I am sure, fully endorse, and use their 
best endeavours to promote : 

PEACE AND GOOD NEIGHBOURHOOD. 



PLATE IV. 




(Fig. 2.) 



(Fig. 3.) 



PLATE V. 




(Fig. 5.) 



(Fig. 6.) 



PLATE VI. 




(Fig. 9.) 



PLATE VII. 




(Fig 14. 



PLATE VIIL 




(Fig. 20.) (Fig-. 21.) (Fig. 22.) 



PLATE IX. 




(Fig. 28) 



Finds " near Stow-on-the-Wold. 



69 



« FINDS " ON, OR NEAR TO, THE 
EXCURSION OF THE SOCIETY AT STOW-ON-THE-WOLD. 

On July 25th, 1882. 

By the Rev. DAVID E-OYCE, M.A. 

The subject of this paper will not, it is hoped, be thought below 
the demands of this extraordinary occasion. An important and 
distinguished Society, as this now is, on its General Annual 
Gathering, calls for a corresponding and congenial theme. Subject- 
matter for such theme is, however, necessarily rare and partial. 
It is beyond the capability of every locality to furnish it. Stations, 
camps, castles, cistvaens, and the like, are not sown broad-cast. A 
Cirencester, a Woodchester, a Chedworth, a Uley, is not forth- 
coming on this section of the Wolds, to make an excursion hither 
a signal success, or a paper thereupon necessarily easy and en- 
gaging. Nevertheless, presumptuous as the assertion may seem, 
from the centre of the district now visited, with a radius of three 
miles, you will encircle a portion of the county eminently prolific 
in traces and relics of British, Roman, and Saxon occupation. 
Barrington, Bourton-on-the- Water, Upper and Lower Slaughter, 
Upper and Nether Swell, and the confines of the latter on the 
Guyting side, retain singular remains of the above-mentioned 
races. Discoveries have been made in this neighbourhood, yea, 
in the two Swells, to which the lamented Professor Rolleston 
declared that science was greatly indebted. That most laborious 
and learned of men was free to confess, that the long-horned 
barrows at Swell, Wold, and Hayle Knap, were as a revelation to 
him. Those mysterious mounds have been copiously described by 
Canon Greenwell and the Doctor in that most valuable of 
works, " British Barrows." Sir John Maclean has done good 
service by his more compendious account in Vol. V. of the Society's 



70 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



Transactions. To keep within the limits now prescribed — inferior to 
the above great discoveries, must be the subsequent "finds " now 
submitted to your notice. Comparatively insignificant they may 
appear — yet should they be consigned to oblivion 1 Minor " finds " 
they may be, yet do they clothe these Wolds with peculiar interest. 
They contribute a modest modicum to archaeological and anthro- 
pological science. They offer a page to this County's History. 
They may minister matter for profitable and inspiring reflexion, 
even to those whose " daily round and common task," or country- 
walk, brings these remembrances of remote ages, from time to 
time, before their eyes or in their way. 

This paper would meet you (at least the Bristol, Gloucester, 
and Cheltenham members of this Society), at your more imme- 
diate entrance into this district honoured by your welcome visit 
to-day, and will conclude where this day's excursion has closed. 
The paper will greet you at Notgrove, or Westfield Station. It 
would first attempt to describe to you what once marked, and we 
may say consecrated, a spot through which the railway train now 
rattles with its unconscious passengers. 

The substance of the notes of the writer of this paper, at the 
time of discovery, are as follows : — 

Westfield Barrow. — Sept. 10th, 1876. Tuesday — The excava- 
tors of the Banbury and Cheltenham Railroad reached the fine 
round tumulus in the centre of a large field near to the station, on 
the Bourton side. It was of the average dimensions, 80 feet in 
diameter. It was composed of fine mould, although raised on the 
brashy surface of these Wolds. First, there appeared a kind of 
slight roofing of slates carried up about one-third of the slope of the 
Barrow. On the east and north-east side, there was a considerable 
stratum, some 6 inches thick, of charcoal and decomposed animal 
matter, intermingled with tooth of horse, tusk of boar, and jaw of 
dog. This dark lower stratum seemed more or less co-extensive 
with the base of the tumulus. But, over and above this, the 
superincumbent earth was singularly and regularly striated with 
curved lines, or bands, of charcoal to the very surface. The follow- 
ing Friday revealed the desired object. The pick, in pursuing 



PLATE X. 




i 



"Finds" near Stow-on-the-Wold. 



71 



its onward career, struck on loose stones amongst the mould- 
harbingers of this " find." All carefully cleared off, there came to 
view a bee-hive-like capping of stones, in size about 2ft. by 10 in., 
but tapering off — these had sunk in at the apex, from smaller filling- 
stones having given way. These somewhat spiral coverers removed, 
all became manifest, viz : a cist, in the rough 4 ft. square, each side 
facing the cardinal points — two uprights east, two north, two west, 
and five south (PI. X.). In the centre of the chamber, on a floor 
of carefully laid slates, was deposited a small heap of decomposed 
matter with small broken bones above it. There were two portions 
of skulls, perhaps of a mother and her child. To the west of this 
little heap, a small triangular bronze instrument, much corroded, 
perforated at the base with two holes. This instrument was sent 
to Dr. Rolleston, and is probably in the Oxford Museum. This 
burial was, of course, after cremation. These scanty remains were 
committed to this cist, erected on the very site of the burning. 
The charcoal from the pyre seems to have been scattered over the 
mould as they heaped it up, at intervals. Two Roman bodies 
were found some 50 yards to the east, edged round with stones, 
the head and feet covered with planks. Many sherds were scat- 
tered about — one, a goodly piece of the white Roman flint-roughed 
mortar. Here, then, are cremation and inhumation, side by side, 
as elsewhere in this district — not contemporaneous, judging from 
the bronze instrument and the cist itself. Yet there were frag- 
ments of Roman-like pottery in the barrow. In this discovery the 
excavators displayed great interest. The archaeological world 
owes a debt of gratitude to Mr. Knox, the engineer, for offering 
every facility, and for drawings which perpetuate what the Banbury 
and Cheltenham Railway at once revealed and obliterated. The 
stones of this cist were conveyed to Copse Hill, and set up there 
on the site of another burial ground : but not after their original 
position or arrangement. It may here be noticed that the ancient 
name of Westfield was Caldecot. Query : Is there any connexion 
between the old, and not uncommon, name and these interments ? 

The Chessells or Chestles, Heath Rill, or jEthel. — Our next 
station is Bourton-on-the- Water, celebrated as being the site, 
originally, of a British city, and an important station during the 



72 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



Roman dominion — subsequently, perhaps, called Salmonsbury. 
The camp here, and the undoubted villa with the "finds " connected 
with the latter brought to light in building the new railway bridge, 
will be fully described by our excellent ally, Mr. Moore. Onward, 
about half-way between Bourton-on-the- Water and Stow-on-the 
Wold, near the Dikler (Theokyloure), whether travelling by rail 
or road, you have, on the left hand, the field called Chessells, or 
Chestles — nomen sat — (Of. Kingscot, Rudder). The colour and rich- 
ness of the soil, coins silver and bronze, and a crock containing a 
hoard of minimi found here, indicate Roman occupation. Heath 
Hill is no doubt more correctly given jEthel in the Ordnance 
Map. Accidentally, perhaps, it is found in the first two syllables 
of the adjoining hamlet, Mcethelgaresbyrig, now Maugersbury. In 
the garden of the farm-house, now called Heath Hill, several Roman 
coins have been found ; whilst small tumps in the adjacent field 
may possibly be tumuli. 

Stow. — Not a stone's throw from S. Edward's Hall, on the north- 
east corner of the square, on the east side, at the back of the passage 
of the first doorway, was lately found a skeleton, in a cavity in the 
rock, just below the surface, N.N.W. and S.S.W., and pronounced 
by Dr. Rolleston to be Roman "well filled out globose skull, with 
the width on the crown, so characteristic of the Roman skull." 
Outside the town, in the first quarry, on the right, on the Moreton 
road, lay the Saxon, with a spear-head 18 inches long, a foot 
of which is the sharp-pointed blade. It was the weapon of one 
who may have fallen on the spot, afterwards immortalizing Stow 
and Donington its hamlet, where Royalist and Parliamentarian 
were together locked in their last mortal decisive struggle. Hard 
by, fell Capt. Keyte. Within earshot, or at most, gunshot, Sir 
J acob Astley (seated on a drum) gave his captors his well-knoAvn 
shrewd and laconic counsel. 

Upper and Nether Swell. — Pursuing this day's beat, as originally 
mapped out, and unfortunately, at the eleventh hour, in part re- 
scinded — it was proposed to halt at the third field down, on the left 
hand side of the road to Upper Swell. Here, some twenty years 
ago, old foundations were dug up, wherewith to build cattle sheds 



i 



PLATE XI 




S3 









• 


<• - — y~> 










- 





"Finds" near Sto w-on-the-Wold. 



73 



and the boundaries below. On the summit of the hill stood 
the building, laid down (as discovered thus far) on the accom- 
panying plan (PI. XI.) It seems to be as follows : — A, vestibule 
some 8 ft. wide, 27 ft. long, facing south, at each end, traces of 
walls, projecting southwards, 8ft. Behind A, northwards, in line, 
were apparently three rooms : b, 45ft.; c, 32ft.; and d, 20ft. by 
24 ft. each. In the fore-part of the room A, was found irregular 
pitching (a), somewhat zig-zag in places, the stones out of the 
upright. At the north-east corner of this pitching (b), in a hole, 
3ft down, were light grey ashes, which, with a very little kneading, 
became a stiff putty. West of A, a passage e, 3 ft. wide, planked, 
ended at a wall f, running west, 63 ft., and then turning north, 
ran in that direction 75 ft. and more. At the north-east corner of 
D, more and more even pitching, about 8 ft. by 6 ft, implied an 
entrance there. Beyond d, a passage g, with very strong foun- 
dations and rough blocks of freestone. In this passage were found 
fragments of colander, a bronze armlet, an iron arrow-head, a drain- 
pipe, &c. All beyond this north side of the building, up to the 
road some 30 yards, was covered with quantities of rubble, slates, 
burnt stones, as of old buildings thrown down. This building may 
have served as a quarry early in the middle ages. It may have 
supplied in part, the very stones of Abbotswood — judiciously 
re-utilized from the Park Wall, bounding the field in which this 
building stood. Those wall-stones, at any rate, for their size, finish, 
and fire-stain, caught the attention of those " who go about with 
their eyes open." To return to the building. Below, downhill, 
south, were circular-foundations, 30 ft. in diameter ; below this, a 
very strong wall was excavated to the extent of 174 ft. In the 
northeast corner of the crew-yard, was a kind of kiln filled with 
ashes. Lower down, below the crew-yard, was an oblong building, 
50ft. by 30 ft, between the two latter ran the road, no doubt, the 
" via regalis," which was diverted by Richard, Earl of Cornwall, 
when he imparked this part of the parish and gave to his newly 
founded Abbey at Hayles, with 

" The true blood of Christ at Hayles, 
Where pylgrymes'paynes ryghte much avayles." 

A similar oblong building, only with much bolder outline, exists 



74 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



in the field below, toward the Bowl (Bolde). But, still, what 
ground is there for supposing this to have been a Roman building 1 
The masonry — hypocaust; flanges; bits of pseudo-Samian ware and 

Caistor ware with the potter's mark, \ ESCVS . M ~] ; pointed slates; 

nails for slating in abundance; an unique coin of Carausius, obv. 
IMP • CARAVSIVS • P-F- AYG ; rev., two hands, conjoined 
MAXI • AVG • XX; others, Romano-British; oyster shells, the arm- 
let, arrow-head, and quantities of broken pottery ; the situation — on 
the Fosse, and commanding a view of it on the distant horizon, 
beyond Bourton — its half-way position between the great camps 
of Bourton and Dome, on this highest point of ground — these 
may be adduced as evidence. It may have been a barrack, or 
halting place, or receptacle of some kind. It were presumption to 
suggest that this might have been the " Ystyw," or " Stow," which 
gave our metropolis its name. To make a compromise, this struc- 
ture may have been connected with the Stow then, as now — the 
Pharos of the Wolds. 

Upjjer Swell Barrows. — Had the programme been adhered to, 
the road from Upper to Nether Swell would have taken our party 
under the two horned barrows, described in " British Barrows," 
which, it was hoped, the Society would have inspected. A detail 
or two of " finds," subsequent, and too late for insertion in the 
above work, may be worth recording, viz : secondary Saxon inter- 
ment, on that favourite spot, the horned end of Long Barrows. Two 
Saxons were interred, after their wont, in pure earth, on a barrow 
of sheer stones. No 1, a young man, arms bent ; left, on breast ; 
right, on stomach — clavicle, scapula, tibia, fibula wanting ; only 
half of right femur; under right pelvis, a small iron knife ; spear on 
right side. The bones were " mashed " by heavy stones over 
them. No. 2, spear-head, like that of No. 1, only horizontal over 
head ; left arm down by side ; a large knife below. This skeleton 
more perfect, was that of a strong tall man ; yet tibia, fibula, feet 
and finger bones were not found with the body ; but bones that 
might have belonged to it were found on the top of the barrow, 
lower down. The bones of both were, in part, decayed and 



i 



"Finds" near Stow-on -the-Wold. 



75 



weatherworn. Both lay on their backs in line with the barrow, 
a foot to 18 inches below the surface and 17 ft. from the curve 
in the horns. 

Barrow 2 — seen. at times, by those gifted with second sight, 
swathed in unearthly flame. On its surface, at the horned end, 
with her head south, broken, and her bones displaced, lay a lady — 
between her knees, a small iron knife ; below her breast, an 
amber bead, whilst two circular cabled fibulae fastened her shroud, 
one on each shoulder. 

But, " place aux dames !" as Dr. Rolleston exclaimed, on 
further removal of the soil, the remains of other bodies appeared. 
The frame of a man, lying north-east by south-west, had been 
displaced to receive the lady's body. Skulls and bones of two 
infants were found. A Saxon family, prematurely cut off, would 
seem to have been committed to this particular spot, on the, even 
then, revered and ancient cairn. A singular circumstance attend- 
ing this "find," was the arrival of a telegram, at a British barrow, 
summoning Dr. Rolleston, from the grave of the Saxon lady, to 
the sick bed of his sister. Progress indeed ! 

Nether Swell. — Within a stone's throw from the north-west 
angle of the church, on the summit of the rising ground, in the 
allotments, stood, within the memory of the writer of this paper, 
a familiar, yet most venerable monolith. It was known as the 
Whistlestone (so called, perhaps, from this, the Wheat Hill, as the 
one beyond was the Oat Hill). This stone was the last, most 
probably, of a cist. Many bones were found at its base. A 
witticism, amongst the villagers, was this : — " When the Whistle- 
stone hears Stow clock (a mile off) strike twelve, it goes down to 
Lady-well (at the Hill's foot) to drink." Alas, poor Whistlestone! 
Farmer Hies, one of the olden time, one day picked up two of a 
perfect set of teeth, in plowing by the stone, but so harried was 
he by the weirdy teeth, that he replaced them speedily where he 
found them. But a later occupier did what the good folk of the 
village declared could not be done — for " All the King's horses 
and all the King's men " could not cast down nor carry away 
Whistlestone — but it was carried away — yet rescued from the 



78 



Transaction's at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



roads or profane use. In the vicarage-paddock the pre-historic 
'block now finds asylum. 

Nether Swell Church. — The site of this, as of many of our 
churches, was a hallowed spot in heathen times. On levelling the 
ground for the new nave were found two cart-loads of pure red 
ashes, indicating great cremation here. Round the fire, here and 
there, had been placed plank-stones, by fives or sixes. On these 
were charcoal, and to the edge of one stone, the westernmost of 
all, clang a third brass of Constantine. The churchyard abounds 
with sherds of Roman pottery. Animal remains, the bones of a 
horse, the horns and a frame of bos longifrons have been dug up. 
In the neighbouring field, where are traces of two round barrows, 
a prick spur, iron arrow-head, a bronze fibula, and much black 
pottery were turned up, in merely digging a trench for pipes to 
convey water ; whilst at the once marvellous village spring, once 
sending forth its 240 gallons per minute — a river of water — were 
found Roman pottery, a Commonwealth silver penny, two small 
bullets, and the usual propitiatory pins. 

Kineton Quarry. — Diverging a little from the line of excursion, 
passing by Swell Hill homestead, where Roman coins, flints, and 
copious pottery have been found, and between the thick-set 
barrows of Swell Wold and Eyford, we arrive at the site, most 
probably, of a Roman house (the lines are visible), and just beyond 
it, at a considerable Roman cemetery. Bodies, and what besides 
none knows, at every fresh ridding for slates for years past, have 
been turned up. Of late years, a Roman, lying north and south, 
in a wooden coffin, the nails of which remain. Further on, a body 
with the conical nails of the soldier's boot at his heels. Further 
still, a body, described as dropped and pressed down in a hole, a 
British slave, probably, in a contracted position, his face falling 
back towards the east. Beyond this, a nearly perfect urn of red 
pottery, full of ashes, with a heap of ashes, a foot deep, close by. 
About four yards beyond, with the face towards the west, stones 
alongside and slates underneath, a lady with a plain bronze arm- 
let. On re-opening the quarry, 1874, Nov. 9, a frame, two feet 
down, in a sloping position, the head raised higher than the feet 



"Finds" near Stow-on-the-Wold. 



77 



(about a foot), protected by two stones on either side, and one 
stone over, and with nails, as above, at the feet. Then beyond 
this, another, with the head similarly protected, with nails, as 
above. Then, a year ago last Christmas, in that bitter frost and 
snow, were found seven bodies in a line, about four feet apart, 
buried with more care ; all lying north and south, but No. 2 with 
the head toward the south ; Nos. 3 and 4 said to have been in 
coffins, the first with stones all round, the second without ; then 
a child, with a tall body at its feet ; and outside all, the skeleton 
of another man. Pottery was strewed over all. The last " finds " 
were in a line with the foregoing : — No. 1, Nov. 3, 1880, an entire 
frame, in a grave three feet deep, covered with four planks, nails 
at feet. Femur 1 ft. 5 in., tibia 1 ft. 6 in. — total length, about 
5 ft. 4 in., and carefully ridged over. No. 2, 4o the north, a body 
without covering, head perfect, but severed and laid at the feet. 
No. 3, a little further on, and more north still, the head severed 
and placed between the knees, conical nails of his boots at his 
heels. Query ; Whence this severance of the head — is it else- 
where, or often found 1 

Leaving Nether Swell for Upper Slaughter, in the second 
field to the right, after the turn of the road to the latter village ; 
there remains, providentially protected, that now very rare relic 
of pre-historie time, a Horestone ; from which the ground, in the 
centre of which it stands, takes, and to this day retains, its name. 

Upper Slaughter — Copse Hill. — To close with this day's excur- 
sion. In quarrying where the lawn tennis ground now is, human 
bones were discovered. This led to careful observation. In the 
snow and hard frost of 1875 a body was found with stones for 
head protection ; but the intensity of the weather rendered investi- 
gation difficult. To the east about eight feet, a body of a man, 
N.N.W. x S.S.E., with right hand on pelvis and left on breast, 
and with stones at the head and two over the face, after the manner 
observed at Kineton Quarry. Aug. 21, 1876, Monday : in a line 
with the above, twenty feet eastward, a grave of stones, arranged 
coffin-wise, measuring 5 ft. 6 in. in length ; 1 ft. 4 in. at the head 
and feet ; and 1 ft. 6 in. in middle ; covered mainly by two plank 



78 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



stones, the upper one 3ft. 5 in. x 1 ft. 8 in., the lower one 3 ft. 2 in. 
x 1 ft. 6 in. Outside all, two stones on the east side of the head, 
and four down the west side, apparently to keep the coverers in 
place. In the soil above were a few scattered fragments of pottery. 
The grave itself was full of sand. There was no sign of subsidence. 
Whether it was put intentionally, or worked in by worms, is un- 
certain. This grave appears to have been occupied by two — 
mother and daughter. The form of the young woman was more 
traceable • yet the bones were in a very decayed condition. Only 
the frontal and parietal bones of a remarkably small skull, and 
two small teeth and a portion of another were found. The head 
faced west, turned over the right shoulder ; no clavicle ; the 
scapula wasted ; the upper ends of the humerus gone ; the hands 
met over the abdomen, but the finger joints were scattered. A 
few bones of lumbar vertebrae remained ; the left pelvis was 
decayed, and the right nearly gone ; femora, tibia, fibulae were 
perfect ; one patella and the feet were left. 

Jan. 16, 1877, Tuesday. In working on, the men came upon 
the lower part of a large vessel of amphora shape, of slate-coloured 
pottery. This vessel had been placed here with some care. It was 
packed with brown clay, brought for the purpose, and supported 
by vertical stones, some burnt. On removing the soil, within the 
vessel, stones from nine to four inches had fallen or been cast into 
it. The bottom of the vessel was gone ; nor could any fragments 
of this part or of the mouth be found. Close by were discovered 
portions of other earthen vessels of black clay; a smaller one 
nearly perfect ; the rims of two others ; one very thick and large, 
but too tender to hold together. The skeleton of a pony ; a fine 
green celt, and two bone pins were here found. 

Jan. 18, 1877, Thursday, brought to light a grave, composed 
of plank-stones a foot high, three on each side and one at each 
end ; within lay, N.N.W. x S.S.E., the body of a man, 5 ft. 5 in. 
in stature — the average height of the Roman ; the bones were of 
a purple hue, and all in situ. The head was on one side, facing 
the rising sun. The left jaw had all its teeth, much worn ; the 
right was imperfect, black, and in a fibrous state. The arms were 



• 



e< Finds " near Stow -on -the- Wold. 



79 



crossed above the wrist, left over right, on the abdomen ; the leg- 
bones were very clean and perfect. This grave was perfectly clear of 
sand or soil, although it was but 6 feet to the north-east of the 
one full of sand. This grave was covered precisely as that, and 
as one found at Kineton Thorns : viz., by a large plank-stone at 
the head, and another at the feet, and th/ee smaller ones in the 
middle to protect the joint. One entire stone formed the bottom 
of the grave. Nothing was found with this or the other bodies. 
This grave has been preserved. East of this was found a body 
in the contracted position. 

Feb. 24, 1877, Saturday. A body, 36 yards in a line S.W. 
from the above, a foot-and-a-half below the surface, lay E. and 
W., a point to S.S.E. and N.N.W, at full length, about 5 ft. 10 in. 
in stature. The head had fallen forwards. Femur 15J in., tibia, 
13J in. ; humerus, 11 in. ; ulna, 8 in. No stones for protection. 
The arms lay straight down by each side. 

Sept. 1, 1880, Wednesday. Beyond the tennis ground, on the 
brow of the hill, facing west, was found a body in a contracted 
position, N. and S. The head slightly inclining to the west, was 
severed from the body by the settling of the sand in which it was 
buried. The teeth were perfect. The backbone, slightly curved. 
The arms folded, the right hand under the left elbow, to which 
the knees were brought up. This, on the west, and the one on 
the east were possibly Britons and Roman slaves. It may be added 
here, that on the opposite hill (Beggy Hill) bodies of Romans have 
been discovered, by threes at once, side by side, in graves edged 
round with stones. One more important person was encased in a 
lead shell and oak coffin. A thought may be kindling in some mind, 
"Is it not rightly named ' Slaughter ' 1 " But all the aforesaid 
does not necessarily imply the carnage involved in that sanguinary 
word " Slaughter." If this name did originate in the results of 
mortal conflict, the scene would have been at Slehtranford, on the 
nethermost confines of Bourton with Nether Slaughter. Thence 
the baleful appellation spread over both parishes. These "Copse " 
and " Beggy Hill " "finds" may, however, only indicate that there 
was then what there is now on a more magnificent scale. The 
whirligig of time is ever verifying the proverb that the new is but 



80 Transactions j^t Stow-on-the-Wold. 

the old again. A Roman settlement, or establishment of its kind, 
possibly existed here, played its part, and went its way. The 
degrees of care in consigning each, in turn, to his or her resting- 
place graduated according to the condition of master, mistress, 
freeman or slave of the household. 1 

The last "find" was at the foot of Copse Hill, in a gravel pit 
near the angle of the road to Lower Slaughter, by Mr. Whitmore's 
new cottages. In a cavity, three feet wide and three feet deep, 
filled with black soil, were found two Roman knives, one with a 
ring at the end of the handle, pieces of black pottery, and one 
ornamented bit of pseudo-Samian ware. At the east side there 
was a small bit of wall, about three feet beneath the surface, but 
it extended only to some two feet, and there abruptly ended. 

The "find" of the Saxon fort at Upper Slaughter remains for the 
pen of the intelligent explorer, Mr. G. B. Witts. 

Thus this day's excursion has wound round a small and remote 
district, where little, perhaps, was expected. Yet has it been in 
contact with monuments and memorials of every stage of this 
island's wonderful history. This day's round, according to the 
original programme, has thread its way by Long and Round 
Barrow, by Roman and Saxon occupation and sepulture, through 
sparse but choice specimens of church architecture, through the 
scene of two of the most important events in the Civil War, and 
the sites whereon still stand fine manor-houses of two of the most 
ancient of our Gloucestershire families. Verily, we of this local- 
ity do hail with gratitude the visit of the Bristol and Glouces- 
tershire Archaeological Society to gather up and rescue from a 
second burial, and that in oblivion, these minor but not worthless 
"Finds on and near the line of the first day's excursion, July 
25th, 1882." 

1 Three grounds off in a line S.W. of the grave of the westernmost 
contracted Briton, on the right hand of the road from Nether Swell to Upper 
Slaughter, in the cavity of the former quarry, still discernible, opposite the 
Lots— the roadman, corroborated by others, states that a body was ] 
found lying E. and W., in a circular pit, about four feet in diameter 
and four feet deep, excavated out of the rock. It was in a sitting posture, 
with the head on the knees facing E. Behind the body to the W. was a 
piece of iron, about a foot long and an inch wide, laid on stones placed 
after the manner of a cottage fire-place ; within which was a quantity of 
ashes, as when the fire went out. 



Bl/EDINGTON ChFUCH. 



81 



BLEDINGTON OHU.KCH. 

By J. EDWARD K. CUTTS. 

The Antiquary, more especially, perhaps, the lover of mediaeval 
lore, has pleasures undreamt of by the majority of prosaic, matter- 
of-fact people, for so much of ancient times remains as will enable 
him to people the old towns, villages, mansions, and churches, 
with the characters and scenes of the past. 

As we walk through the quiet, unpretending country villages, 
where (especially in the stone-built homes of the Cotswolds), there 
is so much left untouched that breathes of the past, with what 
interest we mentally call to mind that we are walking through 
the identical streets that one unceasing stream of wayfarers, for 
perhaps nine centuries, has passed through, that we are looking at 
the same houses that our forefathers have looked upon, and feel 
we are observed, as we pass, by descendants of the same people, 
bearing, perhaps, the same names even, of those that have looked 
curiously, through the same windows, at the travellers of former 
days. We note, here humble though comfortable and substantial 
cottages, there a house or two more detached and speaking of 
greater wealth, perhaps the property and heritage of once com- 
fortable and substantial yeoman families, and, standing apart from 
the village, is the old manor house that had, may be, a knightly 
owner; peeping over the trees we see the church tower, or spire, and 
we, naturally, soon find our way thither, for there, whatever fortunes 
may have happened to the rest of the village, we are almost sure 
to find abiding tokens of the wealth and piety, the phases of 
religion and changing scenes of the old village life. We walk 
round the church and into it, read the monuments, and scan the 
building, inside and out, for evidences of its history. 
Vol. VII., p c art 1. g 



82 



Transactions at Stow-on-tiie-Wold. 



The village of Bledington is one that has thus excited such 
pleasurable thoughts. In some parts it is dark, almost gloomy, 
with orchards, in others it is busy with cottages and houses inter- 
spersed. There is one quaint little footway, or lane, that leads us 
diagonally across the village, fenced from the orchards and gar- 
dens that it winds between, by stone flags set on edge, and brings 
us to the object of our present paper — The Church. 

St. Leonard's Church, for thus it is dedicated, now consists of 
chancel, nave, south aisle, porch, western tower, and on the south 
side of the chancel, is a feature that was erected, no doubt, partly 
as a hagioscope between the chancel and south aisle, and partly as 
a chantry chapel. The church was founded in the twelfth century, 
and comprised nave, chancel, south aisle, probably a porch and a 
bellcote. Of this church remain the east and west walls of the 
nave, and possibly the chancel walls, as well as the bases and 
pillars of the nave arcade, the font, and the chancel gable-cross ; 
but though these walls remain, the features in them have mostly 
disappeared. The Norman bellcote is still in situ, for, to quote 
the words of another writer on the church, " the good benefactors 
of former days seem to have had some special regard for this 
member of the sacred fabric. The later Perpendicular parapet and 
cornice stop suddenly and reverently short as they approach it — 
perhaps there was some tradition connected with it, or with the 
bell that had swung there for generations, calling all within its 
vibrations to adoration at the mention of the Thrice Holy Name." 
There remains also the jambs of the chancel arch, which are quite 
square and plain, with a chamfered abacus, the arch to this is 
pointed, and is in two chamfered orders, and was probably inserted 
when the arcade was re-modelled in the thirteenth century. The 
north-west quoin of the church is early in character, being formed 
of double stones, one of which is marked with a cross of the type, 
generally denominated consecration crosses. In the thirteenth cen- 
tury the church was much altered by the insertion of windows, &c. 
The east window, of three separate lights externally, but con- 
tained internally under one moulded arch, resting on moulded 
caps and angle shafts, one of the north windows of the chancel, 



Bledijtgton Church. 83 

and the piscina being Early-English • the nave arcade was 
re-modelled, the bases and pillars of the older church being 
retained, and fitted with new caps working from the circular 
pillars into mouldings of an irregular octagonal form, the cardinal 
sides of which are 9 inches smaller than the other four, giving the 
caps a very bold and effective appearance : no two caps are 
moulded alike ; the arches are pointed and of two plainly cham- 
fered orders finished with a chamfered label. The porch is also 
Early-English, and has a little lancet window on each side. The 
next alteration of which we have remains, was the insertion of the 
three-light Decorated window with reticulated tracery in the west 
wall of the nave ; and, T believe, the two-light windows on the 
south side of the chancel and aisle are of the latter part of the 
fourteenth century. Up to this period, the church no doubt 
remained the same in general outline and features,— it had no 
tower or clerestory, and still retained its high pitched roofs, — • 
but it is evident, from the extent and beauty of the features which 
remain to be described, and from the inscriptions and effigies in 
the painted glass of the windows, that there resided here, at about 
this time, some wealthy, munificent and pious people (probably 
wool staplers), and to their zeal the church is indebted for further 
alterations, and its present interesting aspect. At the beginning 
of the fifteenth century the tower was built, and evidences remain 
to show clearly that it was done in the following manner : The 
tower stands on three arches within the old Norman nave, the 
west wall of the tower resting on the west end wall of the old 
nave, and a hole was cut through the high pitched roof, to allow 
the tower to emerge as it was built, leaving a portion of the 
original roof and west gable as a lean-to, on the north and south 
sides of the tower ; the rest of the nave roof remained unaltered 
in pitch, as is evidenced by the weathering on the tower. The 
access to the latter is by means of a ladder across the west end of 
the aisle, which goes up to a doorway (under the aisle roof), 
opening into a staircase in the upper part of the tower. The 
two-light window on the north side of the chancel is probably of 
the same date. Some years later in the century, the church 
assumed the magnificent aspect of which we now see the remains, 
g2 . 



Si 



Transactions at Stow on -the- Wold. 



for now were added the clerestory of four three-light windows on 
each side of the nave ; the processional door, and the lower range, 
of four three-light, square-headed tracery windows, on the north 
side of the nave, with the brackets and canopies in the broad 
hollow moulding of the jambs ; the lead-covered flat roof, over the 
nave, with its principals resting on wall-pieces, moulded into shafts 
with caps and bases, supporting tracery spandrels, all carried on 
stone corbels ; the intermediate principals of the roof are sup- 
ported on corbels with shields, and there are little anomalies in the 
.arrangement of these, which seem to show that portions of an 
older roof were worked in, the whole showing traces of colour. 
The aisle roof is of this date, and possibly the aisle walls were 
re-built about the same time, for they are thinner than those of 
the rest of the church, as are the walls of the chapel ; all the 
features in the aisle and chapel are of this date, except the 
two-light windows already mentioned. The part that is here 
designated a chapel, deserves some special mention, for it is not 
only an unusual feature, but a very pretty one. A reference to 
the plan (PI. XIV.) will show its formation, and the engraving 
PI. XIII.) shows its outward appearance. The recess is covered 
by a flat stone ceiling, this is divided into two parts by an arch 
springing from over the centre of the arch into the aisle, and 
from the corner, formed by the splay on the east side of the 
recess, the arch is double-cusped and four-centred, and is sup- 
ported on angel corbels ; the main cusps terminate in good 
foliage carving, and the spandrels are filled in with open tracery. 
The ceiling on the chancel side of this arch is flat and plain, but 
within the arch, it is enriched with six arched and cusped panels, 
placed head to head. It can well be imagined that the whole, 
with its painted glass in the window, (described later on), forms 
a most pleasing and picturesque feature. We must not forget to 
mention that the arch and some of the steps to the rood-loft 
still remain, and on the north side of the chancel arch are remains 
of a shallow niche, which has been flanked by buttresses, pinnacles, 
and arched with a cusped and crockctted head, and we must finish 
this description with the mention of the stained glass and the 
seats. 



i 



i 



Bledington Church. 



85 



Of later date are some of the bells ; the hour-glass stands by 
the pulpit, the communion rail, with Jacobean ballusters, (the rail 
and sill being formed out of some older moulded oak-work, possibly 
portions of the old screen; and the sundial on the south-west cor- 
ner of the aisle parapet. There are also, in the parish chest, an 
old book-cover with chain, an old copy o*f Fox's Book of Martyrs, 
and a black letter printed circular-letter of the date 1668, requiring 
a collection to be made for re-building the London churches after 
the great fire of 1666. Among minor matters we must not omit to 
mention the piscina on the south side of the aisle; the remains of 
an old hinge stamped all over with Lombardic " A" s, and a corbel 
in the east wall of the chancel, on each side of the east window. 

We have, as yet, only just mentioned one of the church's chief 
remaining beauties — the painted glass — this, with the sculpture 
in the jambs, must have made the church glorious, and the remains 
that exist make one feel unhappy that so much should have either 
been removed or allowed to drop to pieces during this century. 
The clerestory windows were filled with kneeling effigies, with 
inscriptions, and over them, scripture or legendary subjects ; of 
these, several effigies remain, and the subjects of our Lord and S. 
Mary Magdalene, and S. George and the Dragon, (S. George being 
an interesting example of the armour of the period). In one of the 
lower windows on the north side, is a large portion of a crowned 
female saint, in blue mantle, under which, she wears a sleeveless 
robe trimmed with fur, and holds a rosary in one hand and a sceptre 
in the other. In another light, is the upper half of a S. Christo- 
pher, and in yet another light are the upper parts of some building- 
showing finials and lead covered roofs. In the tracery lights are 
many pieces of glass of interest, amongst which is one piece bear- 
ing a slip of a tree, with a scroll inscribed with the words, " In 
Gadis Hal." The chantry window has the figures of S. Bartholo- 
mew, S. Matthew, S. James, S. Andrew, S. Matthias, and S. John, 
in the tracery, and in one of the lower lights is a remnant of the 
coronation of the Virgin. 

In conclusion, we will note here some inscriptions recorded in 
a MS. in the Bodleian library (Wood, C. 10, A° 1676); these were 



86 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



under the portraits in the windows, but have now mostly disap- 
peared. In the four upper windows were these inscriptions : — 

In No. 1. "Orate p. aTa Thome Eyre et p. aTabus Thome 
Andrews senioris et Agnetis u£ sue mcccc.lxx. ;" this is under 
their proportions (kneeling effigies). "Orate p. bono statu Henrici 
Byschop et Margareta uxoris sue;" this is under their proportions. 

No. 2. " Orate p. bono statu Thome Smyth et Agnetis u£ 
sue;" this is under their . proportions in the first light. "Et 

Domini Malyn Vicarii de Bladdington this is under his 

proportion in the second light. 

No. 3. "Orate p. aiabus Thome . . . et Agnet u£ sue;" this 
under their proportions. 

No. 4. " Orate p. aiabus Witt Water et Agnet u£ sue . . . et 
hsec Fenestra ;" this under their proportions. 

In the four lower windows : — 

1. In the upper, next the pulpit : " Orate p. Nicholao Hobbes 
et Agnet u£ sue quorum aiabus." This is under their proportions. 

2. " Orate p. Nicholao Hobbes et Ag\" This is under the 
proportion of a man between two wives. 

3. Nothing. 

4. Nothing but Scripture History. 

Anyone having the time and opportunity would no doubt find 
much interesting information as to bequests and the date of these 
windows, &c, in the wills of these people, and it is much to be 
hoped that they may be hunted up and put on record in the Tran- 
sactions of the Society. 



Odpington Church. 



87 



ODDINGTON CHURCH, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 
By J. HENRY MIDDLETON, F.S.A., &c, &c. 
This very beautiful little Church is one of the most interesting yet 
remaining in the county. With the exception of the Chancel, now 
used for funeral services, no use is made of the Church, which is 
consequently being suffered to fall into a rapidly increasing state 
Of decay. In a few years, unless the lost tiles from the roofs, and 
glass in the windows, are replaced, the fine old Perpendicular 
roofs will fall in, and the place become a ruin. The expenditure 
of but a small sum would suffice to save this beautiful old Church 
from destruction. 

The plan of the Church (see Pi XV.) consists of a Nave and 
Chancel, with wide South Aisle ; at the East end of which stands 
the Tower — a very unusual position. 

Of the Norman Church, nothing remains but the South door, 
almost Transitional in style, of quite the end of the 1 2th century. 
This appears to be in situ, and if so, the present South Aisle was 
probably the Nave of the older Norman Church. 

Early-English Work. — To this period belongs a great part of 
the South Aisle, with its western lancet window, and Arcade of 
two Arches on the North, richly moulded. Also the Tower 
(excepting the top story) : this opens, on the North, into the Nave 
by a fine richly moulded Arch, and formerly opened Westward by 
a similar Arch, now built up by a wall, in which is a small plain 
round-headed opening. 

On the East is the original lancet window, and a piscina. 

The outside of the Tower is very stately ; it is solidly built, 
with walls nearly 4 feet thick, without buttresses. It is in four 
stages, of which the lower three are of Early-English work. 

Decorated Work. — This includes the whole of the Chancel, 
which has curious cusped lancet windows. The arrangement of 
the East end is very peculiar. The whole width is occupied by 



83 



Teansactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



three cusped lancet windows, and, on each side, a tall cusped 
niche for a statue. Under the three East windows is a rectan- 
gular recess, 8ft. 3in. by about 3ft. high, to hold the Eetable over 
the High Altar ; a very similar Retable-recess exists at St. Mary 
de Crypt, Gloucester. 

Plugs and marks of the hooks for the Velum Quadrigesimale 
exist in the side walls of the Chancel. 

Of Decorated work, are also the South Porch, and several 
windows with beautiful reticulated tracery, which have been 
inserted in the South Aisle and Tower. 

That on the South of the Tower is very curious : it is a two- 
light window, and the lower part of both lights has been cut off 
by a transome to form a " a low side window." 

The walls of the Nave are probably also of this period, but the 
door and window are later. 

Perpendicular Work. — This comprised the top stage of the 
Tower, with its battlements, and the West window and North 
door in the Nave. 

The Nave roof is a good simple specimen of 15th century work, 
low, almost flat, in pitch, with well moulded cambered principals, 
and curved wall-pieces. 

The roof of the South Aisle has been raised at some period, so 
that it now blocks up one of the Tower windows ; it is hidden, 
internally, by a curved plaster ceiling. 

Later Work. — The pulpit is a good richly carved one, of the 
17th century. The West gallery has a fine oak front of the 
18th century. 

On the North, the wall of the Nave has been broken through 
to make a large family pew ; and some windows of no style have 
been added : as well as a Vestry on the South of the Chancel. The 
present access to the ringing floor is very awkwardly managed, 
through the East Tower window, to which an external flight of 
stone steps gives access. 

The Church appears to have been twice consecrated. Traces of 
an original Norman Consecration Cross remain on the West jamb 



i 



Oddington Church. 



SO 



of the South Norman door ; this has a hole in the middle for the 
attachment of a metal cross, as was often the case. 

The second " Hallowing " was in the 14th century, when the 
Chancel, Nave, and South Porch were built. Traces of one of the 
crosses remain on the West jamb of the Porch archway. 

Painted Decoration. — This is of two dates, and is very inter- 
esting. It is painted in the usual earth-colours on stucco in two 
coats — the first, about a quarter-of-an-inch thick, made of lime 
and coarse sand, the next a mere skin, the thickness of card- 
board, made of pure lime and size, forming a very smooth white 
surface. 

The earlier painting is on the walls of the Tower, and is a 
good characteristic specimen of 13th century mural decoration. 
The lower part of the walls is occupied by a dado, about 8 feet 
high, painted in red with the conventional " masonry pattern 
in each rectangle is a red flower. Above that the wall is divided 
by bands, with chevron and flowing patterns, into three stages ; 
each stage consisting of a row of tre-foil headed arches, on columns, 
with caps and bases ; these latter are divided (party-per-pale) down 
the middle, and are half red, half white. In each arched compart- 
ment is a subject with many figures, eight or nine in each, too 
much damaged to make out. Even of what remains, nothing is 
left but their strong red outlines, very boldly drawn. At the 
top, near the centre, a head of Christ, with cruciform nimbus can be 
distinguished. 

Remains of another picture, very different in style, of the 15th 
century in date, exist on the Nave walls, at the N. W. angle. This 
is painted mainly on a deep crimson ground, with a large subject, 
apparently a Doom. The figure of an angel is visible, nimbed, 
with wide spread wings. Other smaller figures, with bushy hair, 
some crowned, can be made out. The flesh is pink, the hair 
yellow, and the angel's wing yellow, with feathers painted on it 
in white. 

By the Perpendicular West window, traces remain of a band 
of flowing pattern, painted in vivid colours — red, white, and bright 
blue : a great deal more is probably still hidden by white-wash. 



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THE NORTHLEACH COURT-BOOK. 
By the Rev. DAVID ROYCE, M.A. 

Read at Stow-on-the-Wold, July 26th, 1882. 

Thorough search will, doubtless, make larger and fuller discoveries 
of what Northleach was in past ages. Of its origin, at present 
no direct evidence is known to exist. Its situation on the Foss — 
its proximity to Norbury camp and the long barrow there — its 
original name identical with the Leche, "which ariseth in the 
Vicarage garden," may betoken a settlement here in pre-historic 
time. 

Of Northleach, in later days and in its zenith, one grand 
memorial abides. " The church standeth by the west end of the 
town and is dedicated to S. Peter, being a very amiable structure, 
and finely adorned with sundry embossed pinnacles, which beau- 
tifieth the church very prettily." Testimony to the prosperity 
and piety of the Northleach merchant of the loth century exists 
in the record "that the body of the church was built, at first, 
very low and dark, and, therefore, to make it more lightsome and 
splendid, one Mr. Fortey, a wealthy clothier, at his own proper 
cost and charge pulled down the Roof and raised the walls thereof, 
nearly as high again as it was before, and covered it with lead." 
(Abel Wantner). 

Of Northleach, in the reign of Henry VIII., the description 
given by Leland is that " it is a praty uplandish town." 

Of the condition of the town, from the reign of Edward VI. to 
that of William and Mary, in its municipal, civil, social, and 
charitable aspect, a valuable memorial is " The Court-Book." 

A venerable volume, such as this is, creates a curiosity which 
must closely scan the material of the book, as well as the 'matter 
by it so dutifully preserved. The eye of the discoverer is charmed 



The Northleach Court-Book. 



91 



by the very accidents of his " find." The courteous reader will be 
indulgent if, even the form, material and penmanship are noted. 

The size of the book is that termed "Pot" from that favourite 
water-mark. The marks, of course, vary with later additions. Its 
leaves, therefore, bear, first, the watery 'impress of " the Pot," 
with tre-foil crested cover and quatre-foil above ; afterwards, 
with cover, frilled with leaves, and quatre-foil and crescent 
above — then follows the double-handled pot, or flagon, with tre-foil 
cresting and crescent above — then, the Foolscap, with bells and 
deeply indented collar set upon a staff* and tre-foil — then, the Post- 
horn, with a kind of cornucopia above it, on a shield — then, the 
Fleur-de-lis, on a crowned shield, plain and also ornamented — and 
then, the Arms of England and London — whilst on the pots, 
beneath, the Post-horn, "or in the corners of the sheets, are the 
initials, or the trade-mark, of the makers. 

For the binding of the third part of the book, two large parch- 
ment leaves of an old church-book of Postils on the Epistles to 
the Philippians and Colossians have been utilized. The penman- 
ship, in double columns, is bold, and enriched by illuminated 
capitals. 

The penmanship of the book itself varies with the culture of 
the scribe. The first few entries, in the reign of Edward VI., 
bespeak the accomplished hand and taste of disendowed and dis- 
established chantry-priest erst of S. Peter's. Two or three of the 
capitals are wreathed with scrolls and ornamented by a profile, 
which may be a portrait. The headings of the Court-years are 
often written in bold text. The ordinances and legal proceedings, 
in Queen Elizabeth's reign, are recorded in an even careful hand. 
Later, the writing is now unskilled, now large and free. Prom 
1637-48 it is most neat, probably from the pen of Mr. Simpson, 
then vicar — then square and stiff — then small and neat — and clear 
and regular at the conclusion. The orthography here and there is 
highly phonetic and occasionally refreshingly Gloucestrian, as will 
presently be seen. From 1603-9, sacred mottoes, as "Jesus, 
" Emanuel," 61 Let all be done to y e Glory of God," are significant 
of the tendencies of the recorder. 



92 



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The arrangement of the book. It begins really in the middle 
a.d. 1548. This portion contains annual lists of officers — court 
proceedings — receipts and disbursements. The end of this part, 
to the extent of eleven years, has unfortunately been cut out. A 
new departure is taken a.d. 1576, at which date a Code of Thirty- 
nine Articles was framed and recorded, to be a rule of Northleach 
duty. 

The first part of the book is a later prefix. It is concerned, 
at first, principally with Mr. Dutton's gift (of the Great House 
and Stock) to the town. This portion of the book is called " this 
side," in contrast and balanced with " the other side," or last part 
of the book concerned with more immediate town business. 

The writer of this paper is here constrained to urge (from fear 
that this subject may appear dry and somewhat late for Archae- 
ology) that this Court is all but extinct. Its usages, terms, and 
names are of a generation byegone. It is enlinked here and there 
with acts and eras in our National History. Again, should any 
mishap befal the Court Book, will it not be well, hereafter, that 
never so meagre or bare an account of it should be found in this 
Society's Heport. 

The following arrangement, or abstract, of the contents of this 
volume of 700 pages will be adopted with a view to conciseness 
and compactness : — 

I. The Court.— From its transactions, it would appear to par- 
take of the nature of a Court-Leet and of a Municipal Council. 
From Saxon times, the Abbot of Gloucester seems, for the most 
part, to have had jurisdiction here. In the hey-dey of the town's 
prosperity, certain corporate functions may have been obtained 
and engrafted. The two pastoral staves, built-in on each side of 
the chancel wall, may commemorate the temporal as well as the 
spiritual authority of the Abbot. 

Abel Wantner states, that "the first charter of privileges was 
granted to the town by King Henry VIIL and renewed in the 
reign of King James I. But on application to the Record Office, 
the answer made is, " Nothing seems to have been known by the 



i 



The Northleach Court-Book. 



93 



Parliamentary Commissioners of any charter in the shape of any 
grant or corporation." There is no allusion to anything of the 
kind in the Court Book. But what is found in it 1 

II. Officers of the Court. — The regular staff was composed of a 
bailiff with his sergeant-at-mace, six arbitrators, two constables, 
and two wardsmen — only occasionally occur sealers of leather and 
surveyors of caps. 1 

The Bailiff. 2 — may have been, originally, the officer of the 
Abbot of Gloucester. Rudder states that " he is annually elected 
at the lord's court." Nevertheless, 7 Elizabeth (p. 189), he is 
selected from four nominees by "the hole condicent and agree- 
ment of the old baylyf and the Burgis." The town, at this date, 
had some voice in the appointment. The bailiffs and other officers, 
annually elected, are successively recorded, excepting during the 
eleven years cut out and one or two small gaps besides. 

The Sergeant-at-mace? — Essential to dignity and execution of 



1 Eliz. 1558. The Bailiff, Thomas Harbard, is engaged, almost monthly, 
in sealing divers " decurs " of leather. 

2 The duties of a bailiff, in the Tewkesbury Court book, are thus 
defined : " The bailiff shall use his best endeavours to examine the assise of 
bread and ale, wekely, or at least every month : and every weeke to viewe 
the marketts, as earner, to see the butchers, fishmongers and others to sell 
their vituals good holesome and at resonable prices." He was to see that 
the people were duly provided with wood and coal. "On the market day 
he is to be present in the market-place to seo good order and for restraint 
of unlawful or excessive buying or selling of corne and grane, and to be 
dilligent upon the usuall dayes and tymes in councell for all bargaynes and 
accomptes to be called or given up by all inferior officers and ministers. 
And, finally, to see all manner officers under him and all others by them 
chargeable for the good of the towne to be peacefull and ready in perform- 
ance of their severall duties." For extracts from this book the writer is 
indebted to Mr. H. Paget Moore. 

3 The duty of this functionary was " at all tymes diligently to attend 
the bailiff to Churche, Courte, common assemblies and to all other places, 
and at all tymes — to accompanie the Constables in their searches in howses 
and victuallers' howses for idell persons, vagrantes, and unlawful games and 
in their night watches, when required ; and to see the soiner watches by 
themselves, or some other duly to be warned. 



1 19 Eliz. 1577. 




Henry Edye 
Richard Parre 




m 



Transactions at Stow-on-the- Wo ld. 



law was this officer. Hence the first of the Thirty-Nine Ordin- 
ances enacts that " The Bayliffe before he holcle counsaille shall 
choose some honest inhabitant to be serieant-at-mace." The silver 
badge of authority stills survives with " J. M. Fush 1779 " engraved 
on it. The bowl or upper end is plain — the lower end resembles 
that of larger maces. 

Arbitrators. — " Syxe honeste discreete burgesses " (ex-bailiffs) 
were " alleway to associate the Bayliff upon the Benche so ofte as 
he shall kepe courte or hold counsaill, which syxe shall for ever 
be called Arbitrators.'' 1 1 These, warned by the serjeant, assembled 
with the bailiff, " apparelled in Gownes or other decent upper 
garments " — nor might they depart without special licence, on 
pain to forfeit for every breache of this orclynance or any parcell 
thereof, xii d to the Crowne of this Eealme. 

The Towne Clerh, chosen yearly before the towne courte by 
the bayly and syxe Arbitrators, was to be an honest inhabitant, 
that can reasonably read and write. His fee for home-plaintiff 
was iiij d ; for foreigner, vi d . 

Respect jmid to Bailiff. — Sergeant, constables, wardesmen, town 
clerk, attended the bailiff from the door of his dwelling to and 
from the Court-house on " every solempne feast-day and coun- 
saile," on pain of xij d to the Crown. 

In due pomp arbitrators and all others attended the bailiff 
from his house to and from St. Peter's at Morning and Evening 
Prayer on every " Solempne ffest," i.e. " Allhollondaye, Christmas, 
New Yeare's, Candlemas, Easter, Whitson, and S. Peter's dayes, 
and the first day of the Reigne of our Sovereigne Laclye Queen 
Elizabeth " on pain of xii d to the Crown. 2 

Disrespect. — To deride, nickname, mock, game, any Arbitrator 
in respect of his office, was visited with the penalty of vi d to the 
Crown, and bodily punishment. 

1 The old words dayesman and dayes (abbr.) occur in earlier entries. 

2 Tewkesbury Book — •" Item, it is ordcyned as a thing most decent 
comclye and much commended by strangers, that all the principal burgesses 
shall twice every Sabboth daye mcete at the Town ITawlc to accompany Mr. 
Bay lives to Church. But being so laudable it is thought needless to be made 
penal 1." 



The Nokthleach Court-Book. 



95 



For " vexacious suits " against good officers executing these 
" holsome ordinances for the well-ordering and comoditye of the 
Towne "was inflicted the extreme penalty of xxxix 8 xi d ." These 
officers were elected, as a rule, in October. 



Convening the Court. — This was done fey ringing the Boothall 
bell thrice in half-an-hour. Every officer and tradesman was to 
appear. Every absentee on the first call after the bailiff's " beinge 
sate" forfeited ii d to the town. Just occasion of absence was to 
be certified by a member of the family who was to attend as 
proxy. 

The following is a specimen of the Court with its full com- 
plement. : — 

Courte holden the xiiij th daye of December in the Niententh 
yere of the Reyne of our Sovereygn Ladie Elizabeth by the 
grace of Lord of England, ffraunce and Ireland, Queene, 
Defender of the Faith &c. by Thomas Parker, baylif, and the 
rest of the Burgess' 



Northlache 
Boroughe 
1577. 



At the Court did appear : - 



Thomas Harbert, 

the elder 
Rafe Broad hurst 
Thomas Eadye 
John Hartshead 
Henry Winchcom 
Lawrence Wilkens 

Richard Partridge 
Thomas ffisher 

George ffisher 
Roger Russell 

Rafe Broadhurst 
Thomas ffysher 
Thomas Ellell 
John Millar 

John Hartshead \ 
Johan Williams J 

Gregorye Towneshend Town 



Arbitrators. 



Constables 



Wardsmen 



Innkeepers 



Bakers 



Bruers 



Thomas Weyman 
Gregorie Towneshend 
Thomas Williams 
Thomas Slye 
Richard Kirkham 
Roger Russell 
Michael Sigeswick 

John Farmer ^) 
Richard Rose J- Butchers 

Gregorie Towneshend J 

Henry Winchcom 1 Fishmongers 
Thomas Churche J & Chandlers 

Henry Eedy 1 n , „ 

Henry Brodhurst f Chaundlers 

Item, at this Courte are chosen 
Gregorie Towneshend & Henry Eady, 
Surveyors of Caps. 

Clark. Henry Farmer Serieant. 



Default in presentment, "winking and concealing of faults," 
on the part of the officers, was fined xii d . 

The Bailiff if defaulters in attendance or accounts, forfeited vi s 
viij d . In case of distraint, attended by officers, he must shew 
forth his mace. Resistance was visited with bodily punishment. 



96 



Transactions at Stow-ox-the-Wold, 



Court Ordinances. — Extracts : — 

To be found out of Master's or Dame's House at night or in 
an Inn or suspicious house, after the ringing of the Boothall bell 
at 9 o'clock, from Allhollantide to Easter : or at 10 o'clock after 
Easter, was to be committed to the stocks by the heels all night. 1 

Wood. — Every inhabitant, every quarter of the year, was to 
he provided with a load of wood, proved by two honest inhabitants 
to be bought or given : in default, iij s iiij d . Every burden, under 
half a load, was first to be brought by the open street to the 
" Hycross " to be officially viewed and attested by the giver or 
seller : default, xij d , or bodily punishment. 2 

Butter must be viewed at the Hycross. " Hary Mynchyn hys 
wife toke oppe iij u of botur ar hyt cam to the Orasse, for faute he 
lose vi s viij d ." 

Trades. — None might set up in trade without a licence from the 
bailiff and payment of a fine, if townsman, of ii s : if foreigner, iij s 
iiij d . Admittances to trades from 1548-1627 are very numerous. 
To select two : " 26 Sep., 1607. We dycl admyt Symon Walbridge 
to occupy the mystery of a barber, his fyne xii d ." " Apr. 13, 1610. 
John Skilhorne to the science of taylor, his fyne if vi d ." Among 
the various trades are "narow wayvar," "brode wayvar," and 
"huswyffs"' weaver. The fees went into the Borough chest. 3 

1 For order and safety by night at Tewkesbury " Every maner person 
being one of the common counsell, and every Taverner, Innh older Chaundeler 
and Victualler shall yearly, at their proper charges, set or hange forthe, before 
theyre houses next unto the streete side, one lanterne and candle or a candle to 
stand in some convenient windowe lighted, beginninge on the Eve of All saints 
until the morrowe after Candlemas daye and there to burn from the beginning 
of night until viij of clocke every night, excepte in the tyme of the moonc 
shininge. And the same to be done by one other in every neighbourhood, 
called "several fyers " upon their common charge at such places as the 
Bayliffes shall agree upon." 

2 25 Eliz., 1583. Richard Rose \ 

Thomas Dutton ! Chosen to fen the moundes and to 
John Miller [ see how hath one Woode. 
Thomas Hellell ) 

3 38 Henry viij. There was a guild called the Weavers with Broad- 
looms. Certain sums standing charged to them were remitted by reason of 
their poverty. Whether these weavers with broad-looms were the same as 
the old Telarii Londonioe doth not appear. — Madox FirmaBurgi. p. 196. 



1 



The Northleach Court-Book. 



97 



Caps. — On Sunday, every master, child, and man-servant, 
going to church and not wearing " a cappe knitte or fulne " accord- 
ing to the statute, forfeited ii d to the town. 1 

Ordinance 39 enacts that all playing, gaming, dancing during 
divine service shall be fined vi d to the poor from the offender, and 
xii d from the owner of the house to the Crown. 

Court matters. — In compiling a few of these, the order given 
in ordinance 5 will be followed. These 2 are more immediately 
matters for Court-leet. 

Assize of bread.— -25 April, 1549, John Prophyt is fined yj s 
viij d for receiving " a horse-lode of bred " from the Burford baker, 
contrary to the order of the xij men. 

23 April, 1562. Wyllyam Wyllyams, dysobedient to the 
Baylyf and constabulls, denyed baking of household breds, save 
only to those y* plesed hym. The Baylyf dyschargyd hym that 
he shulde bake no manar of bred to syll in payn of losing xl s ." 

29 August, 1566. " Ihon Homys (fined thrice before for light 
bread) was w^out brede iij curte daies for y e faute he is mersyd 
iij s . iiijd » 

22 Oct., 1578. "A faut mad bi nicholas bront of Stow of 
the hollde for bringing of bred to mar cat, wyche bred lacket 
weyte, in the peny wytt loufe weyded nomor but nyteene unsis. 

the to peny wytt lofe weying vi and xxx unsis. 

the peny wetten lofe weying vi and xx unsis. " 

25 May 8, 1586. " ii dosen of bred of Brownseils of Stowe was 
taken, beinge ii d wheten bred weighinge xxiiij ounces. Erom 

1 Innitantes de Bourton super aquam et Mawgersbury non fcent pileos 
juxta forman Statuti. — Stow Roll, 1588. 

- Item, it is ordered that the Bayly, or his deputy, associated with 
the sixe Arbitrators, or three of them at the lest, shall, alwaye, from time 
to time once every three wieks or one mooneth, at the utmost, shall come and 
assemble in the Common Towne-hous or Boothall, then and there to kepe 
courte for the keping of the Assize of Bread and Ale, Weights and Measures 
within the Towne and for the provision of holsome victualls in the same Towne 
to be spent and sold. Also for the observacon of the Peace of the Crowne, for 
Reformation of misdemeanors and disorders committed within the Towne : 
also for the due and uprighte hearinge of judgment and awardinge of causes 
and controversies of debt as of Trespas under the value of xl 8 . 

Vol. VII. , part 1 H 



98 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



Spike of Burf orcl ' ' haulf a dossen, to littel by fore ounc'. From 
Hill of Stowe viij penyworth of browne bred wanting in the 
penyloffe v ounc'." 1 

Only one full assize, giving the relative weight of loaf and 
price of corn, is entered. 5 Sept., 1597, "Richard Rose, bayliffe 
wayed the i d . wytt Love of Robert Hall, atte vij s . ij d the boshell. 
wayed 4 oz. half e : w ch by the Book of Assis Lack 1 oz. half e : 
the i d . wheten Loffe wayinge vi oz. Lackinge iij oz. of the assis." 

Yet 19 Oct., 1599. "Ihon Bysshope's and Ihon Halle's peny 
whyte loffe wayde xv oz. and their peny wheten loffe wayd 27 oz." 
Whence this difference in two years 1 

Here may be placed the following order : — 

19 June, 1578. " Hooso ever shall have come in the house, 
other wyes then be lessed [gleaned], and lay the eres all wone waye, 
he shall be set by the helles one day and night and lose the corne." 

Assize of beer. — One of the first entries in this Book illus- 
trates shorter entries in other Court Bolls. 

1549. " All brears shall syle for iiij d , a galen of Ale wythyn 

the house, and iij d forthe of the dore an alequarte forthe of 

the howse for i d ; and they shall syle a wynequarte 2 wythyn the 
howse for i d , and they shall syll theyre ale forthe of the howse 

1 The Baker's Arms. — A balance betiv. 3 garbs or, on a chief barry wavy 
of 4 arg., and az., an arm embowed pjpr. vested gu., cuffed, or, issuing from 
clouds supporting the balances betw. 2 anchors of the second. 

1585. Sept. 7. It is ordered upon greate consideracbn of the excessive 
prices of corn then being and likely to grow greater, and as it is thought 
more by reason of over hastie and greedie buyinge in the market then other- 
wise and in performance of a charge given from the Justices of Peace in the 
countie, by order from the Justices of Assise w ch charge was before put in 
execuson by the Bayliffs against makinge of malte until the feasts of All Saints 
that for the more care to be had thereof no pson militant w th in the said 
towne shall or maye make or converte any barley into malte w th in the said 
towne from and after this psent warning geven untill the said feast of All 
Saints uppon peine to lose for the first offence xl s and again offending to he 
disfranchised. About Bartholomew tide three did so offend, suffered im- 
prisoment and paid a fine every one vi s viii d . — Tewkesbury Boole. 

2 4 Ed. 6. Five men in Dolerstrete and six in Scint Laurence strete, 
Cirencester, " tenucrunt tavcrnas servicie & vendidernnt tantummodo iiiiiini 
le Wine-quart extra foras pro denario. Ideo in mia " — the former ii d . — the 
hitter i d . — Cirencesfer Court Rolls. 



The Noethlfach Court-Book. 



99 



to pore people till hyt come to iij galons. In payne of losynge xii d . 
And everi breware to sett forthe an alestake, In payne of 
losyng iij s . iiij d , — and to serve pore folke with small drynke for 
i d . a galon." 

22 May, 1578. " A norder takyng bi M r baylift & the ad- 
bitereres, that Thomas Slye shall brue nor sell no more alle after 
the x day of Iuli next comyng, for everi potte sellyng shall forfet 
vi s - viij d ." He had been amerced, 7 Mar., 1577, for unlawful 
games within his house. 

Here may be given the 35th ordinance, in substance : — that 
no inn be allowed in the East-end of the town or Burford street 
beyond the houses of Thos. Parker, Gent, (occupied by Rich. 
Phillips, late by Pafe Clayton) on the one side : and of Thos. 
Dutton Esq. (occupied by Oliver Huchins) on the other — nor on 
the Cheltenham nor Fosse end (other than the Antelope only) from 
Thos. Herbert's house on the one side to that of Thos. Dutton, 
Esq., on the other (occupied by Michael Sygeswick) to the utmost 
"fynes" of the Town towards Hampnett. x s for every default. 

None were to be received into any inn or victualling house, 
or depart from it, other than child or covenant-servant, at the 
back or bye-door or window, but only "by the forestrete dore" on 
payne of v s . 

Before proceeding further, may it be suggested that this old 
book is not a mere tissue of tedious and trivial items 1 There is 
that which is to be read between the lines. It is the Constitu- 
tional History of the Borough of Northleach three centuries ago. 
Under these familiar minutes of the Court-books are there not 
discernible special advantages in the old system? Consider the 
livelier and deeper interest of substantial and responsible inhabit- 
ants " in the well ordering and comoditie " of their town — their 
intimate acquaintance with circumstances and cases— the respect 
and self-respect engendered by the dignity and duties of office, the 
influence of respected townsmen or neighbour seated on the 
Bench. There is a charm in the simple records of this venerable 
volume. It constrains one to weigh the old against the new — old 

Bailiff, Bench and Boothall against new Board and Bureau — old 
n 2 



100 



Transactions iT Sto\v-on-the-Wold. 



family-system or real Home- Rule, against the new tendency to 
centralization — and to ask, whether or wherein the new is better. 

Weights and Measures. — 26 Eebr., 1580. " Sarteyn waytes 
were taken by master baylyft of Wyllyam Welleche the Whyche 
Wyllyam dewellyth at Badgworth, the wyche wyetes laket in 
every pound one ounce." 

An apparently remarkable impartiality was displayed when 
even the town bushel was amerced iij s . iiij d , p. 484. 

Under this head may come this folloAving item : — 

1 Eliz., 1588. — "Payd for a commission red at the hycross 
and set upon the Bothall dore — when the money was stampde " 
The last years of Henry the Eighth brought greater corruption 
in the money than could be removed in the two following 
reigns. But Queen Elizabeth happily finished the work : inso- 
much that — " moneta ad suum valorem redacta " is very deserv- 
edly amongst the encomia on her tomb. Her first business 
was to mark all base pieces with either a greyhound, portcullis 
lion, harp, rose or fleur-de-lis ; and soon after followed her 
crying down the finest testoons from sixpence to fourpence half- 
penny, those of a second rate to two-pence and the rest to 
nothing. — Nicholson's Hist. Library. A great sum hereby came 
to the government, but an equal loss to the nation. — Noel 
Humphreys. 

Provision of Wholesome Victuals. — The sanitary care and con- 
trol was such that John Bayly Helcrome (21 Nov. 1549) sold not 
xv pigs to John Grene and John Eurman of Northleach without 
warranty to the bench that the " pyggs were sounde, not mascldc 
and safe from deseasys, and so they have payde the tacke, both 
the sayd party s" 1 1 

Considering the difficulty of travel and transit over this 

Alpine region in those clays, it is remarkable to find from what 

1 The bailiffs jurisdiction extended to the sale or exchange of horses. 

12 Oct., 1G01. Nycolas Pattryckc Servant unto the lorde Appargayneye 
(Abergavenny ?) comyng unto the townc of iNorthlatehe hath chaynged a 
whyte mare w th Henry Blowene for a Shorell nagge In the presents of those 
undare wrytten. Rychard Rose, baylyffe, &c , &.C., and Nicholas Patrieke. 



The Notithleach Court-Book. 



101 



distances Northleach was provisioned. Bakers, as above, came 
from Stow. The names of foreign butchers occur repeatedly, e.g. 
Nycholas Bynkys and Gladden from Bourton, John Hopper of 
Ryssenton, Thos. Knight of Sherborne, Rob. Heynsham of 
Naunton and from Wynchcomb, seven, Will and Rich. Harvye, 
Austin Parsons, Will. Tanner, Will. Chadborne, John Wessyng- 
tone John Baine, or Braine; and Chrystover Greeninge from Guy- 
ting. From Gladden and Harvye was taken " Sartayne currupt 
fleshe " by Mr. Baylye, having been first viewed by Arbitrators 
and Constables, whose names are given, and, "found not manes 
food, was commytted to be brynt." The Wynchcombe butchers 
were repeatedly contumacious and "denyed" their stallage, which 
from 1548 to 1604 rose from iiij d . to xii d . by the year. Mr. 
Baylye, in the plenitude of his power, with his Sergeant-at-mace 
distrained meat specified, knife and cleaver, having been first 
appraised by Arbitrator, butcher, constable and wardsmen men- 
tioned by name. 

7 Septr., 1638. For faggots to burne the measely pigg. 0.0.6 

7. Eliz. 1565. — All bochars y* kept ther shoppe wyndors 
hopyn, after the lythele ryng shall paye xii d . 1 

19 Oct., 1578. — John Kytte of Nether Slaughter brought 
bred not holesome for manes body. 

To sanitary measures belongs " the ridding of the two bridges 
the Crown (" by the Crown dore") and the Duckhouse bridges, 
annually"; and an order (1578) "by Mr. Bay lift and the Arbi- 
tereres," fixed " that the broke be Ryde by the Sonday after 
Sanpetres daye." Any one knowne to washe in the broke shall 
be amersyd everi tyme iiij d . 

Observance of the Peace of the Crown — Reformation of mis- 
demeanors and disorders. — In this book of 700 pages, and 
extending over a century and a half, there are but five disorderly 
cases recorded. 

1 " No butcher shall or maye open hys wyndowes uppon any Sabbath day 
in the morninge, nor hang forth or lay any flesh on the hookes or stalls ; but 
only one wyndowe to be opened and that only during the tyme untill the 
lyttle bell shall be ringed unto divine service, the same to be observed by all 
artificers and shopkeepers upon paync of xij d ." — Tewkesbury Booh. 



102 



Tkax-sactions at Stow-on-tiie-Wold. 



Only two " frays and blude schedes," so frequent in Court 
Rolls occur : and one party Wyllyam Lanchepraye, a narrow 
weaver, is assailant, in both cases. He was "in y e f aute " yet 
" Laurensche ffostard, bailiffe the year before, was " hys suurtie. 

7 Mar., 1577. For infraction of the Statute and ordinance 
for wearing caps — against Edmond Midwinter (bailiff 1592) and 
eight others named, the Benche awarded a distresse for leveing 
upon every poll ij d . 

7 Mar., 1577. Roger Russell is amerced xij d for card-playing 
in his house during Divine service. Will. Lanchberrye and four 
others, named, are amerced vj d every poll for " playing at coyts," 
a distresse granted — an evidence that order and tranquillity were 
the rule in Northleach on the sacred Day of Rest. 

2 Aug., 1577. Thos. ffouler is presented for "walkinge in 
the streets and assaulting the watche men with his sword and 
dagger drawn," " for which he is amerced as the ordinance 
lymites " — showing the personal equipments of the clay. 

Tumbrell and pillory were granted by Hugh, Abbot of 
Cirencester, to the abbey of Gloucester. That pillory and cucking 
or "gomstole" were in requisition appears from an entry, 11 
March, 1577 ; "the baylif and courte hath cosin lauransche 
ffostarde, raffe brodhurste, gregor townsen, gorge fyschar to seysse 
the hole towne for y e pillory & gomstole, &c. 

That terror to evil doers the stocks, or as it is here described, 
"the Stocke-house," was kept in repair, and was once required 
for the apparently better-to-do people of the town. 11 Jan., "1599. 
" Mr. bayllyff and y e hole beynche agreed that Richard Byshoppe 
shall of his own proper coste and charge make & repare the 
stock-howse dore again In as good form & manare as y* was 
before y t was brokene by hym and hys wyffe and that y* be done 
by the nexte Court in payne to lose for that defaulte x s ." The 
entry itself written in a court-like and conspicuous hand — the 
emphatic verdict — the offender, a tradesmen and tenant of a 
burgage of the town, prove that the executive of Northleach 



t 



The Northleacii Court-Book. 



103 



poised the scales of justice with even hand. Whether the violence 
was for rescue or escape does not appear. 

22 Aug., 1608. The very embodiment of law and order is 
assailed. Robert Hall, bayliff, complains before the Arbitrators 
that the wife of John Ohurchouse has abused his wife by calling 
her vile and opprobrious names. On the evidence of Elizabeth 
Bignell (namesake of the founder of the south" chantry), the 
Arbitrators hold that M r . Bailie's wife has been much wronged, and 
" censured " said Ohurchouse that she should be set in prison. 

From town-broils to the more immediate peace of the Crown, 
June 12, 1565. " An ordur by Mr. baylyff and burges' that every 
hows holder w th all hys howseold shall come & wayte upon y e 
quenes wache upon synte petres evyn In payne of losyng for 
every faute xij d and hys body to preson." 

An entry relates to that weapon of precision in the Flint Age, at 
Senlac, at Agincourt and in the pastime of this County, on Wold, 
in Y ale and Forest, still. " Mr. Baily and burgesses order that all 
inhabitants with their able servants shall assemble in the field 
upon Sonclay come Senight next with sufficient bowes & arrowes 
answering the lawes in y* respect and there every one to shoot 
upon paine to every one making defaute vi d to the Crowne." 1 

From divers entries, 1594-1600, the Town Armour consisted of 
" To coslatts comply t (i.e. with gorget, pauldrons and taces) to 

1 18 April, 29 Eliz. Iuratores prsesentant quod metse sagittales apud 
Bourton super aquam sunt in decasu et dies dat'est ad reparandas ante 
festum Ascensionis Dni prox. 

26 Sept., 29 Eliz. Iurat. prsesentant quod inhabitantes de Mangersbury 
non habent arcus et calamos juxta formam statuti et dies datus est ad 
providend : ante proximan Curiam sub pena cuiuslibet facientis default, 
forisfac. iij s . iiij d . 

16 April, 30 Eliz. Iurat. praesent. quod metse sagittales apud Adel- 
stroppe sunt in decasu et dies datus est ad emendendas ante festum 
Ascensionis Dni prox. sequen. sub pena xx s . 

8 Oct. 5 lac — Duodecim prsesent. quod residentes infra Burgum de 
Stowe minime usi fuerunt arcubus et sagittis Ideo quilibet eorum in 
mia ij d . 

" Tewlesbury Booh."— Amongst the common arms of the town are 10 
bone bowes, 14 quivers and arms in them, 13 sheaves of arrows. 



104 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Woli;. 



pikes, to sordes, to dakecars, to callybers, a muscat, 1 2 peirs of 
Allman ryvats (a light German armour) a blacke by lie, a hedepiece 
a flaske and a toche box." The quota of Northleach amounted 
only to two soldiers. Accordingly, in 1601, the following "Con- 
tributors gave money towards y e keping of two soldiers :" — 





d. 




d. 




d. 


John Rose 


vi. 


John Hills 


vj. 


John ffifelde 


iiij. 


Nathaniel Malle 


vj. 


Walter Eyles - 


vj. 


J ohn Hawkins - 


iiij. 


John fifeldes man 


vj. 


Thos. Hall - 


vj. 


Will. Tanner - 


ij. 


Thos. Bateman - 


vj. 


W m Miller - 


iij. 


George Chester - 


ij- 


Rich. Bateman - 


iiij. 


Thos. White - 


iij- 


Will. Wadley - 


iiij. 



In the same year, bearing witness to danger in Ireland, at the 
end of Elizabeth's reign, there is this item, " Paid to the High 
Constable at Birdlip towards the setting forth of souldyers, four 
several times, viij s . xiiij s . and xiij s . iv d . twice. Item, to soldyers 
and to carry their armour vj s . ix d . There are charges for dressing 
the armour — for powder at the matche — for bringing the pyckes 
from Sysseter and for a pair of soldier's shoes, xx d . In 1628, is 
the ominous entry " paycl to Bayly Neale more w c h he paid the 
man that came about the Artillery." 

Oct. 18, 1643. The king has been at Northleach, after the 
relief of Gloucester, on his way from Snowshill to Alscot. 

1 1594. This yeere a precept was sent from the L. Lieutenant for xij 11 
which (as it was said) was imposed but forborne in the tyme of great sick- 
ness, A 0 Rile xxxv 0 and the same was paide for new furnishing & supplyinge 
the coffion armors of the countie sent into Irelande & Brytanie. 

1595. August. Received precept from the L. Lieutenant for ready 
supplies of o r towne armor & to change o r 15 Archers into Musketters &c. 

1598. Great rumours spread throughout the realme of daungers & 
troubles then imminent wherupon the country was charged w th present 
supplies of defect of armors & to chaunge our xv bowes to musketts to 
supply w ch cost us in armorie above xx 11 & iiij 11 x s &c. 

1599. This yeere in Januarie was imposed for Ireland service iiij 11 x s . 
Also in Julie xxvj 11 viij s 

1600. Dec. a precept for Ireland service xx s . In Maye xx s but xl s was 
then collected. 

1601. Oct. a precept was sent to make upp 250 men for the whole 
countie for Ireland service & the lyke in Januarie next for 200 men, but no 
money required in respect of the great subsidies granted at the parliament 
before Xmas last. — Tewkesbury Boole. % 



The Northleach Court-Book. 



105 



Ree seaved of widow Westmacott for wholer's rent 2 1 . 6 s . 0 d . 
whereof fower and thirty shillings was deduckted for oates which 
the constables had for the Kinge's use. 

£ s. d. 

Payde to John Roades for bread for the souldiers - - 0 3 0 

Payde for the Prinses footman 0 12 0 

Payde for the towne armes 0 16 0 

Payde for one pecke of oates for a souldier - - - 0 0 4 

Oct. 7, 1645. After Naseby, Sir Thos. Fairfax with his 
whole army quartered at Northleach. Hence, possibly, the follow- 
ing entry " the Towne box was broken by the souldiers writings 
were out and parchments 22, the booJ:e of accounts, 7 bonds, and 
a bundle of papars — the parchments bound together with a thrid, 
the papars with a pack thrid, the bonds put on the booke of 
accounts." The next January the box was mended and the 
writings "rendredup." 

Oct. 27, 1646. Charges for soldier and to Mr. Rowden for 
waynes and oxen xij s — the last recorded disbursement in that war. 

1626, 38. Divers proclamations are entered. It was a 
reign of proclamations. The purport of one is specified. 

Septr. 7, 1631. For reading the proclamacion concerninge 
Tobacco, 1 0. 0. 7d. 

Ship money. — The excitement caused by this tax leaves its 
mark on these pages — 1637-8, "Mr. Winchcomb and Rich. Hall 
are payd for theyr charges to go to the Shreefe about the shiping 
money, xv s ." 

Chimney money. — April 5, 1637. To Thos. Greening for 
chimny money for the poore 0. 12. 0. For a graphic description 
of the unpopularity of this tax and for squibs and ditties relating 
to it. — See Macaulay's Hist, of England, Vol. I., 288. 

The last court matter specified in ordinance 5 is — The due 
awarding of cause and controversy of debt and trespass under xl s . 
The process to be observed occupies a large portion of the Code of 

1 A later act prohibiting the planting this herb, April 1, 1652, affected 
the interests of many in this county. Numerous petitions and cries went 
up against it. Ultimately a 3 d . tax was laid, and a bill passed, allowing 
planters to enjoy their plant the year 1653 only. 



106 



Transactions at Stow- on-the- Wold. 



Ordinances. Briefly, it is thus : — Plantiff causes sergeant-at-mace 
to summons defendant. The two clerks enter the action in this 
"Towne Booke." The fees to the sergeant for home plaintiff 
i d ; for foreigner, ii d : to the town clerk ij d . and iij d , respectively, 
are for ever to be called " Due Sylver" 

Upon non-appearance on the first summons, a second for the 
next court was assigned, wilful default was amerced vj d . to go to 
the poor — the third, called " the Somonce of peril/ disregarded, 
judgment was awarded against defendant and costs and due silver 
levied by distress. 

Full formulae are given for entry in the Court-book. Briefly, 
thus : — Plaintiff, name, title, due silver paid, summons issued, 
demand or satisfaction, proof, prayer for distress and costs. 
Defendant, name, title, due-silver, confession of the action, prayer 
for favour, stallment of debt or damage on the word of one on the 
Bench. If he gainsay or stand to trial of proof, then, prayer 
for costs and wrongful trouble. 

Shorter entries precede the Code of Ordinance, and, after- 
wards, the above-ordained formulae subsided into a shorter compass. 

1578. Thos. Haykoke enturyd a axcyon of dethe agaynst 
Thos. Dansar for vj s . viij d . This Thos. Haykoke was admitted " a 
mersar " in " Auberelle" 1567, and the following January caused 
the horse of Thos. Schorte of Hampnet, "to be reste " for xiij s . 
iiij d 

15 Dec, 1577. — " Wyllyam Jones, vicar of Windrush, en- 
turd " axcion against Elizabeth Hichman, execkatrikes of Wyllyam 
Hickman, of Littel Risington, in a playe of clete of xxxij s . & ther 
a pone hath rested her horse." 

The formulae, according to the Code, fill many pages — to 
select two : — I. Redress of woman's wrongs. II. Vindication of 
the lowly. 

(I.) Febr., 1577. Agnes Lawrence of Bourton, foreigner, 
pays her due silver, demands of John Groves, once lawfully 
somonced the some of iij s . ix d . long tyme heretofore due for certein 
wares delivered to his sonne to his care, as shall sufficiently be 
proved, and 2^ayet1i distrcsse. 



The Northleach Court-Book. 



107 



John Groves, in default, is assigned a second "somonce" 
(8 Mar.) — for contempt of which he is amerced vj d . — on a "som- 
once of perill" he appears, March 29, prayeth favour, by the 
ivord of Thos. Parker, gent, bailiff. Agnes Lawrence is satisfied 
with iij s . in full contentment of her demand. 

(II.) Febr., 1577. Margaret Plochatt, inhabitant, having 
paid her due silver, demandeth of Andrew ffowler once somonced 
iij s . vj d . currant ; a nether skirt of a smocke and kerchief of clothe 
or their just value for her wages, as shall be proved before the 
Bench, of whom she praieth a distresse. 

Andrew ffowlar (8 Mar.) upon the second somonce appearing 
denieth the demand, putteth himself on just proof, which the 
Bench hath assigned her to bring forthe. The next court plain- 
tiff proves her demand — defendant, having discharged all duties, 
satisfies plaintiff, on the word of Henry Winchcomb. She is to be 
paid on Easter holy daies, and before Easter a single kerchief and 
skirt of a smock is to be delivered in contentment of the whole 
demand. 

Lastly — Northleach, the minister of Justice, was, likewise, the 
handmaid of Charity. 

1581. Hugh Westwood's foundation of the Grammar school 
w as in negociation. 

Item, Payd x d . more than was getheryd y e first time that we 
went to Mastres Westwood's, when we rec d . chicken and wyne. 

Item, payde Thos. Elehylle for a pottle of maumyssay, 
when we went to Sir Gylys Pollys to Mastre Westwood. 

7 Eliz. Thos. Collins, baylyf, and Rafe Brodhurst are 
" overseears of y e Scholehouse." 

This year a memorial seems to have been copied into this 
book, expressive of the gratitude of the good town-folk towards 
their benefactor. Of this (possibly torn out by Fairfax soldiers) all 
that remains is at the foot of the previous page (191) " posteryty 
according to our bounden .... in towne schole and every place 
at all tymes shalbe dayly oratory unto God Almighty for the most 
godly and happie estate of y r worshipp and our very good lady, 
the lady your wief." 



108 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



William King, 23rd H. 8, gave land to Northleach known as 
" the Churche Taverne." It was let on the condition that "the 
said Rome or Taverne w th the Laufte be kept in good and lawful 
reparacion and to permit the towne to have the use of the same 
one month at Whitsontyde " — A stock from the rent was, in 1603, 
lent to old and young tradesmen. The interest in 1608, was 
devoted to the provision of bread for four poor aged impotent 
almsfolk being in church " in prayer-time every sabaoth." In 
1656, as might be expected, pro "prayer" lege "sermon." The 
names of recipients and the bakers " setting the bread " are given. 
Among the former is "the blinde boy." Houses were afterwards 
bought with interest money — hence lists of Town tenants and 
Town-bonds. One house is recorded as bought of Poole Birt 1 who 
bought of Wayneman.. Richard Wayneman or Wenman married 
Anna, daughter of John Bush, whose fine brass still remains in 
the nave floor. The Wenmans lived at Witney, where the town of 
Northleach had a house, occupied, by John Croftes, but after- 
wards sold. 

That which occupies a great part of the first portion of the 
Court Book is " The Great House" the gift of W. Dutton, Esq. 
Immortalizing the donor is this significant entry : — 
Item, in ringing 2 at M r . Dutton's death - - - v s . 
Item, at the possession giving of Mr. Dutton's house - xviiij s . 

This house was let piecemeal to 17 Tenants, whose names 
and payments are given. They occupied on the condition of 
vacating if a Clothier or Weaver in fustians applied. 

1 Poole Byrt and Henry Byrt sons of Henry Byrt, Baunton, yeoman, 
appear as witnesses to the marriage of Richard Whitmore, Esq. , (the builder 
of the manor house of Nether Slaughter), with Elizabeth sole daughter and 
heir of John George, of Baunton, Esq., solemnized in the chancel of Baunton 
Church, by Henry Topp, Curate and Registrar, after being first married the 
same morning in the parlour of said Mr. George by Andrew Solace, justice 
of the peace. — Baunton Register, 1654, Feb?'. 26 

2 Sir Ralph, brother of this William, seems to have given (from the 
the inscription) the Tenor bell. 

"S r RALFE DUTTON'S HONOURABLE AND WEEL FOR EVER TELL 
THE CQRRS OF ALBORNE CAST US TO MAKE YE PEAL GO WELL." 
WILL Q COR 0 17OO. 

Enriched with Royal Arms and foliage, and very floriated friezes. 

i 



The Nokthleach Court-Book. 



109 



Sir W. Dutton gave also £200 stock to the town. Long 
lists of persons, holding this stock by Town Bonds, recur. Amongst 
them are gentlemen as Giles Lawrence of Haselton and Giles 
Olyffe, and farmers of the neighbourhood. 

Mr. Dutton retained a certain control .over his benefaction. 

July 31, 1640. This day 5 bonds for the great house money 
were taken out and delivered to Mr. Rowden, baily, to be carried 
to Mr. Dutton for his direction how to be disposed. 

A list of trustees of the Town lands 2 contains names of 
mark : — 

2 In 1658. William Dutton 



John Atkinson 
John How, sen. 
William Ouldseworth 
Robert Brierton , 
William Banister J 
John and Charles Dan vers, Knights 
Anthony Rudd, Bp. of S. David's. 



feoffees in trust uppon all 
>Esqs. busines for y e burrow of 
Northlach. 



Esqs 



J>Gen. 



Thos. Maule, bayly,^ 



Henry Winchcombe 
Rich. Rose 
John Millard 
John Stone 
Robt. Hall 
Will. Bromsgrove 
John Didcocke 
Barnard James 
John Bishopp 
Anthony Chestroe 
John ffifield. 



xii of the in- 
habitants of 

Northleche 
appointed by 
, the feoffes a- 
f foresaid for 
the govern- 
ment of the 
land afore- 
said. 



Butchers. 



Slie, Thomas } 
Towneshend, George J- Brewers. 
Wymon, Thos. J 



Robt. Atkinson 
Willm. Dutton 
Robt. Ashfield 
Thos. Parker 
John Ashfield 
Henry Atkinson 
Rich. Parker 
Michael Parker 
Robt. Lawrence 
Will. Harbent 
Thomas Dutton 
Rich. Rose 
Will. Ellhill 
Walter Ellhill 
Farmer, John 
Hartshead, Will. 
Rove, Rich. 
Segewick, Henry ) 

Minor Charities are recorded as of poor children's outfit when 
they went to London — a covenant ' with Thos. Slye to supply 
Embrye's child Mary with meat, drink lynen ollene hose &, shewes 
and all things relating to the bodye & to kepe her no wors then 
hys own chylde, and said Mary not to goe abrode Idelye to trobell 
& burden the towne any more dewring the term of x yeres, many 
entries of apprenticeships stipulate for the welfare of the appren- 
ticed. 

Gifts there are as of Lady Atkinson's of 10 K — a merry peal 
hailed Tumbrell's gift of 6 U . Annual largesses are memoralized 
by the entertainments of those who brought them as of the men 



110 



Transactions at Stow- on-the- Wold. 



of Sir Ralph Dutton, Mr. Stephens (Barrington) and the cele- 
brated Sir W. Coventry. The book contains instances of care for 
the sick, as when Mr. Breach, Chirurgeon, of Ciceter (1688) 
received l u . for healing Rich. Naish his hands — in "tornes" for 
the Hospital and relief of those from it — care for "pore people and 
pore travellers," yea, and for those obnoxious to the Parliament, as 
in almes to six Irish men and women and an Irish gentleman in 
necessity — care for the dead in shrowd and burial — care in judi- 
cious loan as in taking " Goody Smarte's pawne " of two pieces of 
cloth for the loan or l u . 10 s . — care for the rights of commoners in 
" dowling " and " woonting " the downs — care for public safety in 
the regular " warning of the watch " and in discharging the town 
of undesirable inmates — care for time-honoured traditions as in the 
regular half-yearly payment for ringing the CurfeAV 1 and in the 
observance of the old Calendar Days for secular payments, S. 
Andrew's, Candlemas, Easter, Low Sonday, Holy Rood, S. Bartho- 
lomew's days, All hollantide and that great anniversary of the 
Wold — " Stow Fayre " — care for the buildings of the Borough, 
now forgotten, Boothall, Market-house, Conduit, High Cross 
(the embattlement alone survives at the Vicarage door) Cestone 
house, the house under which the cellar was reserved for the 
Churchwardens for six weeks, if occasion should require, for the 
Church-goods and for the Great or Long House aforesaid — care for 
the market-tree duly " lapped " and for a myriad of matters here, 
necessarily, omitted — a multiplicity and diversity of care but all 
dulyheeded and recorded in the venerable volume of "The Court 
Book of Northleach." 

1 Thos. Payne and John Smithier are appointed (IS Oet., 1618) to ringe 
the Curfill bell and to have for theyr labo 1 ' x s . 



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Grevndofr Chapel and Chantry, 



H7 



NOTES on the GREYNDOUR CHAPEL and CHANTRY 

IN THE 

CHURCH OF NEWLAND, CO. GLOUCESTER, 

AND 

ON CERTAIN MONUMENTAL BRASSES THERE. 

By SIR JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., &c. 

The south chapel in this church was doubtless built as a 
mortuary chapel by one of the early owners of the estate of 
Clowerwall, now Clearwell, in this parish. The style of the 
architecture would mark it as having been erected about the end 
of the first quarter of the 14th century. The owner of Clearwell, 
at this period, was a certain Sir John Joce, or Joyce, Knt., whose 
recumbent effigy and that of his wife, resting upon an altar 
tomb, remain in the south aisle of the church. It is likely 
that this tomb was originally in the chapel, and that it was 
removed in the circumstances presently to be noticed. 

Margaret, daughter and heir of John Joce, married a certain 
Robert Greyndour, who, by that marriage, acquired the Clearwell 
estate, which, from him, descended to his grandson Sir John 
Greyndour, Knt., who was Sheriff of Gloucestershire in 1405 and 
1411, and died in 1416, on 30th October in which' year his 
writ diem clausit extremum was issued, but unfortunately the 
Inquisition taken thereon is not extant, so we know not the day 
of his death. His son and heir Robert Greyndour married 
Johanna daughter and heir of Thomas Rugge, or Rigge, of Charle- 
comb, co. Somerset. Robert Greyndour died 19th Nov. 1443. His 
wife survived him, and obtained Letters Patent, dated 6th Nov. 
1445, 1 to found a perpetual chantry in the Church of Newland, at 
the altar of St. John Baptist, and St. Nicholas, and Royal licence 

1 Rot. Pat. 24th Henry VI., Part I., m, 29. 



118 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



to endow it to the extent of £12 per annum, for which purpose 
lands and tenements in Lydney, Aylberton, and Newland were 
assigned, and a certain J ohn Clifford was recognised in the Patent 
as the first chaplain of the chantry. 1 

Johanna Greyndour soon afterwards married Sir John Barre, 
of Rotherwas, co. Hereford, Knt., who, in her right, in 1448, 
presented to the chaplaincy of the chantry upon the resignation 
of John Clifford. He presented again in 1457, 1459, 1463, and 
1465, and died 14th Jan., 1482-3. 2 His wife survived him, and by 
her will, dated 3rd Feb., 1484/5, directed that her body should 
be buried in the church of Newland, in her chapel of St. John 
Baptist and St. Nicholas, with her husband Robert Greyndour. 
She died 17th June, 1485, and her will was proved 23rd July 
following. 3 

The next presentation to the chantry was made on the 2nd 
December, 1485, by Thomas Baynham and Alice his wife, the 
daughter of William Walwyn, who, upon the Inquisition taken 
upon the death of Dame Johanna Barre, was found to be her 
nearest heir. 4 She died in 1518, and her monumental Brass, as 
supposed, is in the church of Micheldean. She was the mother of 
Sir Christopher Baynham, of Clearwell, Knt., who presented to 
the chantry in 1521, 1530, and 1531, and died 6th October, 1557. 
His grandson, Thomas Baynham, of Clearwell, Esq., died in 1611, 
leaving two daughters his coheirs, the elder of whom, Cecilia, 
was then the wife of Sir William Throckmorton, Knt., and the 
younger, Johanna, the wife of John Vaughan, of Kinnersley, co. 
Hereford, upon the partition of the estates, Clearwell inter alia, 
fell to the share of Sir William Throckmorton and his wife Cecilia, 
from whom it has descended to the present possessor Mr. Wyndham 
Quin. 

We have now reached that part of the subject to which what 
we have already written must be considered as merely an intro- 
duction. In the midst of the chapel is a slab, on which are two 
monumental Brasses, representing a gentleman and his wife, to 

1 Dated the same day, Rot. Pat. 24th Henry VI., Part 2, m. 17. 

2 Inq. p.m. 22nd Edw. IV., No. 39. 3 In P.C.C. 16 Logge. 
4 Inq. p.m. 1st & 2nd Henry VII, No, 8 Exclieq. 



PCATE XVI 




NOTE: The hrdar-Jtllet V-the shields, are lost, as Me also the, knees.leyt.ftet, spurs, ground ,V past of sword, of Malefipire] 



Scale <{f Inches^ U ■ ■ * ■ ■ ■ ° S " ±& 1 &*t 



Greyndour Chapel and Chantry. 



119 



which we invite the attention of our readers. The monument has 
perplexed every one who has given any attention to it. In Haines' 
Manual the following note occurs : — (L, p. cxij:) "c, 1445. Sir 
Christopher Baynham, Knt., and lady," Newland, Gloucestershire, 
but in his list of Brasses in Gloucestershire (II., p. 69), he gives 
no name, but says simply " a man in armour." We also have been 
not a little puzzled with it. The legs of the knight, together with 
the shields, which filled the four matrices in the slab are lost, as 
is now also the whole of the legend with which the slab was 
circumscribed, which creates great difficulty in the identification 
of the subject. 

From the circumstances which we have stated relative to the 
foundation of the chantry, and the situation of the slab in the 
position in which the bodies of founders are usually deposited, we 
had at first no hesitation in adopting Haines' date, c. 1445, and 
concluding that the Brasses commemorated Robert Greyndour and 
his wife Dame Joan Barre, and we so assigned them in reporting 
the visit of the Society to Newland, in May, 1882 (Yol. VI., 
p. 365). Our attention having, however, been directed to a plate 
of these Brasses in the Antiquarian Repertory, published in 1780, 
at which date the Brass was more complete, and the legend shewed 
the words : " die Maie . . . anno dni Millimo cccc . . ." l we con- 
cluded that one or other of the persons commemorated died in the 
month of May, and as neither Robert Greyndour nor his wife died 
in that month we supposed that the Brass commemorated Sir John 
Greyndour and Alice his second wife. The word " Maie " is cer- 
tainly a misreading, and from the blank following it, which should 
have contained the name of the month, we believe the word 
"Maie" is rather a misreading of "Mensis," perhaps contracted 
on the Brass, than of " Maii," and we now desire to withdraw the 
note above referred to, so far as it relates to Sir John Greyndour, 
and to adhere to our former conclusion that Robert Greyndour 
and his wife Joan are the persons commemorated. 

The man is represented entirely in plate armour (see PI. XVI.), 

except his head, which is bare, and the hair clubbed. No trace of 

1 These words remained on the stone in 1848 when Haines published 
his work, 



J 20 



Transactions at Sto\v-on-the-Woli>. 



mail is visible. To the breast and back plates are attached seven 
taces, to which are buckled two tuilles of the usual form, to protect 
the thighs, and the legs are encased wholly in plate. The sword is 
suspended by a belt which passes diagonally over the taces, and the 
anelace is affixed over the same on the right side, but the manner 
in which it is fastened is not visible. The shoulders are protected 
by epaulieres, and the left, or bridle arm, is more fully defended 
than the right, which, being required for action is more lightly 
weighted. In this instance the extra defences are fastened in a 
peculiar manner by spring pins which passed through staples, 
which, fixed to the armour beneath, penetrated the upper defences. 
These pins have a triangular piece springing from each side and 
pivotted near the point. This would allow the pin to be pushed 
through the staple, but once through, the side pieces would spring 
out and the pin could only be removed by pressing 
them both into it (Jig. 31). This method of fastening 
on the extra defences has not received the attention 
it deserves, and the pins having the appearance of 
small daggers on the armour have puzzled many 
persons. Examples may be seen on the Brass of 
Thomas de Mohun, at Lanteglos juxta Fowey ; cir.. 
1440, figured by Dunkin in his Monumental Brasses of 
Cornwall ; on a Brass of a member of the Cutts 
family, figured by Boutell, and assigned to the same date; and 
on a Brass almost identical with the Mohun Brass, representing 
Sir John Throckmorton, of 1445, at Fladbury Church, in Wor- 
cestershire, figured by Haines, in the Introduction to his Manual 
of Monumental Brasses, p. 191 ; also on a later Brass (cir. 
1469) of Nicholas Carevv ; figured by Colonel Harding. We 
cannot recal any others. Simple pins for fastening on the extra 
defences are not uncommon. Several examples have been kindly 
brought under our notice by the Baron de Cosson, but these 
were in danger of slipping out, whereas the springs under notice 
would be perfectly secure. The gauntlets have long cuffs and are 
not fingered, but have three joints for closing the hand. The ge- 
noulliPres have pointed plates below, and the solerets are long and 
pointed, consisting of six plates ; and the rowels of the spurs 




Greyndour Chapel and Chantry. 



121 



are, what is called, guarded, but spurs were never so worn. The 
ring is simply a device of the sculptor to prevent the points being 
bent up and broken. 

The military costume represented on this Brass is that worn 
in the second quarter of the 15th century. The spring-pins, 
according to Haines, were introduced cir. 1435, and both in respect 
to the armour and the fashion of clubbing the men's hair leaving 
a bare space above the ears, agrees well with the date of the 
death of Robert Greyndour, which occurred in 1443, as stated 
above. Towards the middle of the century men again began to 
wear their hair long. The lady's costume would seem to be a 
little later. 

The helm represented underneath the man's head demands 
particular attention. It is not, as is usually the case, engraved on 
the same plate as the figure, for, originally, there would not appear 
to have been any helmet. It is not a helm to be worn in war, but 
for fighting at the barriers on foot, and occasionally at jousts, 
of which it is a remarkably good example. It is, however, nearly 
a century later in date than the armour represented on the figure, 
and two portions of it have been cut away to adapt it thereto. 
There is an example of a very similar helmet at Wimborne, figured 
in the Archaeological Journal, Vol. XXXIX., p. 185, and perhaps 
a still better example Vol. XXXYIL, p. 527, of the same work, 
figured Plate VI., No. 78. Thjs last is of the date 1510-1525. 

Nearly contemporary with this helm, though probably later, 
is a somewhat oblong brass plate 12 ins. by 7fins. inlaid above the 
heads of the two figures, with which it cannot possibly have 
any connection, though it has been treated of as the crest of 
the man. Mr. Nicholls, in his Forest of Dean, like others from 
whom we might have expected greater accuracy, has supposed 
it to be of the 15th century. He has figured it on his title 
page and on p. 217, and describes it as a " curious representation 
of the iron-miner of that period equipped for his work. It repre- 
sents him as wearing a cap, holding a candle-stick between his teeth, 
handling a small mattock with which to loosen, as occasion required, 
the fine mineral earth lodged in the cavity within which he worked, 



122 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Woli>. 



or else to detach the metallic incrustations lining its sides, bearing 
a light wooden mine-hod on his back, suspended by a shoulder 
strap, and clothed in a thick flannel jacket, and short leathern 
breeches tied with strings at the knee." It should be further 
stated that he is shewn as standing upon a wreath on an esquire's 
helmet decorated with mantling. It is scarcely conceivable how any 
person with even a slight knowledge of heraldy could suppose this 
design to be the crest of a knight of the 15th century. This 
engraving was missing when the " Repertory " was published, but 
it has since been replaced. 

One other point remains to be noticed on this monument. Cut 
longitudinally on the slab between the two figures are the words, 
in Roman letters : " s R Christopher baynham kT " This has led 
Haines in one place, as stated above, to attribute the monument 
to that gentleman, but he died as late as 1557, when the fashion 
of armour had entirely changed. 

We have been favoured by Mr. R. Fryer, of Coleford, with a 
gutta percha impression of the seal of this chantry. It was a 
fine seal of the vesica form 2% in. by If in., and is stated to have 
been taken from the seal appended to a lease of some of the 
chantry lands, granted by John Alexander the chantry priest in 
17th Henry VII. (1502). The device consists of the figures of 
St. John Baptist and St. Nicholas the Bishop, with a shield charged 
with the arms of the Beauchamp family : a fess betw. six crosses 
crosslet bottonee, between their heafls. St. John is represented on 
the dexter side. The costume he wears can scarcely be dis- 
tinguished, but he appears to have a staff in his right hand and a 
pastoral staff, having on the top a figure of the Agnus dei. St. 
Andrew stands on the sinister side clad in eucharistic vestments 
and wearing a mitre. He bears in his left hand a pastoral staff and 
his right is elevated in the act of giving the benediction. It is 
circumscribed with this legend : 

►J< %xq\U Catarte Wtohtxtt [^regn&tmr &vmtg]er jiul[an&] 

The letters within the brackets are defaced. The impression 
is not in a condition to be engraved, but we are not without hope 
of being able to discover a more perfect example. 



GREYNDOUR CHAP.EL AND CHANTRY. 



123 



Before concluding our remarks on the monuments in this 
chapel, we would mention that there is another slab having the 
matrix of a Brass of a man in armour, apparently of about the 
same date as that we have described. In the south-east corner is 
an altar slab 7 ft. 4 in. by 2 ft. 8 in., with jts five crosses distinctly 
marked, 1 appropriated as a gravestone to Thomas Baynham, Esq., 
who died the 2nd day of October, 1611 in the 76 yeareof his age. 
He marryed Mary the daughter of Sir William Winter of Lydney, 
knt., and left by her two daughters, Cicely marryed Sir William 
Throckmorton, knt., & Joan marryed John Vaughan, Esq., of 
Oliro, in the county of Radnor." And there are several other grave- 
stones on the floor in memory of other members of Baynham 
and Throckmorton families. 

The Commissioners appointed under the King's Commission, 
dated 13th Feb., 2nd Edw. VI., to take the survey of all the colleges, 
chantries, &c, which had fallen into the King's hands by the dis- 
solution of those charitable institutions, thus certify concerning 
the Greyndour Chantry. Certificate No. 22. 

The chantry of Blakroke ats Greyndour Chantry or Scole, 
founded by one Robert Greyndo r Esq. by licence obteyned of King 
Henry the sixt, and landes and tenements gyven to the same to 
thentent to manteyne a discrete priest sufficiently lerned in thart of 
Grammar to kepe a Gram r scole half ffree that ys to seye takeing 
of Scolers lerning Grammar viij d the quarter and of others to rede 
iiij d the quarter and to celebrate at the altar of St. John and St. 
Nicholas praying for the flounders sowle and all Christian sowles. 
S r Roger fforde Incumbent and Scolemaster there of thage of lv 
years havyng no other lyving then in the said Chantry which y s 
yerely xj H . The landes and tent s . belonging to the same are of 
the yerely value of xj H xiiij s vj d whereof in reprises yerely ij s x d . 
To the pore of v s viij d and so remayneth clere by the yere - vj s . 
Ornaments thereto belonging valued at iiij u iij s xj d . Plate and 
jewells to the same, x ounces valued at xl s . 

1 The number of Altar slabs thus treated in this church is very re- 
markable. There are no fewer than four now to be seen besides the one 
mentioned in the text. The High Altar, a very grand slab, 9ft. 4in. by 2 ft. 
5in. is laid underneath the present altar, and therefore, fortunately, at present, 
out of harm's way. 



124 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



As Roger Ford was not, like the other Chantry Priests here, 
assigned a pension, it is presumed he was still continued as School- 
master, or provided for elsewhere. We have not at present found 
any grant of the lands of this Chantry further than a lease for 21 
years of all the possessions, made, on 17th June, 2nd Edw. VI., 
to Lewis Williams, at the annual rent of <£11 7s., he to preserve all 
the said premises in repair. 1 

Annexed is a list of Institutions to this Chantry from its 
foundation to its dissolution. 

1445-6. John Clifford, named as chaplain in the Letters Patent 
founding the Chantry. 2 

1448. March 4. William Coburley, chaplain, admitted to the 
perpetual Chantry of Robert Greyndour, in the Parish 
Church of Newland, vacant by the resignation of John 
Clyfford, last chaplain, upon the presentation of Sir John 
Barre, Knt., and Johanna his wife, sometime wife of Robert 
Greyndour, Esq., of the same Chantry the true patrons. 3 

1457. Oct. 30. Richard Devyn was admitted to the perpetual 
Chantry, in honour of St. John Baptist and St. Nicholas, in 
the Parish Church of Newland, vacant by the death of 
William Coburley, last chaplain, upon the presentation of 
Sir John Barre, Knt. the true patron in right of his wife. 

1459. July 20. Edward Janyns, Chaplain, admitted to the 
Chantry of Robert Greyndour, in the parish church of New- 
land, vacant by the resignation of Sir Richard Devyn, 
upon the presentation of John Barre, Knt. 4 

1463. Deer. 7. Sir [ ] was admitted chaplain to the 

Chantry of Robert Greyndour, in the church of Newland, 
vacant by the resignation of Edward Janyns, upon the 
presentation of Sir John Barre Knt. 5 

1465. June 5. Philip Ap Eynon (Baynham) was admitted to 
the Chantry of Robert Greyndour, in the Church of New- 
land, vacant by the death of William Phe, last chaplain, 
upon the presentation of Sir John Barre, Knt. in right of 
his wife. 6 

1 Harl. MS. 605. No. 12. 2 Rot. Pat. 24th Henry VI., p. 2, m. 17. 

:! Reg. of Institutions, Hereford. Beauchamp, fo. 2. 

4 Bp. Stanbury's Reg. fo. 37. 6 lb. fo. 57. 0 lb. 81. 



Greyndoue, Chapel and Chantry. 



125 



1485. Deer. 2. Thomas Stokes, vicar of Lydney, upon exchange 
with Sir Philip Baynham, was admitted to the Chantry of 
St. John Baptist and St. Nicholas, called Greyndours, in 
the Church of Newland, upon the presentation of Thomas 
Baynham, Esq., and Alice his wife- true patrons. 1 

1502. John Alexander, Chaplain, signed a lease of 17 Henry vij. 

From a seal in possession of R. Fryer, Esq., Coleford. 
Unknown. Sir Thomas Poumfrey. 

1521. May 16. John Bolthar, B.A., was admitted to the Greyn- 
dour Chantry, in the Church of Newland, vacant by the 
resignation of Sir Thomas Poumfrey, upon the presentation 
of Sir Christopher Baynam, Knt. 2 

1530. Jany. 12. David Smith, M.A., was admitted to the per- 
petual Chantry, called Greyndour's Chantry, in the Church 
of Newland, vacant by the resignation of John Bolter, upon 
the presentation of Sir* Christopher Beynam, Knt. 3 

1531. Nov. 17. Mr. Roger Wynter, M.A., was admitted to 
Greyndour's Chantry, in the Church of Newland, vacant by 
the death of Mr. David Smith, last possessor, upon the 
presentation of Sir Christopher Beynham, Knt. 4 

Sir Roger Forde was the Incumbent and Schoolmaster, 

upon the dissolution of the Chantry, 2 Edw. vj. Chantry 

Certificate, No. 22. (See ante p. 123). \ 

1 Bp. Myllyng's Reg., fo. 9. 2 Bp. Booth's Reg. fo. 64. 
3 Bp. Booth's, Reg. fo. 170. 4 Ibid fo. 173. 



126 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



S. PETER'S CHURCH, UPPER SLAUGHTER. 
By J. EDWARD K. CUTTS. 

The Church of St. Peter, Upper, or (as it is called in the old 
Registers) Over Slaughter, has been restored, and many features 
of the old Church, which had been hidden and removed, were, in 
the process, brought to light, rendering the restored Church so 
unlike what it was previously, that it may be of interest, first, 
briefly to record its appearance when the restoration commenced, 
and then to describe the various points of interest as they were 
disclosed in the process of the work. 

The Church is approached from the south, and, five years ago, it 
would have been noticed, that the South Porch, so common to all 
the Churches in the neighbourhood, had been swept away and the 
doorway removed and blocked up. A new entrance had instead 
been made into the Tower by a large South Doorway, leading 
down by several steps into the basement of the Tower. Here it 
could be seen that there was a fine Transitional Norman Arch, 
blocked up and hidden from the Nave by a lath-and-plaster par- 
tition. Through a door in this partition you would enter the 
Church under the Gallery, and a most deplorable sight there met 
the eyes. We will describe it. The area of the Church was about 
square ; in the South wall were two large windows with heads 
formed of three-centred arches with key stones, and in the North 
wall were two similar windows. The ceiling was flat, with a 
plaster cornice all round, and was divided down the middle by a 
beam supported on two tall wooden posts. On the western 
side of this room was a Gallery, suspended from the before men- 
tioned beam by an iron rod. The seats were, of course, the high 
square pews with which our ancient Churches were encumbered and 
disfigured until recently. On the east side was a small modern 



Church of Upper Slaughter. 



127 



imitation-Norman Arch, opening into the Chancel, and on the 
North of this, high in the wall, was a modern stone Balcony, and 
Arch for organist and organ. The Chancel had not been much 
meddled with, except that the East window was blocked and the 
space occupied by an oil painting ; a modern Arch had been made 
through the north wall into the Mortuary Chapel, erected by public 
subscription, to the late Rev. F. E. Witts. On examination, it was 
found that the posts supporting the ceiling beam in the body of the 
church, rested on the bases of the old Arcade, and it could be seen 
that the North wall was modern. The Church then consisted 
of Chancel, Nave and widened Aisle thrown into one, Tower, 
lean-to Vestry on the North of the Tower and the Mortuary 
Chapel. 

One great interest in Church restorations is that so many frag- 
ments of old work are often found in making alterations and in 
re-building defective portions. The " finds " explain many doubt- 
ful points in the design and appearance of a Church, and sometimes 
furnish complete authorities for a restoration. This Church had 
been so mutilated that it was expected such would be the case 
here, nor was this expectation disappointed, for the discoveries 
were very interesting. No sooner was the work of clearing out 
commenced, than it was discovered that the greater portion of the 
old Arcade had been used as sleeper walls to the seats : a cap and 
a respond half-cap, somewhat damaged, but capable of repair, 
numerous voussoirs of the Arches and many drums of the columns 
were thus found ; and in searching round the walls for traces of 
other of the missing caps that might have been built in, the corner 
of a similar cap was found in the wall of the circular staircase in 
the North-East angle of the Tower, and, on searching for this cap 
in the lean-to building on the North side of the Tower, a whole 
cap, column, and base, and about 3 ft. of the old Arcade in situ, 
appeared built into the wall. This column is immediately at the 
back of the fine large Tower Arch, and furnished ground for the 
supposition that the original architects had stopped short in 
executing their design, and that after building the Arcade, they 
altered their minds and built the Tower within the length of the 
Nave, partly incorporating the Arcade ; but, on examination, it 



128 Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 

was noticeable that the Norman groin ribs in the Tower had the 
decided appearance of having been cut short of their full curves, 
as if re-built in a smaller area, and the face of the Arch discovered 
embedded in the wall, was found to have on it two or three coats 
of colour wash ; further than this, one or two lengths of the groin 
ribs were found in the South wall of the Nave, and there are 
several Norman caps used up as corbels to the early Perpendicular 
angle butresses in the second stage of the Tower, and in the Belfry- 
are many carved Norman corbels (no doubt from the old eaves 
corbel-table) used to support the timber joists of the bell staging; it 
is also noticeable that the Tower Arch has no label, but that outside, 
over the West window of the Tower, is a Norman label and string 
with ball ornament, the lengths of the string portion being curved, 
as though parts of a label, giving rise to the suggestion fchat 
they formed, originally, the label of the Tower Arch. All these 
points are proofs that the Tower has been rebuilt at some time, 
no doubt in the early part of the 15th century, that being 
the date of the rest of the Tower. Further search showed that 
the Western respond of the Transition Norman Arcade was still 
in situ, in the North- West corner of the Tower, thus giving us the 
length of the original Nave, and showing that we have here another 
instance of the building of the Tower within the Nave, as at 
Bledington, 1 but incorporating three walls, instead of one as at 
Bledington. Other indications remain to show that the original 
Norman Aisle was but half the width of the present modern Aisle, 
for, on the north side of the Tower is an arched and groined Arch- 
way opening from the Tower, into what we have called a lean-to 
Vestry, but which originally was, doubtless, part of the old Aisle. 
When the Tower was erected within the Nave, a wall was built 
across this Aisle at the North-East corner of the Tower, but with 
a low flying Arch to the Tower, in it, to allow of communication 
between the main Aisle and the portion thus cut off, and the fact 
that it was cut off, saved it, when the main portion of the Aisle 
was pulled down and widened, in the last century. In this Vestry 
(as we will call it for distinction) were, till the recent restoration, 
two two-light Perpendicular windows of the pattern so common 
1 A plan and description of Bledington Church will he found ante p. 81* 

1 •• 



Church of Upper Slaughter. 



129 



in this neighbourhood and which were so evidently insertions 
unsuited to their position, that we shall not be far wrong in saying, 
that they were taken from the South side of the Nave in the 1 8th 
century. 

We are now in a position to prove that the Church, as origin- 
ally erected, about a.d. 1160, was of the same type as most others 
in the neighbourhood, i.e. consisted of Chancel, Nave, one 1 Aisle 
(North in this case), West (?) Tower, Porch, and probably a South 
Transept 2 and a South Porch. Of the old South Doorway, many 
voussoirs of moulded work, some caps and the greater part of a 
tympanum were found in the South wall, and have been built into 
the new Porch for inspection and preservation. 

Of the original Church there are but small remains in the 
Chancel. The string running round under the windows internally, 
is probably of this date, and indicates that at least the lower parts 
of the walls are original. The East window (like the West window 
in the Tower) is a three-light window, with the mullions inter- 
lacing in the head, but without cusping ; on the North and South 
of the Sacrarium is a pretty little trefoil-headed window of one 
light and West of that, in the South wall, is another pretty window 
in two lights, of quite early 14th century work; the Piscina is well 
moulded and cinque-foil cusped ; the Sedilium is a quaint arched 
and gabled-canopied structure, marked irregularly with three or 
four consecration crosses ( a s they are called), and opposite to 
it is another structure, wider, but of the same character, now 
blocked by a monumental slab, but originally either a tomb or 
Easter Sepulchre, this is also marked with a cross ; between the 
two windows, on the South side, is a well shaped doorway with 
wave-moulded jambs, all these features are of 14th century work. 
The Chancel Arch is modern, as is also the Font. Of the Perpen- 
dicular work, we have already mentioned the two windows that 
were in the old Vestry, they are now in the West end of the 
North wall of the new North Aisle, for when the Church was 

1 For though there are remains of a 'modern Arch on the south side they 
are different in character, and whatever they indicate, I do not think it 
was an Aisle. 

2 At Icomb there is a Transept in this position of about this date, and 
there is said to have been one at Wyck Bissington. 

Vol. VII. , part L k 



130 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Woli>, 



restored in 1877, it was found necessary to provide more accomo- 
dation, and to gain it, the North Aisle, which, as we have 
mentioned, had already been widened, was continued to the West 
wall of the Tower. Of course the roof over the whole of this Aisle 
is modern, but those on the Nave and Chancel were of 15th century 
work (of the type with trussed rafters and a plain curved rib to 
every rafter), that on the Nave has been repaired, but the Chancel 
roof was too much decayed to be retained. Over the East wall of 
the Nave is a Sanctus bell gable, but unlike those I have noticed in 
neighbouring Churches, it has an empty socket at the springing of 
the bell gable roof as well as at the apex, probably denoting that 
there was a Rood. We give a plan of the Church (PI. XVII.) for a 
comparison of the position of the Towers here and at Bledington, 
the dotted lines on the plan of this Church show the position of 
the old Norman Aisle. In conclusion, it will be interesting to 
note that though the ground stage of the Tower has two buttresses 
at each angle at right angles to the walls, the upper stage has only 
one angle buttress, supported on the Norman caps before men- 
tioned. 



ManoH and Advowson of Bkockwohth. 



131 



HISTORY OF THE MANOR AND ADVOWSON 
OF BROCKWORTH. 
By the Rev. S. E. BARTLEET, M.A., Vicar. 

Read at Gloucester, 12th April, 1882. 
Of the British occupation of a portion of Brockworth there 
are very evident traces on Cooper's hill. The camp there has 
been described by Mr. G. B. Witts, in the Proceedings of the 
Cotteswold Naturalists' " Field Club, and what he has said need 
not be repeated here. If, however, Caesar's description of a 
British town be accepted, that "the Britons call that a town, 
when they have surrounded and fenced about their thickest 
woods with a bank and a ditch," we have traces of a considerable 
"oppidum" within the parish boundaries. The area enclosed by 
the foss which Mr. Witts has traced is not less than 200 acres, 
and would be sufficient for the flocks and herds, as well as for the 
families, of a considerable" tribe. The natural strength of a position 
on Cooper's hill fits it very remarkably for such an use. The 
steepness of the declivity on all sides but one, and the singularly 
wide prospect from its summit, — commanding the whole vale of 
Gloucester, bordered by the Malvems, the Black Mountains 
of Wales, and the Forest of Dean, and extending, in another 
direction, to where the Severn broadens out towards the Bristol 
channel, — mark it out as likely to be, what the remains of the 
foss shew us it was, an extensive tribal settlement, at a time of 
which, as regards our own country, there are no other records 
than those which such works supply. 

The connection of Brockworth with the Roman occupation of 
Britain is even more clear. The Ermin Street, connecting the 
two important stations of Gloucester and Cirencester, runs for 
more than a mile within the parish. There is a cross road also, 
leading, in one direction, to Cooper's hill, and in the other, past 



132 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



Brockworth church, to Churchdown hill, which is still known by 
the name of Green Street, — a translation, doubtless, of the old 
Roman designation " via viridariensis," the way to the plantation. 
The beech woods, which still exist on the slopes of the Cottes- 
wolds near Gloucester, were probably planted by the Romans, 
and supplied the garrison at Gloucester, as they supplied the 
Abbey of S. Peter's and the Priory of Lanthony, at a later 
period, with winter fuel. 

The road called Green Street is connected with, or continued 
by, another road, known as the Salt-way, which ascends through 
the wood, by the Roman villa of Witcombe, and rejoins the Ermin 
Street at the top of Birdlip hill. There were probably signal 
stations on Cooper's hill and Churchdown, and these were con- 
nected with each other, and with Gloucester, by the Green Street. 
Some fifteen hundred years ago, therefore, Brockworth must have 
been familiar with the tramp of reinforcements to the legion at 
Gloucester, and the constant passing of the Roman posts, and 
foraging parties for fuel in the beech woods. 

But few Roman remains, other than these roads, have been 
found in the parish, for the villa at Witcombe, so much as has 
been excavated, lies a few yards outside the borders of Brockworth. 
Perhaps, however, the local name, Aldwyke, or Aldenwyke, which 
occurs in charters which will be noticed presently, is the record 
of an old Roman vicus. Remains of pottery, believed to be Roman, 
have been found near the place to which this name refers. The 
only other sign of the Roman occupation of Brockworth is the 
Helix Pomatia, the edible snail introduced by our former con- 
querors, which is still found on the side of Cooper's hill, near 
what must have been the snailery (cochliarium) of the Roman 
villa hard by. 

Of Brockworth in Saxon times there are scarcely any records. 
Its name, of course, is Saxon. The second syllable, worthy is one 
of the most, common of English place names, and means an en- 
closure, or place ivarded in. It is uncertain whether Broch is 
derived from the brook which runs through the parish, close by 
the church and ancient manor-house, or from the name of a former 



Manor and Ad vow son of Brock worth. 



133 



proprietor. Sir Robert Atkyns gives brook as the derivation; 
but Rudder and Bigland believe the name comes from Broco, or 
Broc, whom Bigland describes as lord of the manors of Brockworth, 
Badgeworth, and Hatherley, and whose pedigree, he says, is 
recorded in the Furney MSS. I have not been able to verify his 
reference, and I can only give this derivation of the name of 
Brockworth on the authority of the well known county historian. 

In Domesday the parish is described as Brocowardinge, a 
name almost the same as that used in charters relating to Brock- 
worth for more than a century afterwards. The entry is as 
follows : — 

"Hugo Lasne holds Brocowardinge in Dudestan Hundred of the king. 
There are five hides. Turchil held it of King Edward. In demesne there 
are two carucates, and eight villeins, and six bordarii, and a priest, and two 
free men, and a steward (p'positus). Between them all they have fifteen 
carucates. There are four servi, and a mill of two shillings (solidi) ; a wood 
a mile (leuua) 1 long and half wide. It was worth six pounds, now a hundred 
shillings (solidi)." 

Of Turchil, the Saxon lord, we know nothing except that he 
had five other manors, in Herefordshire, and that Lasne succeeded 
him in all. Mr. Eyton thinks there may have been some blood 
relationship between the two. 2 At the date of the Survey Lasne 
claimed the lordship of Radnor, then held by the king, declaring 
to the Commissioners that when William fitz Osbern, Earl of 
Hereford, gave him the lands of Turchil, his ancestor (antecessor), 
he also gave him Raddrenove. 

The name of the Norman lord of Brockworth should be written 
Hugh l'Asne, or Hugh the ass. Whether it was a nick-name to 
himself, or had been inherited from an ancestor, there is nothing 
to shew. Its derivation, however, is certain, for he appears once 
in the Survey as Hugo Asinus, as well as in other documents. 3 

He seems, in spite of his name, to have had a sufficiency of 
worldly wisdom, for he obtained four manors in this county, and 
some twenty in Herefordshire, as well as others elsewhere. Mr. 

1 The exact length of the leuua was 2640 yards, or a mile and a half. 

2 Eyton's History of Shropshire, Vol. XL, p. 346. 

3 Transactions of the Bristol & Gloucestershire Archseological Society, 
Vol. IV., pp. 92, 181. 



134 



TRANSACTION'S AT StOW-ON-THE- WOLD. 



Ellis, in a paper contributed to Vol. IV. of the Transactions of 
this Society, suggests that l'Asne may have been a feudatory of 
William fitz Osbern in Normandy, and may have accompanied 
him to England at the Conquest ; and that probably he held his 
manors in England of that family until the forfeiture of Roger, 
2nd Earl of Hereford, in 1074. 1 

L'Asne was witness, between 1067 and 1071-2, to a charter of 
William fitz Osbern, conveying lands in England to the Abbey of 
Lyre, in Normandy, which fitz Osbern had founded in 1046. 2 The 
same abbey held the church of Salperton, in this county, which 
was one of 1'Asne's manors, and he, I suppose, was the donor. 
He was living at the close of the eleventh, or even at the begin- 
ing of the twelfth, century, for his name appears as "Hugo Asinus" 
in a list, the date of which, Mr. Ellis shews, must have been 
between 1095 and 1101, as having two houses in Gloucester and 
one in Winchcombe. 3 

Of his family, says the paper already quoted, we know nothing, 
except that he had a daughter, a nun at the Abbey of St. Mary, 
at Winchester; for that church held lands of him at Kennet, in 
Wilts, "pro filid ejus:' 4 

I think, however, that the property of l'Asne may have passed 
by inheritance, through another daughter, to the family which 
succeeded him. A generation after that of the first Norman lord 
of Brockworth, we find that this, and all his Herefordshire manors, 
were in the possession of the family of de Candos, or Chandos, 
whose Barony Mr. Eyton describes as co-extensive with the 
Domesday fief of l'Asne. 5 

Early in the 12th century, Robert de Candos confirmed the 
grants of his ancestors (antecessores) to the Abbey of Lyre, and 
among them is specified the church of Salperton, which had been 
one of 1'Asne's manors. It has been noted that l'Asne was probably 
a feudatory of William fitz Osbern, and had been witness to a 

1 Transactions of the Bristol & Gloucestershire Archteological Society, 
Vol. IV., p. 182. 

2 Gallia Christiana, Vol. XI., Instr., p. 123. 

3 Transactions of the Bristol & Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, 
Vol. IV. , pp. 91 , 92. 

4 Ante IV., 182. History of Shropshire, XI., 347. 



Manor and Advowson of Brockworth. 



135 



charter conveying lands to the abbey which fitz Osbern had foun- 
ded ; and it is likely, therefore, on every account, that he was the 
donor to the same abbey of the church of one of his own manors, 
and was the ancestor (antecessor) to whom the charter of Robert de 
Candos refers. Perhaps the Robert de Candos whose name is 
on the roll of Battle Abbey, or a son of his, may have married a 
daughter of Hugh l'Asne, and have thus brought the possessions 
of the latter into the family which held them very shortly after 
l'Asne's death. 

It seems possible that l'Asne may be the same with a certain 
Hugh, who held five manors in Somersetshire of Alured de His- 
pania, and who is once called in Domesday " Hugo de Hispania." 1 
Eyton believes the latter to have been a brother of Alured. 
Normans were often described in various ways, — at one time by a 
soubriquet, and at another by a place name, or a patronymic. 
It is not impossible, therefore, that the " Hugo," or " Hugo de 
Hispania," of the Somersetshire Survey, may be the same with 
Hugh l'Asne, of Gloucestershire and Herefordshire. It is certain 
that the manors held by Hugh in Somersetshire, — and indeed 
almost all the Domesday fief of Alured de Hispania, whom Mr. 
Eyton describes as his brother, — were, early in the twelfth century, 
in the possession of the same family, which, about that time, had 
acquired, by inheritance or otherwise, the manors in Gloucester- 
shire and Herefordshire of Hugh l'Asne. Mr. Eyton suggests 
that Isabel, wife of Robert de Candos, was the heiress, " perhaps 
daughter," of Alured. She is distinctly stated, however, in the 
Gallia Christiana, to have been sister of Walter Giffard, Count 
of Longueville ; and in the charter conveying lands to Goldcliff, 
her husband, Robert de Candos, describes Preston, in Somerset- 
shire, — which is described in Domesday as held by Hugh of Alured 
de Hispania, — as his own manor, in distinction from other grants 
mentioned as "of the land of his wife Isabel." 2 

It is difficult to give a clear account of the important west 
country family of Chandos, — or Candos, as the name was at first 

1 Eyton's Domesday Studies, Somerset, Vol. I., pp. 65, 121, 122, 170, 

2 Dugdale's Monasticon, Goldcliff. 



136 Transactions at Stow-on-the Wold. 

written, — as it divided early into several branches, and each seems 
to have been represented, in each generation, by a Robert or a 
Roger. The name, Mr. Ellis tells me, is derived from Campi dor- 
sum, and their fief in the Duchy of Normandy was in what is now 
the arrondissement of Pontaudemer, and canton of Bourgtherould, 
not far from Rouen. 

A Robert and a Roger de Candos were with Duke William at 
Hastings. Dugdale says it was the former of these who founded 
the Herefordshire house of that name, 1 and whose descendants 
succeeded to the various manors which had been granted to 
l'Asne. 

A Robert de Candos, — Dugdale makes him the same with 
him who fought at Hastings, but it can hardly be that the warrior 
of 1066 was in active service of the king in 1123 ; — Robert de 
Candos, probably son, or grandson, of the first Robert, invaded 
Wales, and took Caerlyon and Goldcliff from their owner, Oweyn 
Wan, and founded at the latter place a monastery in 1113, 
making it a cell of Bee. He married Isabella, sister of Walter 
Giffard, Count of Longueville, and Earl of Bucks. He was 
governor for the king of the Castle of Gisors, in Normandy, in 
1123, and founded a monastery at Beaumont, near Evreux, in 
1130, where, three years afterwards, he was buried. 

It seems to be from Roger, a younger brother of this Robert, 
that the family of Chandos, who were lords of Brockworth, 
descends. A Roger de Candos is mentioned as a benefactor of 
Goldcliff; and the Roger de Candos, who, at this date, had Brock- 
worth and other manors, had a brother Robert, who is mentioned 
in one or two of the charters which will be quoted in this paper. 
It is this Roger, younger brother, as seems likely, of Robert de 
Candos, whose name first appears in connection with Brockworth. 
In a description given of the property of the Abbey of S. Peter's, 
Gloucester, the date of which is 1121, it is said that Roger de 
Candos had land bordering on theirs at Bocholte and separated 
from it by the high way. 2 Buckholt then extended far beyond 

1 Dugdale's Baronage of England, Vol. I., p. 502. 

2 Hist, et Cart. Glouc, Vol. I., pp. 63, 205. 



Manor and Advowson of Brook worth. 137 

the present boundaries of the wood so called, and included 
Cooper's hill, and the higher portion of Brockworth. The first 
actual mention of one of the family as lord of this manor is in 
the Pipe Rolls of 23rd Henry II., where it is noted that " Roger 
de Candos owes 20 marks and a war horse (dextrarius) for the con- 
cord of Brocwardin, but it is to be demanded (requirendus est) in 
Herefordshire, in Wales." This, of course, is not a payment as 
purchase money for the manor, but a fine, in the nature of suc- 
cession duty, on inheriting it. 

It will be noticed that the lords of Brockworth are mentioned 
as, in 1177, a Herefordshire family, but they did not represent the 
branch of that house which afterwards became so distinguished in 
the county. The Roger de Candos who had land in Buckholt 
in 1121, lived, probably, at Stradel Castle; while another branch 
held Fownhope, Snodhill, and many other manors in the same 
county. One of this latter family, also a Roger de Chandos, was 
with Edward III. in the French wars, and was summoned by 
that king to parliament, as Baron Chandos, in 1354. It is from 
him, through an heiress, that the Lord Chandos of Sudeley, 
famous during the parliamentary war, descends. Another of the 
family, Sir John de Chandos, was one of the most illustrious 
commanders in the French wars of Edw. III., was the cherished 
friend of the Black Prince, and, among the honours conferred on 
him, was created Knight of the Garter at its first institution. 

The Roger de Chandos mentioned as having land at Buckholt, 
bordering on that of Abbey of S. Peter's, gave to the Priory of 
Lanthony, soon after its second foundation at Gloucester in 
1136, the manors of Kenchester, Boneshill, and Falilea, in Here- 
fordshire, for Eutropius, his son, who was a monk at Lanthony. 
His wife's name was Margaret, and she, as will be seen, survived 
him. He had four sons, besides Eutropius, — Robert, his heir, 
whose wife was Emma, and who lived at Stradel Castle, — Roger, 
to whom Robert gave Brockworth, — and Symon, and Godard. 

The first charter to be mentioned is one recording the gift, 
mentioned above, of Brockworth to Roger cle Chandos, but 
reserving to the donor, Robert, the lordship of the sam manor. 



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Tt is from the Registrum Lanthonim Magnum, the transcript of 
which, and of the other Registers of Lanthony, by the late Sir 
Thomas Phillipps, the Rev. J. E. A. Fenwick, of Thirlestaine 
House, Cheltenham, has kindly permitted me to copy. 

"Robert de Chandos to all: Know that I have given to my brother 
Roger, and to his heirs, all Brocwardin, to be held of me, and of my heirs, by 
the service of one knight. And if I am unable to warrant (warrantizare) 
the land which Helias de Droys (Droensis) used to hold of me, I give up to 
him the service (servitium) of the said Helias, and one virgate of land at 
Hope, by concession of Eva his wife, and Amphelisa his daughter. Wit- 
nesses, Ernisius the monk ; Walter the chaplain ; Symon de Chandos ; 
Godard de Chandos ; Ulric de Haye, &c." 

Then follow several charters comfirming the gifts of Roger 
his father, and making further donations to the Priory by himself 
and his brother Roger. 

The following is from the Registrum Antiquum of Lanthony, 
in the Library of Thirlestaine House: — 

" Robert de Chandos, to Robert, Bishop of Hereford, 1 and Symon, Bishop 
of Worcester. I acknowledge that Roger de Chandos, my father, has given 
to the church of Lanthony of his land, for Eutropius, my brother, and for 
my mother, that is to say, Boneshill, Kenchester, and of Falilea (de Falilea) 
whatever Aldred held there, with one virgate in Hope, which he added 
to Aldred to make up his farm to the value of 100 s (ad supplimentum firman 
100 solidorum) the king's tax from Boneshill and Falilea being excepted. I 
also, after I have succeeded as heir to the rights of my father, have added 
the church of Brocwordin, with half a hide of land which it had before. 
And the said land, in dedication to the church, I have made free from all 
service. Afterwards I have added a house of my own, by the churchyard, 
on the west side. Moreover, I have added, my brother Roger consenting, 
the land of Northwood (Northboscum) in Brocwordin, as far as the old way, 
by the park of Earl Gilbert, to stock and sow (ad stocandum et seminan- 
dum), 2 This gift I have made in my castle, in the presence of my mother 
and my brothers. Witnesses, Walter the chaplain; Walter de Barnville ; 
Serlo, my kinsman. 

" Afterwards, I have conceded that their oxen should feed in my pasture 
with my oxen, and that the oxen and animals of their men should have 
common pasture with the animals of my men. These gifts have I renewed 
in my castle of Stradel. Witnesses, Symon de Chandos ; Ulric de Haye ; 
Ralph de Tornac ; Robert his son. 

1 Robert de Bctun, Bishop of Hereford 1131-1148, had formerly been prior of Lanthony, 
and to his influence may perhaps be due the earliest gifts of the Chandos family to the 
Priory. 

2 " To stock" is to dig, a word still used in Gloucestershire. The expression means to 
stock or grub up and sow seeds. Smyth, in his Hundred of Berkeley (MS. in Berkeley 
Castle), speaking of a portion of Michaelwood, says, "As at this day, through the husban- 
dries, stockings, grubbings and other cultivatings thereof to have become no wood at all."— Ed. 



Manor and Advowson of Brockworth. 



139 



M Lastly, I have conceded to them the gift of two exsarts (exsarta) 1 which 
Richard de Brocwordin made to their church, and I have remitted for ever 
the rent of 20 denarii, which for another exsart they were wont to give me. 
Witnesses Symon de Chandos, &c." 

There is a charter of Roger confirming the above, which is 
interesting as adding some details concerning the gifts, and as 
marking, almost exactly, the date of the Norman church at 
Brockworth. 

"Roger de Chandos ; I wish that it be known to all, that when Symon, 
Bishop of Worcester, has dedicated the church of Brocwordin, which I have 
already given to the canons of Lanthony, I agree that he shall confirm to 
the same church the land which it had before, which was reputed at half a 
hide. And because one virgate of land there was burdened with secular 
service, I declare it quit of all service. The house, also, by the churchyard, on 
the west side, which John the priest held of me, I have given to the same 
church. The churchyard also, "because it was small, I have enlarged from 
my demesne ; for which alms the bishop has allowed me masses, and the 
society of his priests, &c. In addition, I have allowed the gift of two 
exsarts which Richard de Brocwordin, my steward (dapifer), gave to the 
church (of Lanthony) a little after its dedication, and I have remitted for 
ever the rent of 20 d . which for another exsart they were wont to give. 

This concession I have placed upon the altar of S. Mary, at Lanthony, 
Gloucester, on Quadragesima Sunday, anno Domini, MCXLII. 

Witnesses, Henry, 2 son of the earl ; Richard, son of Richard ; Hugh of 
York." 

In a charter in the Registrum Antiquum, the gift of Northwood 
by Robert de C. is described as " for the soul of his father Roger, 
and of his uncle Robert." The uncle Robert, as I believe, was 
the Robert de Chandos who was Governor of Gisors, and who 
founded Goldcliff and Beaumont, being buried at the Abbey of 
Beaumont in 1133. 

There are one or two other points in the above charters which 
deserve notice. " The old way " mentioned is, of course, the 
Ermin Street, and the park of Earl Gilbert is doubtless what 
is still known as Brockworth park. But who is the Earl Gilbert 
that had his park here 1 I have not been able to find any reference 
to an earl having land in Brockworth, except the mention of his 
name in several charters giving land to the Priory of Lanthony. 

1 An exsart, more commonly written assart, is a clearance from a wood. 

2 Henry was son of Milo fitz Walter, Earl of Hereford. Milo, Constable 
of England, had been deprived of his earldom by Stephen, but was re- 
appointed by the Empress Maud in 1141. 



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The earl mentioned must have been, I think, Gilbert de Clare, 
the father of Strongbow, conqueror of Ireland, who was created 
Earl of Pembroke in 1138. He had large possessions in Wales, 
and may well have had some property in this county, as he married 
a daughter of Waleran, Earl of Mellent, who had a manor in 
Gloucestershire. 

The only other Earl Gilbert I have been able to discover, who 
was living at the date of the charters quoted above, is another 
Gilbert de Clare, nephew to the Earl of Pembroke, who succeeded 
his father as 2nd Earl of Hertford, in 1139. 

The grant to the Priory of the church of Brockworth has been 
noted above as made in 1142, and shortly before the dedication of 
the church. The memorandum as to the tithes, which is copied 
from the Registrum Antiquum, bears no date ; but it was compiled, 
probably, not very long after the church and its endownments 
were acquired. 

e ' Memorandum, that the Prior of Lanthony shall receive tithe of the 
whole land which lies in Benthame's acre, at Doleford, as far as the church- 
yard of Brokworth ; and likewise in Westfield he shall receive full tithe 
of Chelteham's acre, as far as the village, except three sellions below 
Seyselhaye. Also in Middlefurlong, and Brokfurlong, of the acre of 
Nicholas, the thresher, as far as the village. Also in the furlong called 
the Lee, which extends as far as Cheltehame's forerth. Also from that 
furlong as far as the king's highway. Also at the Reveland he shall have 
tithe of ten sellions. Also he shall have all the tithe of Watermede, 
and of the land of le Droys lying beside it. Also at Newland, he shall 
have all the tithe of William de Brokworth, and customaries, except 
of two acres which William Prodhomme holds, and two acres which the 
vicar holds. Also he shall have tithe of an acre and a half at Maydene- 
welle and Barrette. Also he shall have tithe of five acres which Robert 
Holdeys and Roger Ingruth hold at Longdone. Also of all the land of 
Chelteham, except two acres at Boycroft. Also of two acres at Flodyat 
which Robert Holdeys holds ; and at Blakwyke, of two acres of Robert 
Holdeys ; and at Wodeyate, of three acres of William Barrett, Gilbert de 
Dreweys, Nicholas Cooke, and John de Chelteham ; and of all the land 
within the enclosure of Havepenne ; and of one croft of William Howe by 
the king's highway ; and of the whole furlong of Rudynge, whatever is 
contained within the enclosure, together with the piece called Ernesru- 
dynge ; and of three acres of the land of Roger Ingruth, which are between 
the Dene and Brocworth park." 

The charters, quoted above, conveying grants to the Priory, are 

addressed to Robert, Bishop of Hereford, and Simon, Bishop of 

Worcester, and the date of one of them is stated, as Quadragesima 



Manor and Advowson of Brockworth. 



141 



Sunday, 1142. In the charter which follows, the bishops men- 
tioned are Gilbert of Hereford, and John of Worcester. John 
de Pageham succeeded Bishop Symon in 1150, and was succeeded 
in the see by Bishop Alured in 1158, so that the exchange of 
lands, noted below, must have taken place in that interval. It 
would appear that Margaret, widow of Roger de Chandos the 
elder, was living, or desired to live, at Kenchester. 

"To Gilbert, Bishop of Hereford, and John, Bishop of Worcester, and 
Roger, Earl of Hereford, and all the Barons of Herefordshire and Gloucester- 
shire, Roger de Chandos sends greeting. Be it known that I, by Robert de 
Chandos, my lord and brother (dominus et f rater meus), and by Ralph de 
Bascaville, have asked the canons of Lanthony that they would give me 
Kenchester in exchange for land of the same measurement at Brocwordin, 
to which they have assented. I, with Serlo, and other of my men, have 
measured the land at Kenchester, and afterwards have given land of the 
same measurement in Brocwordin to the canons. For the rent of 10 s . from 
the mill of Kenchester, I have given to them Ernisius, the son of Richard, 
with his tenement. I, with my wife Margaret, have conceded that they 
shall hold the land given in exchange, by the same free tenure by which they 
held Kenchester of my brother Robert. All this I have confirmed by attes- 
tation of my seal, and by an oath by my own mouth, upon the altar, in sight 
of the convent of Lanthony. Witnesses, Robert de Chandos ; Ralph de 
Bascaville ; Gilbert de Bascaville." 

Robert de Chandos, with Emma, his wife, confirms this ex- 
change, in similiar form, reciting also the original gift of Ken- 
chester by his father, and his own gift of Brockworth to his 
brother Roger. 

The exchange, thus negotiated, does not seem to have been 
completed without some difficulty, and in the end is rather an one- 
sided bargain. Kenchester is surrendered by Prior William de 
Wydecombe for the life only of Margaret, widow of the original 
donor, Roger de Chandos, the elder. 

"Before Robert, Bishop of Hereford, Robert de Chandos, with his 
friends, required, for the Lady Margaret, his mother, that the Prior of 
Lanthony should permit her to hold Kenchester for her own use, for aid 
owed to her (pro debito subsidio) which she demanded of him. The Prior, 
for his love of peace, conceded that the said Margaret should hold Kenches- 
ter as long as she shall live, or until, by better counsel, she shall restore it 
to the church. Robert de Chandos made security that, by his permission, 
Kenchester should never be alienated from the church. Robert de C. 
affirms this with his own hand, in presence of Robert, Bishop of Hereford ; 
Sampson and Hugh, canons." 1 
1 lleg'istrum Antiquum Lanth. . 



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Another exchange seems to have been effected with less 
difficulty. The following charter, from the Registrum Antiquum, 
explains it : — 

"Roger de Chandos : Be it known that the canons of the Priory and 
Convent of Lanthony have given up to me the court which was John the 
priest's, with one grange, and a hall with offices, and a chamber with other 
offices, and a bakery, in exchange for land which I had in my demesne, viz. , — 
that which is on the east side, from the division which extends from the 
churchyard ditch toward the north, as far as Hurlane's furlong, in the 
croft which is from the churchyard to the bridge, and from the court 
as far as the conduit (a curia casicor usque ad ductum) . Witnesses : Master 
Richard Ganfrid, lorimer ; Maurice, his sister ; Elwyn, mercer." 

The house, thus purchased back from the priory, is given once 

again to John the priest. 

"Robert de Chandos to John, Bishop of Worcester : Be it known that 
I have given to John, priest of Brocwardin, a house by the churchyard, 
from my demesne in Brocwardin. For this gift, John has given me 24 s 4 d . 
Witnesses : Adam, clericus de Stradel ; Richard de Brocwardin." 

The next grant was made, apparently, after the death of 

Margaret, widow of the first Roger de Chandos. 

<! Roger de Chandos : Be it known that I, by consent of my brother, 
Robert de C. , for the soul of our father, Roger de C. , and of our mother 
Margaret, have given one virgate of land, which was Lefwyn's de Streta, 
to the canons of Lanthony, which, — my brother, the canon, standing with me, 
and in sight of the whole convent, — I have placed by a deed (per textum) on 
the altar. I have conceded also pasturage to their animals, &c, as my 
brother Robert had before conceded to them. 

Witnesses : Roger, chaplain of S. Owen ; Master William ; Reginald 
Cyrec." 1 

There are a number of separate charters conveying land to 
the Priory from Roger de Chandos, which are confirmed by his 
" brother and lord" Robert. Frequently there is no date indica- 
ted, but in some of them the name of John, Bishop of Worcester, 
is mentioned, so that the date of these, and possibly of all, is 
from 1150 to 1158. The witnesses to these charters are most 
of those mentioned above, with the addition, in one case, of " John 
the village priest," and "Maiel, 2 brother to Roger, Earl of Here- 
ford." I do not give these separate grants in full, as they are 

1 Registrum Antiq. Lanth. 

2 Maiel, or Mahel, was son of Milo Earl of Hereford. Milo had founded 
Lanthony juxta Gloucester, 1137. He was deprived of his Earldom by 
Stephen, and died a Canon of Lanthony, and was buried there. Roger, his 
son, was created Earl of Hereford in 1154. 



Manor and Advowson oe Brock worth. 



143 



summed up in the charter which follows : 

" Roger de Chandos to all : I have conceded to the canons of Lanthony 
the land which they hold in Brocwardin, to hold free of all service, except 
the king's tax on two virgates of land, — all of which I have desired to 
specify by their proper names, viz., — on the gift of Robert, my brother, the 
church of Brocwardin, with half a hide of land, and a house by the church- 
yard on the west side ; and the land of Northwooel ; and two exsarts of land, 
which were Richard's de Brocwardin. By my own gift, one virgate of 42 
acres, with other eight acres, and an exsart which was Garmund's, 15 acres 
near around the exsart, and one virgate which was Richard's, and all the 
halgarth on the east near the churchyard, and the land which is called 
Keteshill, and Eglanesruding, and Pilemede, and one virgate which was 
Lefwyn's de Streta, and all Smertemore, with three acres of land by it, and 
one acre " de Hospitali." All these I give to the canons. Witnesses: 
William de Acre, and Turstin and Eutropius, canons ; Symon de Chandos." 1 

The gift of an "exsart which was Garmund's," mentioned above, 
is rather a confirmation of a gift by Garamnd, who is described, 
in another charter, as a burgess of Gloucester, holding land of 
Roger de Chandos by hereditary right. He makes the gift " by 
consent of Anfrida, his wife, and Walter, his son and heir." Roger 
de C. consents to the donation in presence of David, Bishop of St. 
David's, and makes it absolute on a payment of 12 denarii. The 
witnesses are : David, Bishop of St. David's ; John and Symon, 
his canons : Wyd. de Turre. 2 

This group of charters is completed by one of Roger de Chan- 
dos, son of Robert, who was lord of Brockworth, confirming the 
gifts to the Priory of his grandfather Roger, his father Robert, 
and his uncle Roger. 

I believe it is this Roger, the son of Robert, who paid, in 1177, 
20 marks and a war horse for the manor of Brockworth. He, no 
doubt, at that time, succeeded to the lordship of Brockworth, 
which his father had retained when he gave the property to his 
brother Roger. The fine was demanded " in Herefordshire, in 
Wales," so that it is unlikely that one who merely held Brock- 
worth, under a relative having manors in Herefordshire, is the one 
indicated. The names of Robert and Roger so constantly occur 
in this branch of the Chandos family, that it is difficult to make it 
clear of whom one is speaking, without a constant reference to 
the pedigree. Roger, son of Robert de Chandos, of Stradel Castle, 

1 Reg. Antiq, Lanth. 2 Reg. Antiq. Lanth. 



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was at this time (1177) lord of Brockworth; and another Roger, 
cousin to him, son of Roger de 0. whose gifts to the Priory have 
been described above, and grandson of the first Roger, held Brock- 
worth about that time, under his cousin as chief lord. Of him 
little need be said, as no gifts of his to the Priory are recorded ; 
unless the mention of his name in a charter of his grandson, 
confirming the gifts of his ancestors, may be taken to imply that 
he too was a benefactor to the Priory, but that his grants are 
recorded in some register which I have not had the opportunity 
of seeing. This Roger, — son of the donor of Brockworth, and 
grandson *of the donor of Kenchester, &c, — had a son Ralph de 
Chandos, who was Justice Itinerant in the reigns of John and 
Henry III. His name frequently appears as witness to grants to 
S. Peter's and Lanthony and in causes in the royal courts. It 
is not clear when he succeeded his father in the property. One 
gift of his to the Priory is recorded. 

' ' Sciant presentes et f uturi : Ralph de Chandos has given to the church 
of Lanthony, for the salvation of the soul of his wife, three acres in Broc- 
wordin, which lie in the Dene, at the head of Newland (ad capud novae 
terrse), on the east side. 

Witnesses, Reginald de Pyritone ; Henry le Droys ; William de Wyde- 
combe ; William Hunter (venator)." 1 

The names appended, as witnesses to the foregoing, occur 
very frequently in charters which follow. A note, in the hand 
writing of Sir Thomas Phillipps, describes William de Wydecombe 
as son-in-law to Ralph de Chandos, husband of his daughter 
Drusilia, and as having with her 10s. rent in Havepenne. 

Henry le Droys, — no doubt the one mentioned above, — was 
himself a donor to the Priory. He "gave to the church of 
Lanthony, for the salvation of the soul of his wife Sibilia, four 
acres of land in Brocwordin ; one acre in Ubbenedisse, which 
Jordan held ; one under Hatehill, which Ainulphus held; one acre 
in JSTorthfield ; nine virgates over the Sout furlong ; and one acre 
in the "cultura," which borders on the Dene; and half a long 
acre in Limburn." The witnesses to this grant are W. de Verdon, 
archdeacon of Gloucester, and Ralph de Chandos. 

1 Reg. Antiq. Lanth. 



Man t or and Advowson of Brockworth. 



145 



This Henry le Droys must not be confounded with one of the 
same name who gave his name to Droyscourt, in Brockworth, and 
of whom it will be necessary to speak further on. He is most 
likely the Henry le Droys who seems to have died insane in 1287. 
There was a suit about his property in 15th and 16th Edw. I., 
between Robert le Droys, of Brockworth', brother and heir to 
Henry; and Walter Longe, of Hynehome, and Isolda, his wife. 
Robert le Droys claimed a certain messuage, one carucate of land, 
and 6s. rent in Brockworth, as his right ; and into which the said 
Walter and Isolda had not entry except by Philip de Wyneswell 
and Isabella, his wife, to whom Henry le Droys had demised the 
same, while, as was asserted, he was non compos mentis. After 
various proceedings the jury found that the said Henry, at the 
time when he demised the said tenements to Philip and Isabella, 
was compos mentis, and of sound memory. Judgment was given 
accordingly, and Robert was amerced for a false claim. 1 

Ralph de Chandos, — here described as " dominus Racl. de 0.", 
is witness, with Henry le Droys and William Venator, to an 
exchange of land between Ernisius and the Prior. The former 
gave to Lanthony " 5 sellions of land 2 for two acres in Hubbenix, 
near the land of Hugh le Holder." 3 

There is yet another charter, to which Ralph de Chandos was 
witness, which is interesting as bearing, possibly, on the origin of 
a local name which has long been a puzzle to archaeologists. 

Brother John, Prior of Lanthony, records that he "gave to 
John, son of Walter de Castello, half a virgate of land, which his 
father held in Brocwordin, which once belonged to Gilbert de 
Castello, at a rent of 7s. per annum, and the said John gave 20s. 
for the concession." 

It will be noticed that there are three generations mentioned, 
as bearing the designation of "de Castello," and living all of them 
at Brockworth. There is a hill in the parish which has long been 
known as Castle hill, or "the Castle," but the origin of the name 
has always been obscure. It has been thought by some to have 

1 De Banco Roll, Mich. , 15th, 16th Edw. I. 

2 Selion, a ridge of land between two furrows, selio tevrai. — Ed. 

3 Registrum Antiquum Lanth. 

Vol, VII., part 1, l 



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been the site of a Roman station protecting the Green Street leading 
to Cooper's hill, while others have believed it to be an old Saxon 
or Danish camp. May the charter just quoted be accepted as 
indicating the existence of a castle in Brockworth in the early 
part of the thirteenth century 1 " The earl's park " is mentioned 
frequently in charters of the century preceding, and the land still 
called Brockworth park lies at the foot of, — probably at one time 
included, what has always been known as "the Castle," or "Castle 
hill." It would seem likely that a powerful earl, who perhaps 
had no other property near Gloucester, would have a " castellum" 1 
in a park so far from his own earldom, or from any of his fort- 
resses. Any way, the existence in the parish of a family, which had 
borne the designation of de Castello for two or three generations, 
is a noteworthy fact in connection with an eminence commanding 
the park of Earl Gilbert, and which has long been known as 
Castle hill, or " the Castle." 

When Ralph de Chandos died there is no record, but it must 
have been before 1260, as Brockworth then was in possession of 
his heir. Ralph left two sons. Robert, the younger, married 
Basilia, and she had for her dowry a part of Buckholt wood, of 
which mention must be made presently. Laurence, the elder son, 
had Brockworth, and is generally described as " dominus et 
miles." His gifts to the Abbey of S. Peter's and the Priory of 
Lanthony were very numerous and considerable. 

The first charter I notice is one in the Registrum Magnum of 

Lanthony, confirming former grants of his family. 

' ' To all : — Know that I, Laurence de Chandos, knight, have confirmed to 
the house of Lanthony, by Gloucester, all the gifts which my ancestors, viz., 
Roger de Chandos, son of Robert de Chandos, and my grandfather Roger de 
Chandos, and Robert de Chandos, and Roger brother of the said Robert, 
and Ralph my father, have made to the said house of Lanthony, as is 
expressly contained in their charters. Witnesses, William le Venur ; Philip 
de Mattresdone." 

In the above charter, Laurence de C. is described as " miles." 

" Dominus de Brocworth " is frequently added in deeds which 

1 A castle was not necessarily a fortress of stone. A British, Roman, 
or Saxon earthwork would fulfil the name. If in these early times the Hill 
was called the Castle, a person living on it would naturally be called 1 ' de 
Castello.— Ed." 



i 



MANOPw ANT) AdVOWSON" OF BROCKWORTH. 



147 



follow, and I imagine he succeeded his father as lord of JBrockworth, 
on the extinction, probably, of the male line of Robert de 0., of 
Stradel Castle. In the Hundred Rolls (I. 181. 4th. Ed. I.), for the 
Hundred of Duddeston, it is recorded that " Laurence de Chandos 
held of the King in capite sl certain knight's fee in Brokeworth, 
for which he used to do suit at that Hundred twice a year ; and 
he sold that fee to the Priory of Lanthony next Gloucester in part, 
and to the Abbot of Gloucester in part, and to others. 

The sale of part of Brockworth to the Abbey took place in 

1260, and is thus noted : 

"John de Felda (Abbot of S. Peter's) bought of Sir Laurence de Chandos 
55 acres of arable land in Brockworth, and 40 acres of his park, and all his 
wood in Bockholt, containing 300 acres." 1 

It has been noted that the Abbey had land adjoining that of 
his ancestor, Roger de Chandos, inBuckholt, in 1121. The whole 
of the wood, so called, was now acquired, and certain cultivated 
lands adjoining. The park mentioned above must have been, I 
think, part of that mentioned in earlier charters as the park of 
Earl Gilbert, and which, some time during the preceding century, 
may have been purchased by, or granted to, an ancestor of Sir 
Laurence de Chandos. 

The sale of Buckholt was followed by a grant of land to the 

Abbey, which was made to the same Abbot John, whose rule 

at S. Peter's terminated in 1263. 

"Laurence de C, knight, has given to John de Felda, Abbot of S. 
Peter's, all his wood called Buckholte, except 5 acres which Henry le Droys 
held of* him, and except that part of the same wood which Basilia, wife of 
his brother Robert, held " in dotem," which wood, Adamde Bentham held of 
him. He has given also to the said Abbot and Convent two solidi and an 
obolus which William de Pinnekote, the forester, was wont to pay him ; 
and six denarii which John Barett paid yearly ; and one denarius which J ohn 
son of William de Pinnekote was wont to render, with homage, service, &c. 3 

" Also he, Laurence de C, has given to the said Abbot, for the salvation 
of his soul, and of the soul of his wife Agnes, and of the souls of his ances- 
tors and successors, 3s. 6d. yearly rent, which John Fraunceys has been 
wont to pay ; and Id. which Adam de Benetham has paid for lands and 
tenements, which the said John and Adam held of him in the village of 
Brockworthe, and outside it, with homage, service, &c, for providing and 
keeping a lamp burning before the altar of the Apostle S. Andrew, at all 
masses in the Abbey Church of S. Peter's, Gloucester, for ever. 3 

1 Hist, et Cart. Glouc, Vol. I, p. 65. 2 Hist, et Cart. Glouc, I., 196, 

3 Hist, et Cart. Glouc, I., 197. 
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"Also he has given to the said Abbot all his wood which he had in 
Brocworthe park, except the portions belonging to the Prior of Lanthony, 
Richard de Compton, and Philip de Hatherley, of the same wood in the 
same park. Also he has given 3 denarii and an obolus which Richard de 
Compton was wont to pay yearly at Christmas ; and Id. which Philip de 
Hatherley paid at Christmas ; and all the service of Henry le Droys which 
he was wont and bound to render for land and tenements held of him in the 
village of Brocworthe, and outside it. 1 

" Also he has given to the said Abbot all the place, with columbarium, 
and all other things belonging to it, in which his farm buildings, and those 
of his ancestors, were formerly situate, which lies on the west side of Broc- 
worthe church, and extends as far as the brook called Horsbere. This he 
has given, claiming nothing in return for himself or his heirs, but only 
spiritual prayers for the salvation of his soul, and of the soul of his wife 
Agnes, and of the souls of his ancestors and successors. 2 

' ' Also he has given to the said Abbot all his land \* hich he held in 
Brocworthe, in the field called Northfelde ; that, namely, which lies from 
the new ditch, between the land of John Franceys and the land of the Prior 
of Lanthony, which extends from the way called ' Rugweye ' as far as the 
brook called Horsbere ; and, in breadth, from the said ditch to opposite the 
church of Brocworthe ; this also lie has given, claiming no return but per- 
petual spiritual prayers." 3 

The land on the west side of the church must have been the 

site of the house of John the priest, which had been given by 

Roger de Chandos to the Priory, and surrendered by them for other 

lands soon afterwards. 

The Northfield close by is still Northfield, and the " wood in 
Brocworth park," which he gave the Abbot, is, doubtless, Abbots- 
wood, — the farm adjoining that which is now known as Brockworth 
park. 

The wood excepted in the grant of Buckholt, as being held r< in 
dotem" for Basilia, wife of Robert de Chandos and in the tenancy 
of Adam de Bentham, is still ' Bentham's wood.' It was an»inso- 
lated piece of freehold, in the midst of land which had been 
granted, after the dissolution of the Abbey, to the Bishops of 
Gloucester ; and was purchased by Alderman John Jones, whose 
monument in the cathedral is familiar to most of those who 
will read this, and who was " thrice mayor of Gloucester, burgess in 
parliament at the time of the Gunpowder Treason, and Registrar to 
eight successive bishops of Gloucester." Almost the only name lost 

1 Hist, et Cart. Glouc. I., 198. 2 Hist, et Cart. Glouc. I., 199. 

3 Hist, et Cart. Glouc I., 200. 



Manor and Advowson or Brockworth. 



149 



of those mentioned in the above charters is the one which would 
have seemed most likely of any to have survived. Until I saw it in 
the charters of Laurence de Chandos, I had not been able to dis- 
cover the name by which the brook flowing through Brockworth 
had ever been known. Old inhabitants, and the descendants of 
older inhabitants, had always said the brook had no name. The old 
designation, however, Horsbere, survived in "Horse Ferry Bridge, 1 ' 
as local maps mark the spot, or " Horse by the Bridge," as the 
Ordnance map describes the place, where the brook is crossed on 
the way to Birdlip. 

The grants noted above are confirmed by Laurence cle C. 
to Abbot Reginald, who succeeded John de Felda. There is 
also a charter from the same Abbot to Laurence de Chandos, 
granting him, "for his life only, a reasonable supply of fuel for his 
hearth, when he and his wife stay at Brockworth, and for mending 
the fences round his Court, from his (the Abbot's) wood of Boc- 
holte ": — but it is expressly provided that it must be taken under 
inspection, and by permission, of the Abbot's forester, " without 
waste, destruction, sale, or gift." The Abbot also concedes to 
Laurence de C, and his wife Agnes, for their lives only, his colum- 
barium, and the area on which the farm buildings were situated. 
After their decease, the land, and every improvement erected 
thereon (melioratio superposita), is to revert to the Abbey. 1 

With regard to the lands described above, the arable land 
and park, purchased with Buckholt, was granted to Henry le 
Droys, who held it of the Abbey at a rent of half a mark per 
annum. It has always been described and known since that time 
as Droyscourt, and reputed a separate manor. The said Henry le 
Droys was outlawed for felony " on the Feast of S. Thomas the 
Apostle," in 1299, and the land reverted to the Abbey, after being- 
held by the crown for a year and a day as the king's waste. 2 

On the forfeiture of Henry le Droys, the manor was granted 
to Walter de Gloucester, miles, who held it of the Abbey, for 
half a mark paid at Easter and Michaelmas, and payment to the 

1 Hist, et Cart. Glouc, I., 282. 

2 Inquis. post mortem, 28 Edw. L, No. 1J3- 



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Abbot of a horse with proper harness, as heriot, on the succession 
of each heir. There is a detailed description of the manor in the 
Inquisitio jjost mortem of the said Walter de Gloucester 5th 
Edw. IT., in which the sum of the demesnes is given at 68s. 4d. 
There were 9 free tenants, and 6 bondmen (nativi), whose names 
are given, and who held certain lands in villenage, and were bound 
to " plough, work, make malt, and render eggs at Easter." Walter 
de Gloucester was declared next heir, and is described as "of the 
age of 17 years on the 15th day of January last past." 

The manor of Droyscourt remained with the Abbey till the 
dissolution, when it was made part of the endowment of the 
Bishopric of Gloucester then founded. The Guises held it of the 
bishops for some generations; and, after them, descendants of the 
alderman, J ohn J ones, mentioned above, by whom it was enfran- 
chised, and who now have the freehold. 

In the Register of Abbot Parker, the last abbot of S. Peter's, 
there is mention of a lease made, in 1526, by which " one furlong 
of arable land called Abbot's furlong, and one croft called Culne- 
croft, and one parcel called Lylley, in Modewyke, near Brockworth 
park," is let to Agneta Webley, and Egidius, her son, "for 51 
years, for 20s. legal money of England." A note at the end of 
the lease, dated 1585, records that "John Webley still holds it." 

There is no farm or property in Brockworth known as "Mode- 
wyke " now, though the name appears in several deeds subsequent 
to the one just quoted. Probably the farm of Abbotswood, which 
"lies between Brockworth park and Buckholt," and contains "a 
parcel called Lylley," is the one let on lease to Agneta and Egidius 
Webley. Their family held land in Brockworth for several gener- 
ations, and one small holding, now a portion of the Court farm, 
still retains the name of " Webley's." 

The grants by Laurence de Chandos to the Priory of Lanthony 
are very numerous. A charter of his has been already quoted, 
in which he confirms the gifts of his ancestors. This is followed 
by a long series, in which he adds to their gifts himself. 

The following are abstracted from the Registrum Antiquum at 
Thirlestaine House. 



Manor and Advowson of Brock worth. 151 



Laurence cle C. gives " the right he has in the pasture which 
lies between the mill of Adam de Bentham and dominus Gilbert 
Cutel, on the banks of the brook, about which there had been 
some contention between them. 

" Witnesses : John de Pyritone ; Thos/de Hatherley." 

He gives "to John, son of Sampson, of Brockwordin, for lis. 
sterling, four sellions and one gore, 1 in the field of Northfeld, which 
lie between his land and that of the Prior of Lanthony, and extend 
over Hurlong's furlong and another u capud," above E-ugwey, at a 
rent annually of one obolus of silver. 

" Witnesses : William le Venur ; Ernisius de Brocwordin." 

He gives "to John,- son of Sampson, common rights for ten 
oxen in all his woods and fields for a rent of one obolus of silver." 
" Witnesses : William le Venur ; Adam de XJske." 

John, son of Sampson, gives the lands and right of pasture, 
purchased of dominus Laurence de Chandos, to the Church of 
Lanthony, at a rent of 2 ob. to the said Laurence. 

Witnesses : Dominus Hen. le Droys, miles ; Will. Venator ; 
Ph. cle Heperly. 

Laurence de C. gives to Ch. of Lanthony " pasture for 6 oxen, 
with his own oxen, within his park or outside, and reasonable right 
of road to those going or returning with their oxen. 

1 ' Witnesses Ph. de Hetherly ; Ph. de Mattresdon ; Henry de 
Mattresdon." 

The charters which follow are from the Registrum Magnum. 
I have made my abstract of them as brief as possible, consistently 
with giving the names and descriptions of the various lands gran- 
ted, and the names of the witnesses to each deed ; and I have 
given them generally in the order in which they are recorded in 
the Register. 

Laurence de Chandos, " miles et dominus de Broc worth," 
gives to Lanthony, "Crokemede, at Brocworth, which lies in length 
beside his grove called Aldwyk, with free entry, re-entry, and 
exit, and all other easements thereto belonging. 

1 Gore, a small narrow slip of ground. — Ed. 



152 



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" Witnesses : Dominus John cle Pyriton, miles ; dominus Hen. 
Droys, miles ; Ph. de Mattresdone ; William Gerard de Mattres- 
done ; Adam de Bentham ; John Sampson, &c." 

He gives "that part of his arable land in the village of 
Brocworth, which lies between the hedge of Adam de Bentham on 
one side, and Linleybroc. 

"Witnesses: Henr. Droys; Adam de Bentham ; John Cropet; 
William le Byun; John Sampson; John Eglege; John Fraunceys, 
&c." 

He gives " all his grove, called Aldenwyke, which lies in length 
between Cosle and Budynge, and in breadth between Crockmede 
and Salymede;" and he concedes certain ground "for making 
a ditsh from his meadow, called Salymede, from the head of his 
grove, as far as the wood of the Archbishop, called Cosle. 1 

" Witnesses: Dominus Henr. le Bus; dominus John de Pyriton; 
Bichard de Cumpton, clericus ; Master Boger, of Gloucester, 
clericus ; Ph. de Mattesdone ; Galfr. de Derhurst ; Adam de Ben- 
tham ; William Gerard de Mattesdon, &c." 

He gives " ail his Court of Brocworth, with buildings, gardens, 
curtilages, and vineries, and all its appurtenances, in the field 
called Westfield, in Brocworth, and all his pasture, with his 
meadows and woods, wheresoever lying in the territory (in terri- 
torio) of the said manor, and all the lordship and service that he 
has in the same manor, making to the chief lord the service due, — 
that is to say, scutage. 

" Witnesses: Dominus Ph. de Pyriton; dominus Boger le Bus ; 
Ph. cle Mattesdon ; Bobert de Leden ; Bobert Keys ; Adam de 
Bentham ; William le Yenur; Ernisius cle Brocworth; William le 
Byun, &c." 

The next deed mentions by name the various tenants, and 
relinquishes to the Priory all that is clue from them to the manor, 
" in respect of rents, suits, court clues, homages, fealties, and all 
escheats of every kind." 

The charter next recorded mentions the Court as that of the 
Prior, and gives " that piece of land which lies outside the farm 

1 The manor of Churchdown, the adjoining parish, was part of the 
possessions in the county of the Archbishop of York. 



Manor and Advowson of Brockworth. 



153 



buildings of the said prior ; " in width, between his Court of Broc- 
worth and his arable land; and extending in length from the Court 
of the aforesaid prior, as far as the churchyard of the same place." 

Another , deed conveys "26 statute acres (acras reg.) lying in 
length beside the meadow called Crockmede, and reaching east- 
ward as far as the ' cultura ' called Rudynge, and westward as far 
as the croft called Wydewiccroft, and the wood of the Archbishop." 
He permits also " a ditch to be made eight feet wide between the 
remainder of his wood of Aldenwyke, at Brocworth, which is 
within the ' cultura ' called Rudynge." 

Sir Laurence de Chandos also gives " half an acre of the exsart 
from his wood of Brocworth, which lies at the end of Crocke- 
mede, and reaches beyond Wydewecroft." 

And again, " one sellion of his land in the territory ( in teritorio J 
of Brocworth, lying at the head of Crockmede, between the land 
of William le Venur and Margie de Hok." 

There follow several charters specifying particular tenements 

given to the Priory. 

" All that land which Philip de Leyehampton, and Agnes his wife, once 
held of me by deed, for their lives, in the village of Brocworth, and two 
acres of land by Linleybroc' 

" The land which Matilda Modekyn once held." 

" The land which William de Theokesburi, burgess of Gloucester, held 
of me, and has given to them (the canons) in Brocworth." 

Then follows a charter renewing the grant of the Court, and 
the ground inside the enclosure of the Court, and specifying " 20 
acres of land which lie outside my garden on the south side, and 
abut on the garden ditch." The same charter also specifies 
various rents, &c, given to " Godfrey, Prior of Lanthony," viz., 
" for the tenement which was Henry le Droys', all the scutage, 
court suits, and all other dues, and the following annual rents : — 



" For the tenement of Richard de Compton - - - 4d. 

,, Richard de Hatherley - - - Id. 

,, Adam de Benetham - - Id. 

,, ,, William Venator - - - Id. 

,, ,, Ernisius de Brocworth - - - 1 ob. 

,, ,, Henry de Benetham - - - Id. 

Henry, son of Roger - - ' - 1 ob. 



154 



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For the tenement of John le Droys - - - - Id. 

William le Droys - - - - Id. 

Richard, the carpenter - - - Id. 

William de Ryun - - - ob. 

Master Henry, the vicar - - ob. 

John Sampson - ob. 

John Fraunceys - - - Id." 

A charter which follows, giving to the Priory the rent and 
" servitium " of William de Ryun, of Brocworth, is dated "Anno 
Dni., 1261," and this may perhaps indicate the dates of the 
other grants quoted above. 

The names of the witnesses to the earlier grants have been 
given in full. To the charters which follow the same names, or 
some of them, are generally appended. Additional ones I notice, 
are "Master William de Tany," "Philip de Quedesley," "Peter 
Damysel." 

There is also a grant to the Priory of " that virgate of land, 
with a house, which John the son of Alwyn held of me in villen- 
age, with the same John, my bondman, and all his issue, and all 
his chattels, without anything held back." 

A former charter had given the bondman J ohn, and his house 
' and land, " cum tota sequela procreata seu procreanda, et eorum 
catullis," to Roger, son of Sir Laurence de Chandos. It would 
appear that the said Roger, who was probably the eldest son and 
heir, had died, as he is not mentioned among the children whose 
names are given in a charter that follows. There is a grant 
recorded subsequently by John de C, another son of Sir Laurence, 
of the family of John, the bondman, by which it would appear 
that John de Chandos had some interest in what had been before 
conceded to his brother. 

By the above charters, Laurence cle Chandos had alienated 
his whole property to the Priory of Lanthony, and he, and his wife 
and family, are dependant on the alms conceded to them by the 
Prior. 

"In the year 1264, this convenant was made between Sir 
Laurence de Chandos, knight, and Godfrey, Prior of Lanthony. 
The said Sir Laurence has given and yielded to the Prior and 



55 55 

55 55 

55 55 

55 5> 

5? 55 

55 5J 



Manor and Advowson of Brookworth. 



155 



Convent all his Court at Brocworth, and all his arable land in the 
field called Westfield, in Brocworth. For this gift, the Prior and 
Convent have given to the said Laurence, and Agnes his wife, for 
their support (ad opus eoncmj, the rations (corredia) of two 
canons, in everything; and for the support of one esquire and one 
maid (un' armigeri et 1 ancille), the rations of two free servants ; 
and for the support of one serving man (1 garconis), the ration of a 
serving man ; to be received daily, at Lanthony, every year which 
the said Laurence and Agnes his wife shall live. And for one 
servant, for bringing up their children, they Will give a ration as 
to the aforesaid serving man. Also the Prior and Convent have 
conceded to the aforesaid Laurence and Agnes, ' ad opus eorum, et 
ad opus omnium predicatorum,' sixty shillings, for their clothes 
and shoes, to be received at Lanthony yearly at Easter. But 
when either of them shall die, there shall be supply and payment 
of half only of the aforesaid. Also the said Prior and Convent 
have given to Laurence and Agnes that house, with appurtenances, 
which Richard de Hatherley has given them, in the City of Glou- 
cester. And if the said Laurence should die, and the said Agnes 
should seek to obtain her dowry from the said Canons, then the 
portions she has been wont to receive from them shall cease. And 
the aforesaid Prior and Canons have given for the six children of 
the said Laurence, viz., Ralph, John, William, Joan, Henry, and 
Matilda, victuals and clothing and other reasonable necessaries." 

The agreement goes on to provide that if there be otherwise 
provision for the children, or any of them, or if they obtain any 
of their inheritance of the fee and lordship of their father, the 
provision conceded to them shall cease. 

There is a confirmation of this charter, dated 50th Hen. III., 
i.e. 1266. The gifts of the latter to the Priory are recited and 
summed up as "one messuage, 120 acres of land, 45 acres of 
wood, 5 acres of pasture, and 18s. of rent;" and the promise is 
repeated of daily rations for himself and his wife, <fcc. 

In this second deed, however, the rations are more distinctly 
specified. The two canon's corredies, and the corredies of two 
free servants, are described as " two large manchets (magna3 



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michise), and two knight's loaves (panes militis), and two loaves 
called bismiches, four flagons of ale (lagense melioris cervisiae) 
and two of small beer (secundse cervisise), and two dishes from the 
kitchen, and two pittances (fercula pitanei) such as the canons 
receive, and two dishes for free servants." It is provided also, that 
if any of the children shall come to full age, and by counsel of 
the Prior shall wish to commute the privilege of food and clothing 
for a fixed allowance, that the Prior shall give to each, every year, 
" half a mark of silver for clothes and shoes," and shall find for 
each, daily, for his whole life, the "corredy of one free servant, viz., 
one knight's loaf, one loaf which is called a bismiche, one flagon of 
small beer, and one dish from the kitchen." 

This charter is followed by one other. The former lord of 
Brockworth found the sixty shillings a year allowed him insuffi- 
cient for any extraordinary expense, beyond the provision of 
clothes and shoes, for himself and his wife, and the esquire and 
maid. There is a charter, the date of which is not given, or in- 
dicated, in which he "remits and quitclaims the prior from the 
ration of a free servant in respect to his esquire, for which re- 
mission, it is stated, the prior had given him, for some pressing 
business (" ad urgens negotium meum "), the sum of five marks. 

There is no other record of Laurence de Chandos, lord of 
Brockworth, and knight. We leave him, with the privilege of 
cutting fuel, in woods which were once his own, by permission, and 
under supervision, of the Abbot's forester ; and living in the house 
which was once Bichard de Hatherley's, on the alms doled out 
daily from the Priory. 

Of the children there are some further notices. Balph, in a 
charter in which he is described as son and heir of Laurence de 
Chandos, confirms the gifts of his father. William quitclaims 
John, the Prior, of all right which he has in his father's lands in 
Brockworth. And Matilda, in a charter dated 14th Edw. I., or 
1286, commutes the 6s. 8d. per annum, and the daily corredy, for 
a payment of ten pounds, " with which," she says, " God willing, 
I shall be married and well provided for." I think it likely her 
husband was John Wawyn, for the charter next recorded in the 



Manor and Advowson of Brock worth. 



157 



Register is one by which a man of that name quitclaims Prior 
William of his right in the lands which had belonged to Laurence 
de Chandos, and which, by hereditary right, might come to him. 

William became a donor on his own account to Lanthony. 
There is a charter in the Registrum Antiquum, which describes a 
gift of Elyas de Tyderingtone to John, chaplain of Alvynton, 
and William de Chandos, son of Sir Laurence de Chandos of 
Brockworth, of all the land he had " in the Sterte, in the village 
of Aylbrython." 1 This land, consisting of thirty -two acres, John 
de Alvynton, and William de Chandos, gave to the Priory of Lan- 
thony. The king's license for the gift is dated Feb. 10th., 131 6. 2 

John became a canon of Lanthony, and was ultimately Prior. 
He seems to have had' some claim to a tenement and a bondman 
which Sir Laurence had given to Roger, the eldest son, who pre- 
deceased his father. There is a charter by which he conveys to 
the Church of Lanthony, " one virgate of land, with appurtenances, 
in Brocworth, which Roger my brother had once held, and Gilbert, 
the son of J ohn Alwyn, and his brothers, my bondmen, with all 
their issue and chattels." 

Another charter is as follows : — 

" In the year of grace 1275, in the month of May, it was thus agreed 
between the Prior of Lanthony and John, son of Laurence de Chandos, viz., 
Whereas the said Prior and Convent are bound to the said John, by charter 
and deed executed in the court of our lord the King, in a corredy of one free 
servant for his life, the Prior and the Convent have conceded to the said 
John, for all his land which he has in Brocworth, until there shall be a 
provision for him in some ecclesiastical benefice, that he shall receive one 
brown loaf (bismicham), one small white loaf (micham) ; and, for clothes, such 
as Milo, the clerk (clericus), receives ; and one mark to be received annually 
through his bailif at Brocworth, viz., half a mark within the octave of the 
Annunciation of the Blessed Mary, and the other half mark within the octave 
of S. Michael, under penalty of a bushel of corn to be given to him weekly till 
the said money be paid to him. And if it should happen that the said John 
should ever demand the said land of the Prior and Convent, then all the 
aforesaid shall cease." 

By the above it would seem likely that Ralph, the eldest son, 
had died ; and that John, now his father's heir, had made terms be- 
fore confirming his father's gifts to the Priory. 

I think John cle Chandos, though in Holy Orders, could not 
have been in cloister at the time of the agreement above quoted. 

1 Ailberton, in the parish of Lydney. 2 Patent Roll, 8th Ed. II, 



158 



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Two years after its date, in 1277, one of his name became Incum- 
bent of Pencomb, in Herefordshire, and held the benefice for three 
years. 1 Probably he entered the monastery of Lanthoiry on leav- 
ing Pencomb, in 1280. He became prior, according to Dugdale, 
in 1289. The same authority describes his rule as of short 
duration, but I have observed one charter in which he is mentioned 
as Prior so late as 1308. A note by Sir Thomas Phillipps, in 
his Transcript of the Lanthony Registers, suggests that his rule in 
the convent continued till the close of the reign of Edward II. 

The name of " Richard the carpenter " appears among the 
tenants of Sir Laurence de Chandos, in the charter conveying 
certain rents to Lanthony. There is a notice in the Registrum, 
Antiquum of an arrangement between him and his new landlord. 
Prior Walter de Markeley " quitclaims Richard de Broc worth, free 
carpenter, of one messuage and eight acres of land, which William 
father of the said Richard, held of the Priory ; and concedes to 
the said Richard, and his heirs, all the lands which he held by gift 
of Henry, the son of Richard, son of Master Roger of Gloucester; 
and also the land he had by gift of Sir Laurence de Chandos, 
which Stephen Modekyn previously held ; and two acres of land 
which he held by gift of Gilbert Cutel, in the same Brocworth, at 
an annual rent of 10s., the court dues of Brocworth being excepted." 

There is yet one more charter, in the Registrum Antiquum of 
Lanthony, in which the name of Chandos is mentioned in connec- 
tion with Brockworth. 

John Somery, of Gloucester, clericus, "gives to the Church of 
the Blessed Mary of Lanthony, all the lands and tenements he has 
in Brocworth." The deed is described as "given at Brocworth on 
Monday, the Festival of S. Laurence the Martyr, in the year of 
Edward the son of Edward, the 4th," i.e. in 1310. The land is 
described as held by 9 tenants, whose names are given. 

In an inquisition of 12 jurors, it is declared that it is not to 
the king's hurt that he permit the said John Somery to give his 
land to the Priory. The land is described as 20 acres, with 
appurtenances; and the messuage and land are stated to be worth 

1 Puncombe's History of Herefordshire, Vol, II., p. 153, 



Manor axd Advowson of Bkookwokth. 



159 



x e in all issues. The jury reports that there are two mesne (lords) 
between the king and the said master John, viz., the Prior and 
Convent of Lanthony first, and Roger de Chandos second mesne ; 
and that they hold it of the king by fine of 6d. per annum ; and 
that it is worth in all 100s. per annum. 

I do not know who the Roger de Chandos was who is mentioned 
as second mesne in the above. He may have been a grandson of 
Laurence ; or, more likely, he may have been one of the Hereford- 
shire branch of the family, who retained the position of second 
mesne after the lordship had been acquired by Laurence. How- 
soever it be, it is the last mention of any de Chandos as having 
lordship or property in Brock worth. 

The last grant of land to Lanthony from this manor, which I 
have been able to find, is one by Henry de Broc worth, in 1351.* 

At an inquisition on Friday before S. Kenelm, 24th Edw. III., 
the jury, including one John de Brocworthe, say, that " it is not 
to the king's hurt to grant to Henry de Brocworthe that he may 
give and assign three messuages, two carucates of land, six acres of 
meadow, and 18s. of rent, with appurtenances, in Brocworth, to 
the Prior and Convent of Lanthony, by Gloucester, and their 
successors, in part satisfaction of ten pounds worth of land, which 
the king has licensed them to acquire ; so that the Prior and 
Convent may regrant the premises to the said Henry, for the term 
of his life, after which they are to revert to the Prior and 
Convent, of whom the premises are held by the service of 10s. by 
the year. One messuage with a columbarium is worth yearly half 
a mark ; one messuage 3s. ; the third messuage Is. 8d. The two 
carucates contain 120 acres, whereof forty are worth 20s., forty 
are worth 13s. 4d., and forty 10s. by the year. The meadow is 
worth 6s. 6d. 

"The 18s. of rent is from 8 cottages, which are worth nothing 
more. Besides the premises, there remain to the said Henry 
4 messuages, 2 virgates of land, 15s. of rent, and 8 acres of wood, 
which are sufficient to support all customs and services, &c, as 
before." 

1 Inquis. post mortem, 24th Edw. Ill, 



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I should surmise that this grant was on account of Simon cle 
Brocworth, who may have been a canon of Lanthony at this time, 
as he was elected Prior eleven years later, in 1362. 

There is not much of interest to record concerning Brockworth, 
from the time where its lordship was divided between the Abbey 
of S. Peter's and the Priory of Lanthony, until the date of their 
dissolution. There are one or two suits recorded, between one or 
other of the monasteries, and the few remaining land owners in 
the parish other than themselves. There was a suit between the 
Abbey and the Priory, 15th Edw. 1. (1287), concerning rights of 
pasturage, and right of way, with carts and wagons, through the 
land of the Abbot. It was decided that the Abbot, and his 
successors, should concede to the Prior, and his successors, of S. 
Mary and S. John the Baptist, Lanthony, that they should have 
common pasture in the wood of the said Abbot, adjacent to the 
wood of the said Priory which is called the Park, for the free 
tenants of the priory, and also that the said Abbot should concede 
to the said Prior that they should have right of way, &c. 

In 21st. Edw. I. (1293) the Priory had free warren in Brock 
worth. 

In 1377, the Priory purchased of the Abbey 24 acres of 
land in Brocworth, and one acre of pasture, at a perpetual rent of 
20s. per annum. For the license to make this purchase the Priory 
paid the king 20s. 

It must have been during the fourteenth century, probably 
about the middle of it, that the church of Brockworth was rebuilt. 
The two fine Norman arches supporting the tower and perhaps the 
font, are all that is left of the church dedicated in 1142, or soon 
afterwards. I think the rebuilding must have taken place when 
Simon cle Brocworth was prior, i.e. between 1362 and 1377. The 
style of architecture shews that it could not have been many years 
earlier or later than the period of Prior Simon's rule. To what 
family in the parish Simon belonged one cannot say, but that he 
was a Brockworth man, or of Brockworth extraction, his name 
plainly shews. I have suggested that perhaps he was son of 
Henry de Brocworth, the last recorded benefactor from this manor 



Manor and Advowson of Brockworth. 



161 



to the Priory ; and he may have been descended, possibly, from that 
Richard de Brocwordin, steward to Roger de Chandos, who was 
the first donor of land in this parish to Lanthony. However this 
may be, Prior Simon may well have had kinsfolk at Brockworth, 
and must have had interests there ; and it is, at least, very probable 
that to his influence was due the enlargement and rebuilding of 
his old parish church, in the style which prevailed during the 
period of his rule at Lanthony. 

About a century and half after the new church was finished, 
the Court adjoining it was built. The portion of the old edifice 
which is left is a remarkably beautiful specimen of Tudor domestic 
architecture ( see PI. XVIII). We are able to fix almost the exact 
date of its completion. Within the gable to the north is painted 
the pomegranate, — the symbol of Katharine of Arragon, — and 
beneath it the letters " R. H. P." These doubtless stand for 
" Richard Hart, Prior," — the last Prior of Lanthony. He was 
elected in 1534, and remained in office till the dissolution of the 
Priory in 1539 ; and it was during these five years, therefore, that 
the older part of Brockworth Court was built. 

On the dissolution of the monasteries, the manor of Droys- 
court, which was the property of S. Peter's Abbey, was granted 
as part of the endowment of the newly formed diocese of Glou- 
cester. The manor and lordship of Brockworth, which had belonged 
to the Priory of Lanthony, was granted to John Gyes, of Elmore, 
esquire, together with the manor of Great Barrington, in the 
county of Gloucester ; in exchange for the manors of Apsley Gyes, 
in Bedfordshire, and Wygginton, in Oxfordshire. The terms of 
the grant have been stated in a former contribution to the Trans- 
actions of this Society, 1 so that they need not be further described. 
The manor of Brockworth was charged with a payment of £51 
16s. 3d. to the Crown, being the estimated difference in value of 
the estates exchanged. This rental of £51 16s. 3d. formed part of 
the grant of James I. to his Queen, Anne of Denmark, for her 
life. 2 

1 Trans, of the B. & G. Arch. Soc, Vol. III., 59. 
3 Patent Roll, 2 James I., p. 13. 
Vol. YH.,jpart 1. m 



162 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



The rectory, and the aclvowson of Brockworth, appear to have 
been retained by the Crown. They were granted by Queen Eliza- 
beth to the Earl of Leicester, 1 but they must soon have passed 
from him, as in 1575 Richard Savaker was instituted to the 
vicarage, on the nomination of "John Gyes, Esquire, and Richard 
Gldisworth, Gent." 

Of the Guises, who in 1540 became lords of the manor of 
Brockworth, it will not be necessary to say much, as the history 
of the family has been fully written in an earlier volume of the 
Transactions of this Society. 2 

The parish Registers shew that Brockworth was frequently, 
though not uninterruptedly, the residence of the family for about 
two centuries. John Gyes, of Elmore, appears to have taken up his 
abode in the Court newly built by Prior Richard, from the time 
when the property came to him. He died there in 1556. 

HIC SITUS EST ILLE HONORABILIS 

Christopherus Guise in hoc agro Glocest. miles ac BaroneF 

NEC NON AB UTROQ : PRiELUSTRIU PROAVORU SANGUINE LONGISSIMA 
SERIE PERINSIGNIS * VIR ERAT NON VULGARITER ERUDITUS, INDOLIS 

PERACUTjE memorise tenacis ingenii VIVIDI, iudicii perqua 

SUBACTI • HINC PROPTER EXIMIAS DOTES FIDE FORTITUDENEMQ : 
PROVINCLE SU.E PRO-PR.EFECTUS ALTER A REGIO DIPLOMATE CON- 
STITUTE EST, UNDE POSTQUA FIDELIS ILLE PATRIOTA REGI PATRIAE 
SIBI SUISQ: SATISFECISSET ET INTERIORES PROVINCE SU.E COMITATUS 

VRBem Glocestrisfe circumiacentes, ab urbis servitudine per- 

• A - .... • A 

antiqua iniquisq: civiu privilegiis emancipasset immunesq: 
posteris reliquisset sal • .era. M'DC'LXX. ^t. 53. Heu* NIM1S 

PROPERANT FATA ' PRETIOSiE CUIUS MEMORISE UNICUS FILIUS AC 

uteres Johannes Guise, miles ac Baronetus, hoc monumentum 

PARENTAVIT. 

His immediate successors lived probably at Elmore, but the 
widow of Sir William Guise, described in the Register as Dame 
Elizabeth Guise, died at Brockworth, and was buried there Sept. 
27th, 1656. 

1 Particulars for grants 15Eliz., sec. 8. 

2 Trans, of the B. & Q Arch. Sac, Vol III. pp. 49-78. 



i 



PLATE XIX. 




TOMB OF SIR CHRISTOPHER GUISE. 



Manor and Advowson of Brockworth. 



163 



The son of this William, another William, probably lived at 
Brockworth, as his children, William, Eleanor, and Frances were 
baptized there 1621-26. Sir Christopher Guise, son of Sir William, 
lived at Brockworth, and died there Oct. 24th., 1670. His 
monument in the chancel, a bust enclosed in a wreath, is a fine 
example of the sculptural work of the period. A woodcut of 
the monument is given on Plate XIX. The inscription upon it 
is as on the last page. 

Two children of the said Sir Christopher, by his first marriage 
with Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Lawrence Washington, were bap- 
tized at Brockworth, Elizabeth in 166y, and Henry in 166^. The 
last entry I find recorded in the Parish Registers is of " the Lady 
Elizabeth Guise, widow and relict of Sir John Guise, Baronett," 
who was buried at Brockworth, July 21st, 1720. 

There is not much of political or general interest to mark the 
connection of the Guises with Brockworth. The times were stir- 
ring enough, for Royalists and Roundheads were fighting almost 
within sight of Brockworth, when the Guises were living at the 
Court. The family seems to have been divided in its sympathies, 
and did not take active part either with King or Parliament. 
Sir Christopher Guise sat, with Sir Matthew Hale, for the County 
of Gloucester, in the first Commonwealth Parliament, 1654-56. 
He was appointed, also, one of the Commissioners for the assess- 
ment of the County of Gloucester, and also of the County of the 
City of Gloucester, in 1657 j so that he was plainly regarded as a 
sympathiser with, though he was not an active supporter of, the 
Commonwealth. His brother Henry, from whom the present 
family of Guise descends, was distinctly a Royalist. He must have 
been, I think, that " Master Guyse," described as "a malignant," 
whose corn was carried off to supply the garrison at Gloucester. 1 
He was one of the Gloucestershire gentry who signed the address of 
welcome to Chas. II. on his Restoration. Sir Christopher's name is 
absent from the list. His receiving from Charles a baronetcy 
might seem to imply services to, or sympathies with, the Royalist 
cause ; but I suspect the royal favour was shewn to secure 

1 Bibliotheca Gloucestrensis p. 308, 
M 2 



164 



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support in the future, rather than to reward it in the past. One 
notices that, in the laudatory epitaph inscribed on Sir Christopher's 
monument by his son, there is no stronger expression used of his 
loyalty than " regi satisfecisset." 

The only fact recorded which connects Brockworth with either 
party in the civil war is the notice, in a paper on the siege of 
Gloucester, reprinted in the Bibliotheca Gloucestrensis, that Lord 
Chandos dined one day at Brockworth with Lady Guise. 1 This 
Lady Guise was not the wife of Sir Christopher, but was Dame 
Elizabeth Guise, widow of Sir William. The incident is of no 
special interest, except as associating once more the name of 
Chandos with what was once the manor and lordship of one 
branch of the ancient Norman house. 

If the sympathies of the then squire of Brockworth lay with 
Puritanism, those of the parson were strongly in the other direction. 
In the first entry in the parish Begister after the Restoration, 
the homely English is laid aside for the more clerkly Latin, and 
the year is described as beginning with " The Feast of the Annun- 
ciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and in the reign of our Most 
Serene Lord Charles the Second, the 12th, and in that most happy 
year, and of all true-hearted Englishmen to be very much observed, 
of the Beturn, Bestoration, and Coronation, with the utmost joy, 
splendour, and celebrity, of Charles, that most excellent Prince." 
I do not certainly know who was my predecessor who penned, in 
the resonant Latin which to Commonwealth men would savour 
of Popery, this effusive profession of loyalty. Beneath the in- 
scription, but apparently in a different hand, is written " Mr. 
Robinson, Minister." 

There was one earnest Royalist in the parish of more eminence 
than the parson. John Theyer, the celebrated antiquary, "was 
born of gentle parents," his biographer tells us, "at Cooper's hill." 2 
At the age of 16 years he went to Oxford, and, after three years' 
study, he spent a similar period in studying the common law at 
New Inn, London. He does not appear to have practised at the 
bar, but "receded to his patrimony, and, as years grew on, gave 

1 Bibliotheca Glouc, 209. 

' 2 Wood's Athena- Oxonienses, Vol. II. , p. 380. 



Manor and Advowson of Brockworth. 



165 



himself mostly to the study of venerable antiquity, and to the 
obtaining of ancient monuments thereof (MSS.) ; in which he did 
so much abound, that no private gentleman of his rank did ever, 
I think, exceed him. He was a bookish, studious man," the 
author of his biography continues, " a lover of learning and the 
adorers thereof, a zealous Royalist, and one that had suffered 
much, in the rebellion that began in 1642, for the King's and 
Church's Cause." Theyer had written a book called Acrio Mastix, 
" against the schismatical Acrians of our time," which was dedi- 
cated to the King, and was rewarded by the degree of M.A., 
which the university gave him at the King's special request. The 
old Royalist was more true to his King than to his Church. 
" Being discovered to be a man of parts," we read again, in the 
account of John Theyer in the Athence Oxonienses, " he was per- 
suaded to embrace the Roman Catholic faith by Franc Phillips, a 
Scot, Confessor to Henrietta Maria, Queen Consort." He died at 
Cooper's hill in 1673, and was buried in Brockworth churchyard, 
"particularly near the grave of his grandfather John Theyer. 

This elder John Theyer had married, it is said, a sister of 
Richard Hart, last prior of Lanthony, from whom he had obtained 
a number of MSS., " besides household stuff," belonging to that 
Priory. The grandson, John Theyer, had greatly added to this 
collection, and bequeathed to his grandson, Charles Theyer, not 
less than 800 MSS. These were offered to the Bodleian Library, 
but the price being too great, they were purchased by a London 
bookseller, who sold them to Charles II., "he having first," says 
WoQd, "as I have heard, culled them." The MSS. now form 
part of the King's Library in the British Museum. 

There is little to be said of Brockworth Manor in more recent 
times. The families associated with its former history have now 
no connection with the parish. The estate of the Bishops of Glou- 
cester, who succeeded the Abbots as lords of one of the manors, has 
become the property of others. The Guises, who held the chief 
manor for three centuries after the dissolution of Lanthony Priory, 
have now only a few cottages in Brockworth. The descendants of 
Alderman Jones, however, who represented Gloucester in the first 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



parliament of James I., have lived in Brockworth, and been land- 
owners there, ever since ; and one of his family, though not of his 
name, owns what was once his house. There are Theyers, also, still 
landowners in the parish, possibly akin to, but not, I think, 
descendants of, the antiquary of Cooper's hill. Many of the 
old local names, mentioned in the charters six centuries old, 
survive. The house of John Jones, and the house of John Theyer, 
are probably, in outward appearance, not very much altered since 
the time of their former tenants. And Brockworth Court, on its 
northern side, is still what it was when Prior Richard of Lanthony 
built it, and John Gyes of Elmore came to live in, what was then, 
the new manor house. 

But in Brockworth, as in almost all the country parishes of 
England, it is the church which brings us into closest association 
with former times. Probably it received its dedication to St. 
George at the consecration by Bishop Symon, of Worcester, in the 
first half of the twelfth century. If so, it is one of the earliest 
churches in England dedicated to that saint, reverence for whom 
was first brought to our country by the Crusaders. Of any earlier 
church there is no distinct record, but I think one must have 
existed in Saxon times. At the time of the Survey there was a 
priest resident at Brockworth, and presumably a church in which 
he served. Certainly there was a churchyard (cimiterium) which 
had needed enlargement before 1142, and I fancy that in early 
days God's Acre always surrounded God's House. Of the Norman 
church, built probably by Roger de Chandos, the first resident 
lord of Brockworth since the Conquest, the two arches supporting 

ing the central tower still remain. 
They are very fine specimens of 
Norman work, the western one 
being the richer and more elaborate. 
What it is the accompanying wood 
cut (fig. SI) will shew better than 
any written description. The Font 
also is Norman, and dates probably 
from the dedication of the church. 
There is one other relic of possibly 
the same age. A few years ago was 




Manor and Advowson of Brockworth. 



167 




Fig. 32 



dug up the head of a stone Cross, {fig. 32) 
with a Christ rudely sculptured upon it. 
Probably it is the remains of the village, 
or churchyard, Cross. The lower portion 
of the Figure has been cut away, appa- 
rently to allow the cross to fit into a 
socket, — perhaps to replace a gable 
cross upon the church. The church, 
with the exception of the Norman 
arches above described, is in the style known as Decorated Gothic. 
It consists of a Nave and Chancel, with North Aisle, the columns 
of the arcade between the Nave and Aisle bearing the ball flower 
decoration so common in the West of England. There is also on 
the south side a short Transept, which, as there is a Piscina, 
was apparently a Chapel ; I have not been able, however, to find 
any record of its foundation or dedication. 

The church had formerly 
a picturesque central tower, 
with a high-pitched roof, 
hipped on each side, as repre- 
sented in the accompanying 
sketch(%A$5). Unfortunate- 
ly, in 1847, this tower was 
taken down, and replaced by 
the common-place one which 
exists at present. With this 
exception, no considerable 
alteration has been made in 
the fabric of the church 
since the 14th century. 

J ,Fig. 33. 

The earlier history of the rectory and advowson of Brockworth 
has been already told. The benefice is described, in the valuation 
of Pope Nicholas, as worth £7 0 0. 1 Half a century later the 
King's commissioners report that " Richard Gryme, perpetual 
vicar, maketh oath that his said vicarage is worth, in the value of 
four acres of arable land, and half an acre of pasture, iiii 8 viii d ; in 

1 Taxatio Ecclesiastica, p, 224, 




16S 



TRANSACTIONS AT StOW-ON-THE-WoLI>. 



tithes of sheaves lxviij 8 ix d ; in personal tithes (x 11 ^ personal.) at 
Easter and offerings xlii s viii d ; in tithe of wool vi s ; tithe of lambs 
vi 8 ; tithe of pigs, flax, hemp, eggs, and poultry vi s vi d ; or a total of 
vi 1 xiii s vii d : from which there are outgoings for procurations and 
synodals amounting to ix s iiii d " 1 

By the kindness of Mr. Hooper, the Bishop of Worcester's 
Secretary, and of Mr. Bonnor, Secretary to the Bishop of Gloucester, 
I am able to give a list of Incumbents of Brockworth, which is 
nearly complete for five centuries and a half. Domesday records 
that there was a priest resident in 1086 ; but the first whose name 
appears is he who is described, in charters already quoted, as "John, 
the priest of the village," and who served in the newly-built church 
about the middle of the twelfth century. " Master Henry, the 
vicar," as other charters shew, was his successor rather more 
than a century later. The following are all the admissions to the 
Benefice recorded in the Registers of the Bishops of Worcester 
before the Reformation, and the Bishops of Gloucester since. 

1322. 5th Ides of Jan. The Bishop (Thomas Cobham) admitted, 
at Hartlebury, Richard de Hatherleye, of Gloucester, 
Capellanus. Register Cobham, fo. 31. 

1370. 17 June. Roger Harrys, 'Presbyter,' admitted to the 
perpetual vicarage, vacant by death of Walter the last in- 
cumbent. Reg. Bynne., fo. 4. 

1371. 1 Aug. Thomas Walton, of All Saints, Gloucester, by 
exchange with Roger Harrys. Reg. Lynne., fo. 15. 

1431. 13 July. Simon Wellys, admitted on resignation of Thomas 
Lambert. Reg. Polton, fo. 91. 

1433. 15 April. William Tomkyns, vicar of Dymok, Hereford- 
shire, by exchange with Simon Wellys. 

Reg. Polton, fo. 143. 

1435. 22 Oct. John Wyke admitted. Reg. Bourchier, fo. 10. 

1483. 8 July. In the Palace, Worcester, Robert Enkbarrow, by 
authority of Bishop Alcock, admitted Robert Melton, on 
resignation of William Buckynhull. Reg. Alcock, fo. 117. 

1505. 21 Nov. Robert Stynchcombe, admitted on death of Robert 
Melton. Reg. Silvester Gygles, fo. 45. 

1 Valor Ecclesiasticus. 



Manor and Advowson of Brock worth. 169 

1510. 14 Nov. Richard Grene, admitted on resignation of Robert 
Stynchecombe. 

A pension of 40s. allowed to R. S. 

Reg. Silvester Gygles, fo. 73. 
1537. 24 April. Roger Parsons, admitted on death of Richard 

Grene. Reg. Latimer, fo. 2. 

1575 Oct. 4. Richard Savaker, on death of Roger Parsons. 

Patrons : J ohn Gyes, Esquire, and William Oldisworth, 

Gent. 

1588. 30 July. John White, on resignation of Richard Savaker. 

Patron : William Guise, Esq. 
1610. Sept. 21. James Clifford, on deprivation of Edward 

Browninge. Patron : William Guyse, Esq. 
1627. 26 Nov. Isaac Pennington. Patron: William Guise, Kt. 

There is necessarily a gap in the Bishop's Registers 

during the Commonwealth. In the Parish Register there 

is an entry in 
1654. fir. Nevel, Minister. And in 
1660. Mr. Robinson, Minister. 

1665. 12 Aug. John Sommers, admitted on death of last vicar. 

Patron : Sir Christopher Gyse. 
1713. 17 Aug. John Lawrence, B.A., on death of John Sommers. 
1726. 5 Nov. William James, by cession of John Lawrence. 

Patron : Sir J ohn Guise. 
1730. 10 July. John Wall, by cession of William James. 

Patron : Sir John Guise. 
1747. 4 July. George Wall, B.A., on death of John Wall. 

Patron : Sir J ohn Gyse. 
1757. 9 March. John Chester, on cession of George Wall. 

Patron : Sir J ohn Gyse. 
1801. 12 Sept. Edward Jones, M.A, on death of John Chester. 

Patrons : Hon. and Right Rev. Shute, Bishop of Durham, 

and the Hon. J ane Barrington, his wife. 
1824. 26 July. Edward Jones, M.A. 

Patron : Sir Berkeley William Guise, Bart. . 
1847. 9 July. George Watts, on the death of Edward Jones, 

on his own petition as patron. 



170 



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1864. 21 March. Robert Andrew Bathurst, M.A., Rector of 
Birchanger, Essex, and formerly Fellow of New College, 
Oxford, on cession of George Watts. 
Patron : J ohn Davis, Esq. 

1871. 16 Jan. George Allen, B.A., of S. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, by cession of Robert Andrew Bathurst. : Patron : 
S. Howard, Esq. 

1878. 19 Nov. Samuel Edwin Bartleet, M.A., of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, Vicar of Shaw, Lancashire, on resignation of 
George Allen. Patron : Mrs. Howard. 

In presenting to the members of the Bristol & Gloucestershire 
Archaeological Society all that I have been able to collect of the 
history of Brockworth Manor and Church, I must not forget to 
thank those but for whose kindness I could not have obtained 
much of the material of these notes. Especially I have to thank 
the Rev. J. A. E. Fenwick for permitting me to consult the Lanthony 
Registers, &c, at Thirlstaine House. I have also to acknowledge 
with gratitude information kindly given by J. H. Hooper, Esq., 
and A. S. Ellis, Esq. ; the loan of charters connected with Brock- 
worth, by Sir W. V. Guise, Bart. ; and the permission of B. 
Bonnor, Esq., to consult the various Registers in the Diocesan 
Registry. 



t 



Manor ano Apvowson of Brockworth, 



171 



Pedigree of de Chandos of^. Brockworth, 



Robert de Chandos came to =f=? daughter of Hugh l'Asne. 
England with the Conqueror. • 



Robert de C. foun- 
ded monasteries at 
Goldcliff and Beau- 
mont. Buried at 
Beaumont, 1133. 



^Isabella GifFard sis. 
of Count of Longue- 
ville. 



Roger de C. had=f=Margaret. 
land at Buekholt, j 
1121 ; gave Ken- 
chester, &c, to 
Lanthony, 1137. 



Walter Robert Roger 



Maud=pPhilip de Columbiers 



Robert deC. : 
of Stradel 
Castle, gave 
Brockworth 
to Roger. 



=Emma. Roger de C.^fMargaret. 
gave Ch. at 
Brockworth, 
and made 
numerous 
other grants, 
to Lanthony. 



1 ! 1 

Eutropius, Symon Godard 

a canon of 

Lanthony. 



Roger de C. 
paid 20 marks 
and a war horse 
for Brockworth, 
1171. 



Roger de C. 



Ralph de C.,= 
Justice Itiner- 
ant, temp. John 
and Hen. III. 



Laurence de C. made= 
numerous grants to 
Lanthony & S. Peter's 



- Agnes. Robert de C.=Basilia. 



Drusilia=William 
de Wydecombe. 



Roger 
died s 



Ralph John William Joan. Henry. Matilda=? John 
p. confirmed Prior of gave land commutes Wawyn. 

grants to L., 1289- to L. at for £10 the 

Lanthony 1307. Ailberton, daily cor- 

as heir to 1280. redy and 

hisfather. annuity of 

6s. 8d. from 
Lanthony, 
1285. 



172 



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ICOMB PLACE. 

By the Rev. DAVID ROYCE, M.A. 

Its name, in part, describes our subject. "Icomb" denotes the 
nature of the locality. "Place" distinguishes this rare building 
nestling in " The Comb " of these Wolds. It is, indeed, the only 
"Place" on this side of the county. In this " Comb" this "Place" 
has survived the ravages of time and change. 

At first sight, the beholder is struck with unwonted surprise. To 
such surprise, on closer view, speedily succeed mingled emotions — 
such as reverence and affection for the place, and, in more ardent 
spirits, a thrill of enthusiasm and chivalry. Apathetic were the 
temperament that could pass through this and such memorials of 
ancient days, proof against the influences with which they are im- 
pregnated. The present desolate condition of this venerable pile 
causes a momentary pang. This, however, speedily yields to the 
intense satisfaction, that the Place has been spared in com- 
parative integrity to our time. There it is, but only the shell and 
skeleton of its former self, yet a clear exponent of its original 
estate. Yea, this precious relic reveals, more vividly than the 
most graphic description, the habits and the homes of English 
Lady and Knight "all of the olden time." In point of size or 
antiquity, it presumes not to vie with the castle of powerful peer 
or baron elsewhere in this county. Nevertheless, it dares chal- 
lenge Gloucestershire to find its exact equal. 

A paper on Icomb Place ought to heap together historical facts 
as fuel to feed any fire of enthusiasm this day enkindled. Alas ! 
the fuel fails. The comparatively modern history of this building- 
is clear. Early records, after long and painstaking research, are 
not, as yet, forthcoming. 1 

1 In 1221 a Fine was levied, in which Matilda daughter of William de 
Ikcumbe was petitioner and Walter Eliand tenant of one virgate of land 
with appurtenances in Ikcumbe, whereof a plea of the death of an ancestor 
was summoned between them, & c. : viz. , that the aforesaid Walter acknow- 
ledged all the aforesaid land to be the right of the said Matilda and for this 

i 



Icomb Place. 



173 



The estate and demesne pertaining to this place are the first 
subjects for enquiry. It is stated in a question of tithe, in the close 
of the last century, that in the time of Offa, the Prior and Con- 
vent of Worcester possessed this — as well as Church Icomb • but 
that "they were deprived of it at the time of the Norman Con- 
quest and never recovered it." Yet it seems to have been a 
separate estate before the Conquest. The distinct and independent 
nidation in the General Survey implies it. This Gloucestershire 
portion, taxed separately, according to the Saxon computation, was, 
by the Conqueror, allotted to Durandus, Sheriff of Gloucester: or, 
as it is thought, to him in trust for Walter fitz Roger de Pistres, 
his nephew. It may be added, that this Icomb has, ever since the 
Survey, been a separate vill. It has had its own constable — 
supported its own poor — and consequently, been considered extra- 
parochial. 

The fact that this is the Icomb given to Durandus, is substan- 
tiated by evidence nearly two centuries-and-a-half later : — 

Elias Cokerel 1 de Icomb, 5th Ed. III. (1331) died seized of 8 
virgates, a messuage, 16 acres of meadow, and 9s. rent. He held 
the above in moities. 2 One moiety of the aforesaid messuage, 4 
recognition fine, &c. , the same Matilda granted to the said Walter all the 
said land with appurtenances, to have and to hold to the said Walter and 
his heirs of the said Matilda and her heirs for ever, rendering thereof annually 
three half pence at the feast of St. Michael for all services and for this 
fine, &c. , the said Walter gave the said Matilda four marks of silver and a 
half. 

Pedes Finium, 5th Henry III., the morrow of the Nativity of St. John 
Baptist, Glouc. — Ed. 

1 Radulphus Chokerel et Helyas frater ejus were subfeudatories for one 
knight's fee to Margaret de Bohun in right of her father Milo. Helyas de 
. Kokerel, held, under the same Margaret, half a knight' 's fee. Again, Helyas 
Cokerel, half a knight's fee, under Henry de Newmarch. (Liber Niger, Vol. I., 
pp. 167, 168, 170.) 

Margaret de Bohun was daughter of Milo (son of Walter, nephew of 
Durand) and of Sybil his wife, daughter and heiress of Bernard de New- 
march. 

3 Are not these moieties to be traced to the above half knight's fees in 
Liber Niger, temp. Hen. II. ? 

The 8 virgates are stated, in the Inquisition, to be worth per an. iiij Ji — 
the price of a virgate being x s . The messuage, with a close, was worth " in 
omnibus exitibus " vj s viij d . The 16 acres of meadow were worth xxiiij s 
at xviij d an acre. 



174 



TRANSACTION'S AT STOW-ON-THE WOLD. 



virgates of arable, 8 acres of meadow and 5s. rent of Richard de 
Williamscote, 1 as of the manor of Williamscote, by the service of 
half a knight's fee ; the other moiety of the aforesaid messuage, 
4 virgates of arable, 8 acres of meadow, and 4s. rent "de domino 
Matthseo filio Herberti " as of his manor of Southam, by the 
service of half a knight's fee. Elias son and heir, being then 18 
years of age. 2 The latter, Matthew fitz Herbert was a lineal 
descendant of Walter the nephew of Durandus. 3 

The Inquisition was taken at Stow S. Edward's on the Thursday next 
after the feast of S. Barnabas. The jurors were John Stephens, of Stow, 
Walter de Schurdyngton, Rich, le Templer, John Vileyn, John de Chadde- 
welle, Will, de Caldecote, Will. Vileyn, Rich, le Kentych, John le Freman, 
Will. . . . , Will, de Nethercote and Hugh le Spencer. 

N.B. — The Inquisition to which Fosbrooke refers, 4th Edw. III., n. 38, 
relates to a tenure of Elias Cokerel in Colesburn. 

1 How he came by the moiety is, as yet, unknown : but it was most 
probably through some match with a descendant of Walter fitz Roger de 
Pistres, Durand's nephew. This Richard was, no doubt, one of a family of 
sonfe repute, deriving its surname from Williamscote, a hamlet to Cropeedy, 
Oxon. In the account of this family in Warton's History of Kiddington, 
Sir Peter de la Mare has the custody and marriage of Thomas, the son and 
heir of Richard de Williamscote, late Lord of Asterley (Wart. Kidd, p. 29). 
William de Mara was nephew of Walter and grandson of Durandus. 

A Richard de Williamescote, in the Hundred Court of Salmonsbury 
(Slaughter), sued John Scay for detention of cattle, which he ought to have 
delivered at Slaughter. In the same roll, John Nowers, of Churchill, sues 
Hugo Symonds for seizing and detaining his servant John, at Icomb, from 
Michaelmas to S. Nicholas Day, after having covenanted to bring him to 
Churchill. This John Nowers married a Williamscote. (Hundr. Roll Cart. 
Antiq. T. 107. Augmentation Office. Inq. p.m., 46th Edw. III., No. 45.) 

2 Walter Clement and Margaret, his wife, were summoned to answer to 
Elias Eliesaunt de Icombe for waste to the disinheritance of Elias in houses, 
lands, gardens and underwood let to him, and held by Margaret, for life, as 
widow of Elias de Iccombe (her former husband and cousin of Elias Eliesaunt, 
which latter was his heir) under a lease from Walter, parson of Shipton 
Solers, and Thomas, chaplain of Icomb. In connection with the latter, it 
may be added that at the Court it was presented that the Lord of Icomb 
owes suit to this hundred (Slaughter) court, which John Bone, chaplain of 
the B.V. Mary of Combe and his predecessors performed for the lord; for 
which he formerly gave them a messuage and one yard land, called Gundys, 
opposite the gate of the manor. (Hundred Roll. Cart. Antiq., T. 107.) 

A John Eliesaunt, of Icomb, sues John de Bon church, of Newenton 
(Naunton), and Walter Janyns, of Sloughtre, for one messuage and two yard 
lands in Notgrove. — (De Baneo Rolls. 47th Edward III., clxxi., cccxxx. 
ccccxlix.) 

Transactions of this Society, Vol. III., p. 003, and Vol. IV., p. 102. 
Fosbrooke, Vol. II., p. 3.10. 

i 



Icomb Place. 



175 



The foregoing Inquisition identifies this Icomb (one of three 
in Gloucestershire, lying together) with the one in which the 
" Place " stands. It does not, however, directly connect Durandus 
or his ward with the " Place." Glimmerings of such connection 
appear in the few notes already collected and here given. A 
three-fold cord is not easily broken. The three-fold knot tied by 
the three Icombs, or Combs, in Gloucestershire, is of three-fold 
perplexity. The hidage is an enigma. This Icomb assigned to 
Durandus, and taxed at two hides, has an area of 650 acres. This 
and such-like discrepancy is generally reconciled by what is termed, 
"beneficial nidation." Still all is not quite clear. There seems to 
be an intimation of a tenure in this Icomb other than that of 
the Cokerels ; it may. be other than that of Durandus, and, it 
may be, the tenure of the site of Icomb Place. This is conjecture 
The ground for it is as follows : — 

Fifteen years before the death of Elias Cokerel de Icomb, 
another personage appears bearing the same local surname — but 
not the same, apparently, hereditary Christian name of Elias. As 
did Elias occasionally, so, possibly, did this other notable in Icomb, 
drop, for the nonce, his personal surname, or name possibly derived 
from personal peculiarity. 1 

Thomas de Icomb, 9 th Edw. II., 1316, holds a fourth part of 
Icomb 2 that it was this Icomb is clear, since the neighbouring 
portion (Combe) is returned as belonging to Sibilla Baskerville. 

Yet was " Thomas de Icombe " a " Blaket" % 

Digression. — A John Blaket was Knight of the Shire of Buck- 
ingham, 8th Edw. II., 1315. 3 He was certified to be lord of 
Acldington, Aston Barnard with Ilmere, Bucks. He is again 
Knight of the Shire, and attends a Parliament at York. Blaket 

1 Blakheved (Black-head?) Blaket. Yet an inserted " de " in the 
northern name would make it local. 

2 Quarta pars ville de Iccombe, et est dominus eiusdem partes Thomas 
de Iccombe. Noin. Vill. Himdr. de Salmonsbury (Slaughter) (Harl. MSS. 
6187, fo. 24*}. 

3 Palgrave's Writs. 



176 Transactions \t Stow-on-the-Wold. 

(" sire " x ) Johan (" Bachelor") is embroiled, with Thomas Plan- 
tagenet. Earl o£ Kent, in rebellion against Edward the Second 
and is taken prisoner at Boron ghbridge on Tuesday or Wednesday 
after the feast of S. Gregory, 15th, 16th Mar. 15th, Ed. II., 1322. 
Blaket Johannes is committed to prison in Pontefract. The J ohn 
Blaket, of Addington, &c, died 1328, leaving a son, John, then 13 
years of age. 

This last John Blaket, the father, had a brother Thomas. 
Thomas Blaket performed military service for the Abbot of S. 
Edmund's, at the muster at Tweedmouth, in the expedition against 
the Scotch, 4th Edw. II., 1311. He is certified as one of the 
lords 2 of the townships of Salford and Cornwell, Oxon, 15th Edw. 
II., 1322. A writ is directed to Maurice Draugheswerd to arrest 
John, Thomas, and Roger Blaket, and to send them to prison, 
being accomplices in war against the King. 3 

Thomas Blaket, brother of J ohn, obtained from the King, the 
wardship of John, son and heir of J ohn ; being, as stated above, 
at his father's death, 13 years of age. 4 Accordingly, 8th Ed. III., 
1334, during the minority of his nephew, Thomas enters an action 
in King's Bench against Thomas Attegate, his bailiff, in Addington, 
Aston, Barnard, &c, for errors in accounts (De Banco, 8th Ed. III.) 
In the same year Thomas, the uncle, was sheriff for Bucks, possibly 
as proxy for the nephew. 5 

1 A Knight, here, whereas in all the other statements in Palgrave's 
Writs and on a seal, he is, simply, John Blaket. Was the seal prior to the 
knighthood ? The statement next above, from Palgrave, seems to relate to 
" Sire Johan," and to the same event. But Palgrave is puzzled. 

2 John Trillowe, of Chastleton, was the other lord. 
s Abbrev. Rot. Orig. Ro. 5, 261 b . 

4 Rex omibz ad quos, &c. , salutem. Sciates T\d de gra lira spali & pro bona 
s'vicio quod ditcus valett' fir Thomas Blaket not) hacten' impenclit concessim' 
ei qd qua fiora Joftes Blaket frat' suns obierit ftede suo infra etatem existente, 
idem Thomas heat custodiam t'rar' & ten' ipius Johis usque ad legitimam 
etatem una cum maritagio ejusdem ftedis. Apud Leyc., x° Januar. Pat. 
Roll, 2nd Edw. III., p. 2, m. ?. 

5 John, the nephew, was sheriff for Bucks (1337). Addington, Aston 
Barnard, and Ilmere were sold to Sir John de Molyns (1335). — (Pat. Roll. 
121, 1 p., n. 14). Yet (22nd Ed. III.) Isabel, a daughter of John Blaket, 
releases to John de Molyns, Egidia, and William their son. 



Icomb Place. 



177 



How does this bear on Icomb Place 1 According to the 
pedigrees of Blaket, Thomas, brother of " Sir John Blaket, of 
Gloucestershire," had two sons, Roger and Bartholomew, 1 by two 
mothers, apparently. 2 

Roger Blaket had the fourth part of one hiight's fee in Icomb, 
which Thomas de Icomb (his father T) formerly held. 3 Moreover 
Roger Blaket, and Margaret his wife (26th Edw. III., 1352), 
are returned as holding half a knight's fee in Icomb, under John, 
Earl of Kent. 4 This John is supposed to be the knight represented 
by the effigy in the chapel attached to Icomb Church and belong- 
ing to Icomb Place. But what of the living knight % King 
Henry VI. speaks of him as having spent his clays and life in the 
service of his (the King's) forefathers. 5 Is he the Sir John Blaket 
enrolled amongst the heroes of Agincourt 1 Burke (L.G.) and the 
Blackett family, state that that Sir John was of Woodcroft, and 
that he married Margaret, the widow of Sir Roger Heron, and only 
daughter of Sir Ralph Hastings. Sir John, of Icomb, cannot, as 
yet, be identified with any John of Woodcroft. But the tomb of 
Margaret is, or was, in Nosely Church, Leicestershire. The in- 
scription on that tomb declares her to be the wife of Sir John 
Blaket. But what is directly to the point is this : — on the panels 
of that tomb are, or were, the very arms on the jupon of the 
figure in Icomb Church. Moreover two fine 6 fragments of heraldic 

1 47th Edw. III. Bartholomew Blaket, co. Oxford, releases to Almerie 
S. Amand, jun., Rich, de Havering, &c., the manor of Winterbornmain. 
(MS. Quidnon Coll., Arm., p. 420.) 

2 Visitation of Bucks, 1535, 1634. Harl MSS., 1533, fo. 90. 

3 De Rogero Blaket pro quarta parte unius feodi militis in Icum quam 
Thomas de Icum quandam tenuit. (Himdr. Salmondsbury. Harl MSS., 6187, 
fo. 32^). 

Richard Casy had to answer to Roger Blaket, for carrying off, on 
Ascension Day, John Clerk, Roger's servant, 1 cloc, price xviij d , ij linthia- 
mina (kerchiefs, or sheets), price xviij d , and 1 pair of shoes (sotularia), price 
vjd (Hund. Roll. Cart. Ant., T. 107). 

4 How the Earls of Kent became paramount here is unknown. It may 
have been through some forfeiture in the rebellions of Edward the Second's 
reign, in which Thomas Plantagenet (whose estates went to Edmund his 
brother) Earl of Kent, John, Thomas, and Roger Blaket were concerned, 

5 Pat. Roll. 17, H. 6, p. 1, m. 7. De licentia fundandi Cantar. Blaket, 
in ecctia de Northlee. 

c Nichols' Leicestershire. 
Vol. VII., part 1. n 



178 



Transactions at Stow-on-the Wold. 



glass (which the writer of this paper remembers) existed in 
the tracery of the window above the Icomb monument — one, a 
jjerfect quarter : gu, 3 Danish axes, or, {Hakluit ), 2 and 3 in a 
shield quartering Blaket and Hakluit, as on the effigy — the other 
fragment, a fourth part of the pierced cinquefoil, sa. on arg. 
ground 1 for Marteval, the ancestor of Margaret (Hastings, Heron 
and Blaket.) The Hastings of Daylesford, were near neighbours 
to the Blakets of Icomb. The above Margaret died 1406. 2 ) 

Sir John (Johannes Blacket dominus de Icum in com. Glouc.) 
married a second wife, Margaret the daughter of Sir John Eyns- 
ford, 3 widow of William Wroughton, alias, Worstan. She died 
in 1420. By her Sir John had Edmund Blaket, son and heir, 
and Anne married to Ralph Baskerville. 4 

Sir John married a third wife and widow, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir John Trillowe (of Chastleton, Oxon, and joint 
lord with Thomas Blaket in Salford and Cornewall, Oxon.) ; and 
widow of William Wilcotes (who died in 1410). This last match 

1 Mistaken by Abingdon for Brailsford. The charge of the latter is 
different in outline from that of Marteval as is the field in tincture. Besides, 
the Brailsfords and Blackets were not connected. 

It is singular that Nash should correctly assign the tomb to Sir John 
Blaket, and yet mistake the arms of Hakluit for those of Lewston. The 
latter family bare halberts, not Danish axes. 

2 Richard Hastings, second son of Sir Ralph Hastings, granted the 
manor of Kirby, Leicestershire, and two parts of Wiston, and Branteston, 
Leicestershire, and of Welford, North Hants, and Drakenege, Warwickshire, 
to hold to Sir John Blaket, for life, 24th Jan., 2nd Hen. VI. A plea (16th 
Hen. VI. ) states that Sir John and Margaret are dead, reciting a fine between 
Margaret and Sir John Blaket, 4th Henry IV. Some dispute had arisen, in 
which Sir Richard Scrope was mediator. — Harl. MSS. 8881. 

3 Arms of Eynsford are gu,fretty erm. The Visitation of Herefordshire 
1586. (Harl. 1140, f. 113) gives Enysford, gu. a bend or, behoeen six cross cross- 
lets JitcMe arg. The arms of Sir John Blaket on his jupon are az. a bend 
between six trefoils fitche'e, or; slightly differ from those of John Blaket, 
his fore-father, whose seal gives a chevron between three trefoils fitche'e (see 
ante p. 42). 

The arms of Corbet, mentioned by Abingdon and Nash, may have 
commemorated the match between " Henricus fil. Herberti" and the daugh- 
ter and heiress of Roger Corbet, ancestors of "Matthseus fil. Herberti" 
before mentioned. They may refer to the alliance of the Baskerville family 
with that of Corbet. 

4 Harl. 1159, fo. 27. 1442, fo. 27. 1140, fo. 27. 



Icomb Place. 



179 



accounts for the arms of Bishopston, once in Icomb Church, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of William and Elizabeth, married a Bishopston. 

Sir John Blaket died, 1 by a remarkable coincidence, on the day 
of S. John the Baptist (whose figure is in the panel of his tomb 
as, probably, being his patron Saint)/ 1431, leaving Edmund his 
son and heir. 

Edmund, his son, made his will, 1444, 2 so that he survived his 
father fourteen years and died at the early age of thirty-four. 

1 Sir John's will, extracted from the principal register in the Preroga- 
tive Court of Canterbury. 

In Dei Nomine. Amen. Die Mercurii in septimana Pasche Anno 
Domini Millesimo cccc mo xxx°. Ego Johannes Blaket Miles condo testa- 
mentum meum in hunc modum. Imprimis lego animam meam Deo Omnipot- 
ent Beate Marie et omnibus Sanctis celestibus et corpus meum certe ad 
sepeliendum in capella Beate Marie infra ecclesiam de Iccombe in com. 
Wigorn. Item lego fabrice Matris ecclesise Wigorn, iij 3 iiij d . Item volo quod 
Abbas De Bruer (Bruerne) faciat solempnitatem sepulturae mee et as- 
signacbem executorum meorum. Item lego residuum omnium bonorum 
meorum executoribus meis ut ipsi ordinent faciant et disponant omnia 
predicta bona pro salute anime mee et omnium fidelium defunctorum 
pro ut illis videbitur melius potuerint fieri ad istud testamentum exequendum 
et perficiendum ordino et constituo Elizabeth Blaket uxorem meam et Ed- 
mundum Blaket filium meum et Johannem Barton juniorem armigerum meos 
esse executores. In cuius rei testimonium prsesenti testamento sigillum 
meum apposui. Dat' die et anno supradicto. Anno Regis Henrici sexti post 
conquestum octavo. 

The will was proved 8th July, following. Administration committed to 
Elizabeth, relict— and on Nov. 12th., the executors were acquit. 

2 Edmund Blaket's will. 

In Dei Nomine Amen. Nono die mensis Septembris Anno Domini 
Mittimo cccc 0 xliiij" Ego Edmundus Blackett compos mentis ego tamen in 
corpore timens diem mortis mee imminere condo testamentu meii in hue modu. 
In primis lego aiam mea Deo beateque Marie et omnibus Sanctis eius corpusq 
meu ad sepelienct in capella beate Marie de Bruera. Itm lego Radulpho 
Baskervile fratri meo et Anne uxi sue omia utensilia mea infra maneriu de 
Iccumbe existencia puta utensilia cam'e Aule pistrine et coquine. Item lego 
iisdem Radulpho et Anne unii plaustru cum sex bobus et toto apparatu iisdem 
bobus pertinenti. Item lego iisdem Radulpho et Anne ducentas oves et sex 
vaccas. Item lego Abbati de Bruera una cratera argenti cii cooperculo vocatam 
the grete bolle of silver a basyn with the gwynfoile with the ewer, A potell 
potte of silver And a quarte potte of silver. Itm lego Magistro Waltero 
Blackett an Ewer with the gobbletts. Item lego Monacho existenti in Bruera 
vj s . viij d . Item lego Wiiimo Wroughton fratri meo decern marcas et duas 
togas, videlt toga de Damaske et liberata Regis. Itm lego Thome Boteller xl s . 
Itm lego Henrico famulo meo quinque marcas. Item lego Petro Cooke quinque 



180 



Transactions at Stow-on-the Wold. 



Edmund was succeeded by Anna his sister and wife of Ralph 
Baskerville. The latter most probably left Combe Baskerville for 
Icomb Place. In the floor of the Chapel, at the north end, on 
this side of the arch opening into the nave, was (in the writer's 
memory) a fine black slab, 7 ft. 11 in. by 4 ft. 6 in. in which had 
been inlaid two fine brasses, c. 1480, no doubt figures of Ralph 
and Anne Baskerville. The lady had a horned head-dress — the 
knight, a tilting helmet under the head, and plate armour with 
misericorde on the right side. Inscriptions surrounded the slab, 
with Evangelists at the four corners. The canopies were of exquis- 
ite workmanship. Many a scroll was charged with ejaculation for 
mercy and help. The hand of the spoiler had torn away all that 
piety and art had elaborated, and rent a rich page of important 
illustration from the Annals of Icomb Place. 

The after devolution of the place is as follows : — 

Jane, daughter of Ralph and Ann Baskerville, was married to 
Simon Milborne, Ar. Dominus de Tillington et Icom ; in Com. 
Hereford, Glouc. et Wigorn. Thus the great grand-children of 
Sir John Eynsford — the grand-daughter of Margaret, wife of Sir 
John Blaket, and of Elizabeth, wife of Piers Milborne, inter- 
married. Blanche, daughter and co-heiress of Simon was married 
to J ames Whitney, co. Hereford. Their son, Sir Robert Whitney, 
who married Margaret Wye, died seized of Icomb, 33rd Hen. 
VIII. Robert, their son, who married Sibilla daughter of Sir 
James Baskerville, succeeded. James Whitney, eldest son of the 
last Sir Robert, had livery of Icomb, 9th Eliz., and died s.p. 

marcas. Itm lego Matilde Sheperd ilia vacca qua? erat Johis Jaunys. Itm lego 
matri ecctie Wigorn xiij s . iiij d . Item lego ecciie delccumbe quinque marcas 
et duos boves. Item lego fabrice ecctie de Cumbe duos boves optimos. Residmi 
vero oim bono? meor tarn in granis quam in aialibz omibz. Ac ctiam aliis refiz 
superius non legatis lego Johanni Assheby Abbati de Bruera Magro Waltero 
Blackett et Johanni Chesham ut ipi hide ordinent et disponant pro salute aie 
mee pro ut illis videbit 1 ' melius faciend et eosdem Jofiem AValteru et Jofiem 
mcos constituo executores per p'sentes ut ipi Den prse oculis fientes p'sens 
testamentu. men fideliter exequant 1 ' et complcant cfi effcil. In cuius rei 
testimonifi huic p'senti testamento sigillum men apposui. Dat. apud Wyvyl- 
cote Die ac anno supradictis. 

Proved before Commissary Alexander Prowct 7th Jan., 1441, Adminis- 
trator Will (dc) Blackett, 



i 



- - - 




i 



Icomb Place. 



181 



Icomb descended to his brother Eustace (2nd. Jac. I.) 1 The latter 
left it to his son Sir Robert Whitney, who married Anne, daughter 
of Sir Thomas Lucy, of Charlecot. From this Sir Robert, the place 
appears to have passed to W. Cope (benefactor of Icomb and 
Stow) on the marriage of Thomas Whitney, Esq., fourth son of 
Sir Robert, with Elizabeth, daughter of W. Cope and Lady Eliza- 
beth, daughter of the first Earl of Westmoreland. Elizabeth, relict 
of Thomas Whitney, was married to her second husband, Sergeant 
Gears. Their daughter, Elizabeth Gears, was married — first, to 
William Gregory, whose son William, inherited a moiety of 
Icomb, which descended to John Stackhouse, who sold it for 
£11050 to Henry Stokes of London, wine merchant, who sold to 
Cambray and others— secondly, to Rich. Hopton, Esq., of Canon 
Eroome. Richard Cope Hopton, grandson of the above Richard, 
left his moiety to Rev. John Parsons, son of his cousin William, 
son of Deborah (wife of Edw. Parsons) daughter of Richard 
Hopton and Elizabeth (Gregory). The trustees of this last pro- 
prietor, Rev. John Parsons (Hopton), who had succeeded to 
Icomb Place in an unbroken line from, at least, the reign of King 
Edward the third, sold to the present owner, Mr. Hambidge. 

The construction of the mansion is well-nigh as puzzling as its 
early history. There are knotty points for the architect as well 
as for the historian. 

The present building is provided with no contrivances nor 
arrangements for protection in case of assault. There are, indeed, 
remains of a deep and wide moat, on the side of usual approach, 
fed by springs in the neighbouring hill. Such moat would, how- 
ever, have been excavated rather for the defence of some smaller, 
yet sturdier, predecessor of the present Place. That there was 
such predecessor is, naturally, inferred from the transeptal chapel 
of Icomb Church— the peculiar property of Icomb Place — founded, 
therefore, by the devout occupant of a former residence. The lines 
of the place, as shewn on the ground-plan (PL XX.), are some- 
what abnormal. The Place stands diagonally to the four cardinal 

1 Eustacius Whytney clamat habere sibi et hered suis manercum sive 
capitale mess, cum p'tin, voc. Icombe in com. Glouc. quondam terrain 
Simonis Milborne. Court Roll 2nd Jac. I. Kind inform., C. S. Whitmoke, 
Esq. 



182 



Transactions at Stow-on-the Wold. 



points. Its position on the South-west side is commanding, over- 
looking, what may be termed, a ravine. On the North-west, it is 
flanked by a steep line of wold ; yet not near enough to the earlier 
Place to be troublesome. The South-east side, open, commands 
a fine view over Oxfordshire. 

The present " extensive and picturesque pile of stone " was 
built, or rebuilt, early in the 15th century, when mansions had 
begun to lay aside their warlike character and to adopt the more 
comfortable arrangements of the Tudor period. 

In plan, the Place is quadrangular ; yet far from true to the 
square. This irregularity may have been the result of after-thought 
during subsequent additions. They were not, however, very nice 
on such a point in olden times. 

Pondering over the ground-plan; considering, too, what might, 
naturally, be a dictate with even its heroic and hardy builder — a 
probable conclusion is — that the Hall (a), with its South-eastern 
annexes of kitchen, cellar, and buttery (b.c.d.), was first erected. 
Then, perhaps, the lines of the front were drawn. Why so diver ■ 
gent is not clear; unless some expansion were thought advisable, in 
order to obtain more space and light for the two windows of the 
Hall (Fig. 3, PL XXI, Fig. 1., PI. XXII.) Then, possibly, the 
North-east side (h) of the quadrangle followed. This conjecture is 
grounded on the projecting portion at the end, outside, running up 
by the jambs of the windows in the gable of the front ( PI. XXIII), 
on the rough straight joint and the appearance of the buttress of 
the Oriel, or bay, inside, on the angle where it touches the front 
portion of the building (PI. XXII, 2 ). x The buildings, South-west- 
ward (PI. XXIII), appear to be later additions (Eliz. V) made, 
probably, by the Whitneys. The building at the west angle (k) 
seems to be an enlargement of a former smaller appendage to the 
Hall, whose original dimensions may be inferred from the roof 
timbers still left (the bake house). The South-west and South-east 
exteriors are additions and alterations made during the Cope 
occupation. Although so much later, still these two faces of the 

1 Is it possible that, after all, the room (ii) may have been the original 
Hall and (l) the "camera"? The architecture being of the same date, 
occasions the uncertainty. 



i 



PI. XXI. 



- I COM B Place - — Gloucestershire.— 




T.ongituAmjxL Section,. Dining JBaJL tig. 5. Irocnsverse Section,. 



F. W. Waller, diraril. 



1C0MB PLACE , GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 



H.XXE. 




PI .XXIV. 



— 1con\S> Pla.ce — - Gloucestershire. - 




Transverse Saturn.. fig J. Front Elevation fig. 2. Section, of Gateway 

of Entrance Gateway. 




F. W WaUer, direxit 



Icomb Place. 



183 



Place, owing to the numerous dormers and the gables, are not 
lacking in picturesque effect. 

Gateway (PI. XXII, fig. 4, XXIV., fig. 2). Approaching 
the place for the first time, the eye is arrested by the portal. This, 
projecting a little from the main building, flanked by buttresses, 
with a graceful window above, and surmounted by an embattled 
parapet in line with the eaves — has much of the effect of a gateway- 
tower. The mouldings of the gateway are bold and characteristic. 
The arch is four-centred and depressed. The gates are original, 
excellent in design and workmanship — of oak, framed, ledged, 
studded with nails and embattled. The window above mentioned 
is very delicate and good within and without, although now, at 
least, cuspless. It consists of four ogeed lights, which, by a cen- 
tral bolder mullion, are divided into pairs. The tracery is 
composed of eight somewhat elongated oval openings. The label 
utilizes the under moulding of the parapet for its horizontal line. 
What outgoings and incomings through this venerable portal ! 
What cavalcades ! What obsequies ! 

The Front (PI. XXIII.) Windows.— The front building, 
altogether, is pierced for fourteen windows, excepting that of the 
gateway : ten in front and four in the gables. Of the ten, six are on 
the right : — three below, the one next the gateway, of two lights ; 
the others, of three; three above, each of two lights. All are square 
headed and plain-arched. The four that belonged to the rooms of 
the family are dignified by labels. Of the four windows to the left 
of the gateway : one of the two below, of a single light, is near to 
the gateway; the other is of two lights, both without labels, 
lighting the domestics' room ; of the two above, one is of three 
lights, arched and labelled ; the other, close to this, is small, of a 
single light ; pierced, perhaps, first, and then thought sufficient, 
considering that the large gateway window and a gable one are 
in this fine room. The gable windows, North-east, are of four 
lights each, arched and labelled ; those, South-west, are of two 
lights, and the lower one later. These windows, most of which 
were once enriched by artistic glazing and aglow with heraldic 
pane and through which watched many a lustrous and illustrious 
eye, are now, nearly all, blocked up. 



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The Plinth. — The moulded plinth, peculiar to the front, is to be 
noted. 

The Chimneys (PI. XXIII). — Two tall square chimneys (one 
gabled) on the front side, spring from the wall midway, as from a 
bracket. They are well conceived, relieving the front from flatness, 
and breaking the line of the long roof. 

The Vane. — On the gable, North-west, remains the rod, ending 
in a trefoil, carrying once the vane, pierced, perhaps, with the 
arms of Blaket. 

Servants' Room. — On entering the gateway, there is, on each 
side, a Tudor doorway. The one on the left, opens into what, 
probably, was the apartment of the servants 1 (e); which has a 
good fireplace, the look-out window by the gateway, and the other 
two windows aforementioned. A door, at the South angle, opens 
into the store-house, or cellar (c), of the establishment. 

Porter's Lodge, or Ante-room. — The doorway, on the right, 
judging from the splay on the jamb, and from the curve in the 
wall as seen in the first floor above, opened into a stone stair, 
leading to the chambers. At the stair-foot, a small room, close 
to the gateway, was, probably, the porter's lodge. The plainness 
of the roof over this room and of the windows outside, seem 
to indicate that here were intermediate and less distinguished 
apartments. The pier there, was, no doubt, built when the stone 
stair and these two rooms gave place to the more spacious and 
modern wooden ascent. That this pier is a later member is 
apparent from its partially blocking a doorway which originally 
opened into the next room. In connection with these portions of 
the Place, it may be here inserted, that the occupants of the 
house were of a sturdy and devoted spirit. Richard Tybaray, 
bailiff of the hundred of Slaughter, presented Nicholas, servant 
of Sir John Blaket, for resisting him and for drawing his dagger 
on him. Which Nicholas was fined xx d , the value of the dagger. 2 

Parlour, or General Room. — Beyond the ante-room, or porter's 
lodge, entered, as abovesaid, at first, by a door from the quadran- 
gle, is a larger room lighted by four windows, three as aforesaid 

1 Appropriation of some of the apartments must be understood as 
conjectural. 

- Court Roll, "2nd Henry V., penes Mr. C. A. Whitmore. 



Icomb Place. 



185 



(two in front, one in gable), and a plain single light looking into 
the quadrangle. There is a substantial arched stone fireplace. This 
room may have been the parlour, or general room, of the family. 
Herein, with Lady Elizabeth (Trillow), 1 and Edmund, and Anne, 
children of Margaret (Eynsforcl, Wroughton), released from martial 
toil and peril, Sir John, enjoyed in his last years domestic seclusion 
and repose. An imposing group it was, if the effigies of Elizabeth 
(at Northleigh) or Sir John (in Icomb Church) are true representa- 
tions. Again, a lively scene it was, when Simon Milbourne (Sir 
John Blaket's grandson-in-law) with his wife and eleven daughters 
lived and moved within this room. 

Withdrawing, or Second Dining Room and Oriel. — "We pass, 
next, into another somewhat spacious apartment (h) forming the 
North-west side of the quadrangle (Plate XXI ", fig. J^.) The 
first attraction is the Oriel, or bay window, carried up the full 
height of the building. Next to this, a good six-light window, 
divided into a pair of three-lights by a central stouter mullion, of 
good workmanship ; and, once enriched by tracery and cusps. 
This room has a stone fireplace ; and, in one corner, a newelled 
stone stair ; and, in the other, a Tudor doorway into the Hall. 
The door of this last opens back into a recess made for it, to be 
accounted for by the proximity of this wall to the hall-window. 
This apartment may have been a gathering-room, or a private 
dining-room, in which the occupier, according to the changing 
feelings and habits of the times, preferred a more snug and less 

1 She built and endowed a chapel called the Wilcote Chapel, north of 
the chancel of Northleigh Church, Oxon, for the welfare of her two sons 
Thomas and John Wilcotes, and of her two husbands Sir William Willcotes 
and Sir J ohn Blaket. The chapel is elegant, and enriched with fan-traceried 
ceiling. The windows retain considerable remains of painted glass referring 
to the family. There are, likewise, on the glass, interesting devices, and in 
a continuous line, the letters of the alphabet. But what may compete with 
the most exquisite specimens of monumental sculpture, anywhere, are the 
two recumbent effigies in alabaster, of Elizabeth Blaket and her first hus- 
band, Sir W. Wilcotes — resting, both, on a fine altar-tomb between the 
chancel and this chapel. She lies by the side of her first husband, it may 
be, because the chapel was erected, and the tomb prepared, and the effigy of 
Sir William was sculptured, under her direction, in her widowhood. For a 
fine engraving of these effigies, with a detailed description, see Skelton's 
OxfordsJiire. 

The Wilcotes took the name from Wilcote, or Wyvelcote, a hamlet to 
Northleigh — where Edmund Blaket made his will. 



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formal repast. The Oriel answers to those in large dining-halls. 
It may have been a bay for a sideboard, or, a nook for a quiet 
chit-chat. 

The Hall (a) Pis. XX., XXL, 3, 5.— Very spacious and lofty, 
is lighted by three fine transomed windows with oval openings for 
tracery, delicately moulded, and akin to the window over the 
gateway ( PI. XXII., Jig. 1 ). In the splay of the one, on the South- 
west side, is a fixture, frequent in such halls — a circular bason with 
drain. It is one with the jamb, and yet it looks almost too fresh to 
be original. A capacious fireplace is at the dais-end. At the other 
end " the screens." The present slight, wooden partition, is of 
Jacobean date. Here used to hang, in olden time, weapons 
offensive and defensive, nets, hunting horns, antlers, and instru- 
ments of the chase. Here, still, in one corner stands an important 
consequential weapon— a halbert with crescent axe, hooked bill, 
square pole, ironed and studded, a relic of Tudor, or Stuart, state. 
A massive table has been preserved, with a slab 22 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. 
9 in. and 5 in. thick. One portion of it is a fine piece of timber 1 7 ft. 
4 in. in length. The specimens of wainscot, with the diaper, or 
linen, panel of Hen. VIII., in the front portion of the place, may, 
possibly, have been removed from the hall. 1 Nor is it for the outer 
eye alone that this hall finds entertainment. It is replete with 
associations and memories. To the inner eye the place is full and 
furnished with host and guests of old. There sat the lord of 
Icomb in chair of state, and, here, the stately lady — here and 
there the illustrious neighbours — here, the dignified Abbot of 
Bruerne, always a welcome guest, to bless ; there, gallant squire 
to carve — now solemn official, and trim servant, to sound of clarion 
and trumpet of the waits over the screens, in due pomp bring in 
the items of the feast — now the " crater argenteus, the great bolle 
of silver," and "the quarter potte of silver" are set upon this table 
"dormant" — then the hum of conversation — the 15th century 
gossip of the wolds, one accent, alone, of which would be so help- 
ful to 19th century archaeologist. Then turns the talk on party 
politics of those eventful times. If, perchance, it touch on some 

1 The fine roof of five bays ( PL XXI. , jhj. 5) resembles that over the 
solars (PL XXI V., Jig. 3.) 

i 



Tcomb Place. 



187 



recent martial exploit, the recital stirs the blocd, and, these old 
walls would ring again with a lusty cheer for English prowess lavish 
of life-blood for England's faith and fame. Then in concert, an 
interlude from minstrels over "the screens." Still, the revered 
Abbot of Bruerne is here, and Edmund, ..Knight, Rector of Icomb, 
and Walter Blaket, Rector of Stow S. Edward's, to tone the mirth 
with wise and sober sentiment. 

The Screens (Pl.XX.) (i). — These connect the quadrangles. At 
the end, opening into the front court is a fine sharp-pointed Per- 
pendicular doorway, with jambs moulded half-way down, and with 
shields and tracery in the spandrils. At the other end, a similar, 
but plainer, doorway. The old doors remain. The buttery-hatch is 
still there, with which it is impossible not to associate generous 
cheer for guests, and bounteous dole for the poor. 

The Cellar. — The cellar, larder, or store-room for the establish- 
ment PI. XX. (c), formed one side of the front quadrangle (PI. 
XXI., jig. 1 ), in a line with the buttery. 

The Kitchen. — This, beyond the buttery, may have formed one 
side of the second quadrangle — it is now the only part inhabited. 

The Bakehouse. — The North-west side of this second quadrangle 
may have been "the bakehouse" (k) mentioned in Edmund Blaket's 
will. In the corner, beyond this, is a wide open fireplace with 
massive wooden mantel and a never failing spring supplied from 
the neighbouring hill. The remaining side of this quadrangle is 
now a cottage with offices. 

First Floor. — The stone newelled stair in the withdrawing, or 
second dining, room leads to, what tradition has handed down as 
the Chapel, PI. XX. (l). Our forefathers studied not their own 
animal or temporal gratification alone — nor the mere shelter and 
support of their dependants. They were equally careful for the 
spiritual welfare of all. Most houses, of any size, had one portion 
consecrated to God. Thither the household resorted. Here was 
the keystone of order. Here the well-spring of peace. Here, heart 
and uplifted hand felt themselves relaxed ; or braced for future 
enterprize. This room has a good window of three lights in the 
North-east wall (PI. XXI., Jig 4 ), well-moulded, boldly cusped, like 



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the larger window below. Close by, is the upper and more elaborate 
portion of the oriel. If a chapel, this bay may have served, here, 
the purpose of a small oratory. The heads of two priests, perhaps 
the rector of Stow (Walter Blaket), and the rector of Icomb 
(Edmund Knyght), are carved in the outer cornice with those 
of a lady in mitred head-dress, and gentleman in cap and fall. 
The roof of this room is of the barrel or wagon kind ; the rafters, 
massive and close, are very much like those, once, in the chantry 
chapel and those in New College cloisters. There is a large fire- 
place of later date with an oaken kerb. 

Close to the entrance into this room, a door opens from the 
stone stair into a chamber, perhaps, for the chaplain, PI. XX. (m) 
On the left of the fire-place, there is a square opening, low down, 
even with the floor, communicating with the so-called chapel. 
Or was it a sick-room i Did this aperture answer to those in S. 
Cross, Winchester 1 " The position of the chapel, in a manor house, 
varies extremely, and there seems to be no rule for it, excepting 
that it is always near the dais and connected with it by a short 
passage or staircase." — Domestic Architecture, loth cent., p l . 1, 
p. 93. 

Nevertheless, there are the doubts of great authorities. 
They demur to the idea of this having been the chapel, the 
absence of any trace of a piscina, ' 1 the arrangement of the win- 
dow," say they, "and other details, and the position of the 
apartment, so inconvenient of access to the domestics, are quite 
different from the usual characteristics of this important feature 
of the mediaeval mansion." 

Front Rooms (n.o.), PI. XX. By a gardrobe, in the corner, on 
the left, we pass into one of the striking rooms in the front of 
the building — used, perhaps, for dancing and amusements. Both 
retain a fine specimen of the timber roof of the period, with 
principals, purlins and broad curved braces. A flat panelled ceil- 
ing was introduced, later, for warmth's sake, of which the horizon- 
tal beam, well-moulded and coloured, ( PI. XXII, fig. 3) remains. 
Each room has a good fire-place. Each is lighted as before 
described. The first room (n) has, besides, an additional window of 
two lights (PI. XXII, fig. 2) looking into the quadrangle. The 

i 



Icomb Place. 



189 



second room (o) has the window over the gateway, whose internal 
finish, with its intramural arch and open trefoiled spandrils ( PI. 
XXII., fig. 3) is much to be admired. The fire-place is arched and 
moulded, corresponding somewhat to that in the parlour, to the 
left, below. The partitions of these rooms are to be noticed. The 
Tudor doorways are, perhaps, to be explained by the original 
access had from the stone stair. The break in the roof above, or 
rather the timbers left plain, betoken, as aforesaid, intervening 
apartments afterwards removed for the wider wooden stair. 

A door at the corner of the latter large-room admits into the 
South-east side of the edifice — perhaps the sleeping apartments. 
(p.q.r.) Here are the bedrooms of the now-inhabited portion, access- 
ible by stairs, close to the buttery-hatch, of later date. A singular 
squint, now blocked-up, on this stair, in the angle (PI. XX., first 
floor) commanded the quadrangle below and, perhaps, the country 
beyond. The second bedroom (q) has a very fine J acobean fire-place, 
which, with the outside appearance of this part and the view from 
this side, might make one suppose that the room, in later times, 
became an up-stairs withdrawing room. The iron work of the 
windows should be noticed, particularly the ingenious latch and 
bolt arrangement. In a pane of the window of this room is the 
following couplet and memorandum : — 

June, 1691. 

" Let others learn to live, there's nothing I 
Esteem worth learning but the way to die." 
Sept. 8, 1691. H. Cope. 

London to Icomb. 

On another pane, which has disappeared : — 
June, 1688. 

" Sanat, Vivificat, Ditat quoque Surgere mane." 

H. Cope. 

There are attics, now without floors. On the end wall of one is 
drawn, in chocolate, a three-mast ship in full sail. An attic over 
the South-east end of the hall is called Dyke's chamber. A field 
on the estate is called Dyke's field. The tradition is that Dyke 
was deranged and shut up in this chamber. 



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A buttress, diagonal, with a portion of the original masonry 
at the corner of the outbuildings on the South-east side of the 
Court, at a south angle, may indicate the original stables. 

This account of Icomb Place is very incomplete, imperfect, and 
possibly, incorrect. Yet it is hoped that it may help towards a 
more wide-spread acquaintance with what is, really, an object of 
not only local, but special county and even national interest — an 
object round which the neighbourhood, the county and the nation 
ought to rally to save it from destruction. It is hardly profane to 
apply to it a motto, carved by a devout old Rector on the lintel 
of a window of the former Icomb Rectory, 

"Deus hsec omnia fecit. 

Finally, further knowledge may come of further research. 
Adopting the Blackett motto, 

" Nous travaillerons dans V esperance." 



Postscript. 

Just as this sheet was going to press we received from the author the 
following note, with a request that it might be added by way of a post- 
script : — 

William de Icombe was a witness to a very remarkable charter by which 
John de Camoys gave and granted spontaneously and solemnly to Sir William 
Paynel, Knight, Margaret de Camoys, daughter and heir of Sir John de 
Gadesden, his wife with all her goods and chattels, with whom she after- 
wards went through the ceremony of marriage. Upon the death of John de 
Camoys the said William and Margaret sued for dower, and produced this 
charter in support of her petition. The dower was however refused because 
the said Margaret had left her husband and lived in adultery with William 
Paynel. The charter is printed in Dugdale's Baronage, p. 433. 

Margaret was probably the daughter and heir of John de Gadesden, jun., 
who died 43rd Henry III., leaving Margaret his daughter and heir, aged 13 
years. — Inq. p.m. 43rd Henry III., No. 40. — Ed. 



i 



Church Plate at Northleach. 



191 



NOTES ON THE CHURCH PLATE AT NORTHLEACH. 

By WILFRED JOSEPH CRIPPS, M.A., F.S.A. 

The ancient Communion-Plate which came under the notice of the 
Society at its visit to Northleach Church is of somewhat unusual 
interest, illustrating as it does the history of English church- 
plate in several ways. 

We cannot expect to find, except in rare instances, any 
remaining specimens of pre-reformation plate, but next to that, in 
point of date and interest, is the plate of Elizabethan times; and of 
this as well as of later days, good examples are found at North- 
leach. 

The plate now remaining in this church consists of the follow- 
ing articles : — 

1. — An Elizabethan Communion Cup of the usual early 
reformed type, with engraved belt of foliage, such as is found in 
many a Cotteswold village church, and elsewhere all over the 
kingdom. It is of the year 1569-70. Maker's mark IC in a 
shaped-shield. To this was soon after added the Paten-cover, 
which is by another maker and of the year 1572-3, Maker's mark 
PB, letters inlinked on a plain shield. It was fitted to the cup, no 
doubt, in obedience to Episcopal Visitation Articles enquiring 
whether the parish was properly furnished with a " paten-cover " 
as well as with a "decent communion cup." It is more than 
probable that the cup is formed out of the very silver of the more 
ancient massing chalice of the church of Northleach. The 
maker's marks of both these articles are unknown, otherwise than 
as occurring on these interesting specimens. 

2. — A tall gilt cup with a triangular finial of pierced work, 
supported on three brackets, ending in a spear point. This is of 
London make, and of the year 1619-20. It is a form of cup not 
unfrequently found, and however unlikely it may appear from its 



102 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



design was probably purchased for its present sacred use 1 (other 
examples of the same kind are known to have been presented in 
or about the year of their make) from a London silversmith 
whose trade mark IT (TF in linked letters), is found upon much 
valuable plate of his time, including examples at the great 
Russian Monastery of Troitsa, near Moscow, 1610-11, plate at 
the Temple Church in London of 1609-10, &c. The latest example 
of his mark known to me is on a tall cup, not unlike this of 
Northleach, of the year 1639-40, preserved in the Kremlin at 
Moscow, almost the finest example of this well-known pattern of 
hanap, is the tall gilt cup called "the Mayor's Cup " at St. Ives, 
in Cornwall, given by Francis Bassett, of Tehidy, in 1640, though 
the mark of the lion passant, the only one apparent, shows it to 
have been made about 20 or 25 years earlier. 

The quaint inscription, engraved in italic letters, inside the foot, 
is worth recording. It runs as follows : — 

" Iff any discord twixt my /rends arise 
w th in the Burrough of Beloved St. Ives 
Itt is desyred that this my Cupp of Love 
To everie one a Peace maker may prove 
Then I am blest to have given a Legacie, 
So like my hartt unto Posteritie. 

Ffas. Bassett, A 0 ., 1640." 

Church Cups of this pattern are found at Bodmin, in Cornwall, 
Odcombe, in Somersetshire, Linton, in Kent, and several other 
places. The Linton Cup has a small statuette with shield and long 
spear on the top of the triangular spire. 

The Bodmin Cup was brought under notice in 1879 by the 
editor of our own Transactions, Sir John Maclean, in his 

1 With much diffidence we are rather disposed to differ from the learned 
author in respect to the use to which these handsome hanaps were intended 
to be applied. For the purpose of the administration of the Holy Communion 
they would be extremely inconvenient, and we are inclined to think that they 
were intended for the decoration of the altar, in the manner of a side-board. 
Reminiscences of the decoration of the altar with plate yet remain in the 
display, in some of our cathedrals and large parish churches, of alms-dishes 
and other like ornaments, upon the Holy table. — Ed. 



PLATE XXV. 




i 



Church Plate at Northleach. 



193 



History of Trigg Minor, and figured in that work, Vol. III., p. 
421., from which he kindly contributes an illustration of it 
(Plate XXV.) He thus describes it: " This is a standing Cup, 
or hanap, with a cover and stand, all of silver gilt, and is of an 
elegant form and richly ornamented ijp. repousse, engraved and 
pierced work, in arabesque style. On the stem are three project- 
ing curved and foliated serpent-like figures with human faces. 
The cover, which is hemispherical, is surmounted by a quadran- 
gular spire of pierced work, upon the apex of which is an armed 
figure of Minerva. It is 25£ inches high, and the bowl of the 
cup is 5f inches in diameter. It bears the date mark of 1617-8, 
and the maker's mark is 1 S over a rose or boss of some kind, 
upon a wide shaped-shield." To this account of it, by Sir John 
Maclean, it is only possible to add that a maker's mark of I S, over 
a crescent, appears on an exactly similar style of cup to this, of the 
very next year, viz., 1618-19, at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and 
upon another of 1 608-9, at Corpus Church Coll. in the same Uni- 
versity. Some 25 or more of such cups are now well known, 
about 8 of which are in use as chalices : and of these 25 no less 
than 7 are from the same hand as the Northleach example, whilst 
3 are by the maker of the Bodmin cup. 

3. — A large gilt plate on foot, is of Britannia Standard silver, 
and was made in 1707-8 by a London silversmith of the name of 
J ohn Bodington. A similar plate made by him in this very same 
year is at Woodchurch, in Kent. 

4. — Lastly, the tall gilt flagon, also of 1707-8, and dated as 
presented by Mary Parker, in that year, is by one William Faw- 
dony, who had made the church-plate at New Homney in 1698, 
and much other civic and ecclesiastical plate at this period. 

Thus the most remarkable periods in the history of English 
silver-working, namely, the reigns of Queen Elizabeth, her im- 
mediate successor, James I., and Queen Anne, are all represented 
in the set of ecclesiastical vessels preserved at Northleach Church. 



Vol VII. , part L 0 



194 



Transactions at Stow-on-the-Wold. 



Postscript to Notes on the Greyndour Chapel, page 125. 
Pedigree of Throckmorton, of Tortworth, and Clowerwall. 
Continued from Vol. VI., p. 186. 



Thomas Baynham, of Clowerwall.- 
Died 2nd October, 1611, aged 75. 
Inq. p.m. 11th James. No. 23. 



=Mary dau. of William 
Winter, of Lydney, Knt. 



Sir William Throck-= 
morton, of Tortworth, 
Knt., created a Bart., 
29th June, 1611. Mar., 
secondly, Alice Mor- 
gan, & thirdly, Sarah, 
Hale. Died 18th, and 
bur.* 2nd July, 1628. 
Inq. p.m., 8th Charles, 
part I. No. 84. 



; Cecilia Baynham, 
dau. & coh., aged 
25 years on her 
father's death, 
1 wife. 



Johanna, da. and=j=John Vaughan, 



coh. Bap.* 17th 
Nov., 1585, aged 
23 years on her 
father's death. 



of Kinnersley, 
co. Hereford. 



Trans., Vol VI., p. 186. 



Sir Baynham Throck- 
morton, 2nd Baronet, 
son and heir, aged 22 
years and more on his 
father's death, M.I.* 
Died at Westminster 
28th May, and was 
privately interred the 
next day in the church 
of St. Margaret. 



: Margaret, dau. 
of Robt. Hop- 
ton, of Witham, 
co. Som., and 
sister and coh. 
of Sir Ralph, 
Lord Hopton,of 
Stratton, co. 
Cornwall. 



Sir Nicholas=j=Alice 
Throckmor- 
ton Knighted 
atBedington, 
in June, 1603, 
Buriedt 21st 
June, 1664. 



Elizabeth named as sister 
in will of Lady Alice T. 



dau. Richard 
Gough, of Hewels- 
field. Bur. f29th July 
1670. Will dated 20th 
July. Prob.4thOct., 
1670, Glouc. 



3 Hopton. 
Bap.* 6th 
Oct. 1631, 
Ob. s.p. 



Mary, dau. and : 
heir of Giles 
Garton, of 
Billinghurst, 
co. Sussex, 
Esq.,lstwife. 
Bur.* 4th 
April, 1666. 



2 Thos. 4 William 5 Francis 
ob. s.p. ob. s.p. ob. s.p. 



-Sir Baynham : 
Throckmorton, 
3rd Bart. Born 
llthDec. Kntd. 
at Rochester, 
28th May, 1660. 
Will dated 16th 
July,1680.Prob. 
13th Feb. 1681- 
2. 24 Cottle. 



Catherine, Sir William 
dau. of Piers Throckmorton, 
Edgcomb, of 4th Baronet, 
Mount Edg- named in 
comb, co. mother's will, 
Devon, Esq., succeeded his 
Mar.* 11th cousin Sir 
Dec, 1679. Baynham, and 
was killed in a 
duel, and bur. in St. Mar- 
garet's ch., Westminster, 
1st July, 1682, s.p. 



Elizabeth, sole 
executrix to her 
father's will. 
Died unmarried 
27th Jan. 1682, 
aged 27. Bur.* 



At Ncwland. 



Caroline. Bap.* Mary. Died Katherine. Bap.* 23rd 
29th May, 1661. 20th Jan., Nov., 1670. Mar. 23rd 
Married Capt. 1683. Dec, 1690, Thos. Wyld, 

Scrimshaw, 2nd Esq. , of Commanders, co. 

son of Sir Chas. Wore, iet 1682, ob. 12th 

April, 1740. 



Nicholas. 
Bur.f 2nd 
Dec, 1667. 



1 1 1 1 — 

1 Mary, 2 Eliz. , 3 Ann, 4 Sarah, 
named in mother's will. 

t At Hcwelsfield. 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



195 



ANCIENT SCOTTISH LAKE DWELLINGS, OR CRANNOGS, with a 
Supplementary Chapter on Remains of Lake Dwellings in England. By 
Robert Munro, M.A., M.D., F.S.A., Scot. Edinburgh : David Douglas, 
1882. 

Though, within comparatively a few years, much has been accomplished in 
the investigation of Lacustrine Dwellings, much yet remains to be done in 
regard to this important' subject. We are glad, therefore, to have an 
opportunity of introducing to our readers Dr. Munro's interesting volume 
on the Ancient Scottish Lake Dwellings. The existence of these remarkable 
structures in Great Britain has been hitherto almost unnoticed, though with 
the Irish Crannogs we have been for some years familiar. The wonderful 
discoveries made by the late Dr. Keller in the Swiss Lakes directed attention 
to the subject and aroused a spirit of investigation in this country, of which 
Dr. Munro's volume may be regarded as the first fruits. It is right, however, 
that we should say that these singular structures had not been entirely over- 
looked in Scotland, for notices of some appeared in the Proceedings of the 
Society of Antiquaries, Scotland, more than half -a- century ago, nevertheless, 
as far as we know, no systematic or scientific investigation has been made 
prior to the successful labours of Dr. Munro, acting, he says, under the 
inspiration of the Ayrshire and Wigtownshire Archaeological Association. 

Our author divides the artificial Lake Islands of Scotand into two classes : 
those formed of wood and those formed of stones, earth, and other rough 
materials ; he does not, however, draw any inference from this difference of 
construction as to the relative antiquity of the two classes, but attributes that 
difference rather to local circumstances. He confines his attention chiefly to 
the former on account of the high mechanical skill displayed in their struc- 
ture. His explorations have led him to the conclusion that ' ' all the wooden 
Islands were constructed after one uniform plan, and that this plan was 
actually the outcome of the highest mechanical principles that the circum- 
stances would admit of. " Indeed," he says, " I am prepared to maintain 
that were the same problem submitted to modern engineers they could make 
no improvement either on the principles or mechanism displayed in these 
singular structures." After describing the process of the construction of 
these Island homes, into which the space at our disposal will not allow us 
to enter, and for which we must refer to Dr. Munro's pages (262-263), he 
concludes by saying: "Not only do these wooden islands evince much 
mechanical and technical skill on the part of their founders, but, what is 
still more singular, the area of their distribution appears to have been co-ex- 
tensive with the districts formerly occupied by Celtic races. Hence we have 



196 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



here another proof of the extraordinary vigour, intense individuality, and 
plastic character of Early Celtic civilization, in thus developing from its 
own inherent resources, a unique form of stronghold, simple in its structure, 
but yet admirably adapted to the unsettled conditions of life and military 
requirements of the period." 

The first Crannog examined by Dr. Munro was situated in a lake, now 
for many years drained, at Lochlee, near Tarbolton, in Ayreshire. On this 
farm the poet Burns lived for five years as ploughman to his father, then 
its tenant. The lake, before it was drained, occupied about 19 acres, but 
no one suspected that a small island, which became visible in the summer 
time, was ever the site of human habitations. When the drainage of the 
lake took place, two canoes were found buried in the moss, and some wrought 
wood-work appeared intersecting the drains. The workmen incidentally 
mentioned these discoveries to a Mr. Brown, a respectable and intelligent 
shopkeeper at Tarbolton with whom they dealt, who eventually, after many 
years, communicated these discoveries to a gentleman who brought the 
subject under the notice of the active local Archaeological Society we have 
mentioned above. This led to a careful examination of the island, under 
the direction of Dr. Munroe. We cannot follow all the details of the 
excavations. The following abstract it is hoped will give a sufficiently clear 
idea of the character of the structure. The excavations were commenced 
under the superintendence of Dr. Munro and R. W. Cochran Patrick, Esq., 
of Woodend, Hon. Secretary to the Ayre and Wigtown Archaeological 
Association, but, in consequence of illness, the latter was soon obliged to 
withdraw from the work, which was left under the sole direction of Dr. 
Munro. The Crannog was found to be begirt by piles around its margin, 
and to be composed of upright poles or posts, locked and bound together by 
horizontal beams of oak, with mortice holes at the ends, through which the 
upright poles passed, which were thus kept in position. Near the centre 
of the mound, between three and four feet from the surface, was found a 
smooth pavement constructed of flat stones, about 1| ins. thick, of various 
sizes and shapes, neatly fitted together, resting upon a bed of clay which 
extended some feet beyond it, and surrounded by a raised rim of similar 
flat stones uniformly selected, set on edge. From the ashes, charcoal, 
and small bits of burnt bones about it, it was concluded that this was a 
fireplace. A precisely similar fireplace was afterwards discovered 1\ feet 
higher, and scarcely a foot below the surface of the mound, but not directly 
above the former hearth. Traces of other pavements were observed between 
these two, but before a careful examination could be made, the whole mass 
above the lower pavement was trodden down by visitors. Digging below 
the floor of the lower pavement, at a depth of about four feet, was found a 
layer of chips of wood, having the appearance of having been cut with a 
sharp hatchet, and below this, a thick layer of turf with the grassy side down- 
wards, and below this, at a depth of about 8 ft. from the surface, a pavement 
of logs of oak, so that this was the depth of the rubbish that had accumulated 
since the logs were laid. A perpendicular section is given of the mass between 
what has been called the lower pavement and the log pavement just men- 
tioned. This has the appearance of a section of stratified rock of various 
colours. At the bottom is the log pavement, then, in succession, are shewn 



i 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



197 



tnrf, clay, and a black line of ashes ; then again clay, another line of char- 
coal and ashes ; and, lastly, the pavement imbedded in a thick layer of clay. 
Two other pavements of stone were afterwards found, corresponding with 
the lines of charcoal shewn in the section. The ground shewn by this section 
was so rich in relics that Dr. Munro gave it the name of the relic bed. 

Upon clearing away the superincumbent mass down to the log pavement 
it was found that in the centre there was a rectangular space about 39 feet 
square, having a flooring of thick oak beams like railway sleepers. In the 
centre of this space were fireplaces. Two slabs of oak were found, which 
had a series of round holes, about 1 inch in diameter and 5J inches apart, 
extending along the whole length of one edge, and there were two others, 
7 ft. 9 ins. apart, and lying over a thin layer of clay which intervened between 
them and the general log pavement. One was slightly curved and both had 
a raised rim running along their whole length, and each had a horizontal 
hole through which the ends of a beam passed, and they had also square-cut 
holes at right angles to the former as if intended for uprights. Below the 
clay, and lying immediately over the log pavement, were found a piece of a 
charred beam and the half blade of an oar. The floor, or pavement, was 
formed by two or three layers of logs lying transversely over each other, at 
the ends of the upper layers there were, here and there, deeply penetrating 
piles slightly projecting above the flooring, with a horizontal beam stretched 
between and tightly jammed, apparently for the purpose of keeping the logs 
in position. On the south side a straight row of these piles ran across the log 
pavement, which, at first sight, was supposed to be the remains of a partition. 
Surrounding the rectangular log pavement could be traced a complete circle 
of firmly-fixed upright piles arranged in two rows, connected together by 
transverse beams, the heads of some of which were observed upon the surface 
before the excavations were commenced. It was thought probable that a 
circular platform of wood, presenting a breastwork about 3 feet high, sur- 
rounded the central log pavement. On the south-east side was found the 
refuse bed, or midden, consisting, chiefly, of gritty ash, decayed bones, and 
vegetable matter. There were also found here metal instruments and dag- 
gers, two fibulae, several wooden vessels, and a few bone implements. And 
it is remarked that "the metal objects were all comparatively near the 
surface, and also that no boars' tusks or teeth were found except at its very 
lowest stratum." 

After having made various experimental excavations to ascertain the 
circuit of the island, in which was found, about 5 feet deep, among decayed 
brushwood and chips of wood, a beautiful trough, cut out of a single block of 
soft wood. In form, it resembled a butcher's tray. It was quite whole 
when found, and showed very distinctly the markings of the gouge-like 
instrument by which it was fashioned, but in drying it quickly crumbled to 
pieces. 

The next process was to sink a shaft below the log pavement for the 
purpose of ascertaining the thickness, composition, and mode of structure, 
of the island itself. After removing three or four layers of oak planks, which 
constituted the log pavement, the workmen came upon a thin layer of brush- 
wood, and then large trunks of trees, laid in regular beds, or layers. Among 
these were found part of a worn-out canoe, thus economised instead of a. 



198 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



prepared log. The trunks of trees were chiefly of birch, with the branches 
closely chopped off, but, occasionally, beams of oak were found with holes at 
their extremities, through which pins were driven to hold the whole together. 
Six feet below the pavement was found the larger portion of a broken 
hammer- stone, which, from its appearance, had been used subsequently to 
its breakage. The substance below the lowest logs consisted of a few twigs 
of hazel, imbedded in a dark friable, but somewhat peaty, soil — the silt of 
the lake. The depth of this solid mass of wood-work, measuring from the 
surface of the log pavement, was 9 feet 10 inches, or about 16 feet from the 
surface of the field. Among the last spadeful pitched from this depth was 
nearly a one-half of a well-formed and polished ring of shale. 

After this was explored, the gangway connecting the inland with the 
mainland was found. This appears to have been constructed of piles and 
horizontal beams, upon the same principle as the island, though not a single 
joint, mortice, or pin was discovered, nevertheless the whole fabric was as 
firm as a rock. 

The relics found comprise a large variety of objects, such as a few war- 
like weapons, industrial implements, and personal ornaments, made of stone, 
bone, horn, wood, metal, &c. The stone objects consisted of hammer-stones, 
heating-stones, sharpening- stones, one polished stone celt, 5^ inches long and 
2 inches broad along its cutting edge, which bore the evidence of having 
been well used. It tapered gently towards the other end, which is round and 
blunt. It is made of a hard mottled greenstone. 

Several other Crannogs were subsequently examined, e.g. at Friars' 
Carse, near Dumfries, which, in structure, was much the same as that at 
Lochlee, though destitute of a breast-work around the log pavement, as at 
Lockspouts, near Kilkerran, as lately as 1880. This was an important work 
of the same type, but, like Friars' Carse, without the breastwork, even the 
gangway connecting it with the mainland, like that of Lochlee, was of a 
zig-zag form. At Barhapple Loch, Glenluce, at which no relics were found, 
except a ring of cannel coal. At Buston, an interesting Crannog was 
explored. In respect to construction, these were all of the same character, 
differing only slightly in respects to details. The relics found were also of 
the same types, except a spiral gold finger ring, found in the midst of the 
midden, and two plates of gold, pronounced by Mr. Evans, to whom they 
were submitted, to be the shell of an early forgery of a coin, which he con- • 
sidered to be of Saxon origin, and of 6th or 7th century. At Lochspouts 
pottery was found somewhat abundantly, among which were fragments of 
Samian ware, one of which, a portion of a bowl, shewing its characteristic 
moulding, the festoon and tassel, commonly called the egg-and-tonge border, 
and portions of the ornamental figures with which it was adorned. 

The close resemblance of these curious and interesting dwellings, and 
the relics found, leads Dr. Munroe to the conclusion that they were formed 
by the same people and at the same time, for a special purpose, and from 
the fact that they exist in those districts, only, inhabited by the Celtic races, 
that they were erected by that people. As to their date, he hestitates to 
draw any definite conclusion. They do not appear to us to belong to what 
is considered the pre-historic age. It is true that implements of stone, horn, 



Notices or Recent Archaeological Publications. 



199 



and bone have been plentifully found, but together with them, objects of 
bronze and iron, the latter not being super-imposed, We know that the 
earlier and more simple implements survived the introduction of metals, 
and were in use in the bronze and iron period ; indeed as shewn by the 
learned author of The Past in the Present, they are still in use in Scotland. 
That the British Dwellings are later than those on Lake Meilen there can be 
no doubt. Dr. Keller was of opinion that the Lacustrine Dwellings in the 
Swiss lakes were founded by a branch of a Celtic population who came into 
Europe as a pastoral people, and Dr. Munro suggests that the Scottish 
Dwellings may have been constructed by immigrants from Switzerland. 
This is possible. 

The only hypothesis, our author says, that can satisfactorily account 
for all the facts and phenomena adduced, viz., that the Lake Dwellings in 
the south-west of Scotland were constructed by the Celtic inhabitants as 
a means of protecting their lives and moveable property, when upon the 
frequent withdrawal of the Roman soldiers from the districts, they were 
left single-handed to contend against the Angles on the east, and the Picts 
and Scots on the north. It is not likely, he says, that these rich provincials, 
so long accustomed to the comforts and luxury of Roman civilization, or 
their descendants in the subsequent kingdom of Strathclyde, would become 
the assailants of such fierce and lawless enemies, from whom, even if con- 
quered, they could derive no benefit. Hence their military tactics and 
operations would assume more the character of defence than of aggression, 
and in order to defeat the objects of the frequent and sudden inroads of the 
northern tribes which was to plunder rather than to conquer the country, 
experience taught them the necessity of being prepared for emergencies by 
having certain places of more than ordinary security where they could 
deposit their wealth, or to which they could retire when hard pressed. 

We cannot say we can quite agree in this reasoning. What the object 
was in selecting the sites and constructing these remarkable dwellings we 
are unable to say, but the relics found shew that the inhabitants were a 
peaceful industrious people without wealth, and with the exception of two 
or three spear-heads and as many arrow points of iron, to a community 
entirely destitute of weapons of defence. 

We thank Dr. Munroe for his valuable work, and we trust some English 
antiquaries will follow his example and explore the marshes and lakes in 
England, especially in the Celtic districts, with the same zeal and skill he 
has shewn in the sister country. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. — The establishment of "Notes and Queries" 
in 1838 by Mr. W. J. Thorns and others, has, in itself, been an invaluable 
aid to the progress of historical, genealogical, biographical, and general 
archaeological knowledge. For many years it stood alone in its sphere of 
usefulness, and is yet without a rival, but its utility has been so fully 
recDgnised as to make it the precursor of many local serials of the same 
character, each, respectively, within its range, of much value. 

In referring to some few of these, and we are glad to say they are 
yearly becoming more numerous, and a new one is just announced for the 
Midland Counties. Our own county serial, Gloucestershire Notes and 



200 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



Queries, has, of course, the first claim to our notice, as well because of 
the able manner in which it is edited by one of the members our own Society, 
the Rev. Beaver H. Blacker, which has placed it among the first of its 
class, as that the subjects which are treated of, from their local character, 
possess greater interest for residents in the county than those relating to 
more distant parts of the kingdom. It is well deserving of all the support 
which can be given to it by the members of the Society. 

Of more distant ones, the "Western Antiquary, or Devon and 
Cornwall Note Book," edited by Mr. W. H. K. Wright, Librarian of the 
Public Library, Plymouth, may be mentioned. This is well conducted and 
frequently contains interesting illustrations of local antiquities. 

THE PALATINE NOTE BOOK : "for the Inter-communication of Anti- 
quaries, Bibliophiles, and other investigators into the History and Literature 
of the Counties of Lancashire and Cheshire, &c," is another well deserving 
notice. This, though possessing a local designation, would seem to be less 
of a strictly local character than most of its fellows, for it contains special 
essays of great general interest. We may mention among these a memoir 
of the Family of Montgomery. Also an article on the Life and Writings of 
Downhame Bishop of Derry, and in the number for January last, there 
was an excellent Memoir of Dr. Bridgman, Bishop of Chester, and in that 
for February, one of Ralph Broke, York Herald, illustrated with a portrait. 

LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE HISTORICAL AND GENEALOGICAL 
NOTES was another well conducted serial of this class. As is the case with 
most others, the articles were, in the first instance, printed in a local news- 
paper, and subsequently re-printed in a volume and indexed, thus rendering 
them always easy of reference. It is obvious that antiquarian notices printed 
among the miscellaneous general news of the day are in great danger of 
being wholly lost unless they are treated in this manner. Lancashire and 
Cheshire Historical and Genealogical Notes has, for a while, ceased, in 
consequence of the proprietorship of the newspaper, in which the articles 
were first printed, having changed, but we are glad to hear the issue is about 
to be resumed under a somewhat altered title. 

All local publications of this kind are of great value and interest, and 
well deserving of support. 

RECORDS OF ST. GILES' CRIPPLEGATE. By the Rev. W. Denton, M. A. 
London : George Bell & Sons, York Street, Covent Garden ; F. A. Hancock, 
Wood Street, Cheapside, and Moor Lane, Cripplegate, 1883. 

This volume professes only to be of a popular character, written for those 
who can look forth from their shops or offices upon the streets of their 
ancient parish, and who will feel an interest in hearing of the early state 
of the place in which they live, and of its progress from the days when it 
was a waste outside the city gate. Mr. Denton, therefore, has not, in the 
preparation of his work, thought it necessary to have recourse to the ac- 
cumulation of Record evidence within his reach, but has contented himself 
with the study of the vast amount of printed matter relating to London and 
and its environs, all which he must have read with great diligence. And. 



t 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 201 



looking at the result, we cannot affect to regret this, for the work before us 
is one of the most interesting and useful which, for some time, has come 
under our notice. 

After alluding to the enclosure of London by the Romans, with a wall 
some 20 feet high and 10 feet thick, and its further defence by a ditch some 
200 feet wide, in the time of King John, Mr. Denton introduces us to the 
site of the present parish of St. Giles without Cripplegate. He describes it 
as a wild moorish swamp reaching up to the city walls, which could only be 
approached in boats or by raised causeways. In the winter this marsh was 
covered with water, and when frozen over [was frequented by the citizens 
as the field of their sports upon the ice, of which he quotes a vivid descrip- 
tion from Fitz Stephen, who wrote in the time of Henry II. In the summer 
it emitted miasmatic vapours, which, with the stagnant ditches and open 
sewers containing the undrained filth of the city, was the parent of the 
plague and pestilence from which the city was never entirely free, and 
which, at intervals, broke out with such desolating violence as to carry off 
two-thirds of the population. This was especially the case at the fearful 
visitations at the middle and towards the end of the 14th century. Though 
the accounts of this ravages are not altogether new, Mr. Denton puts us 
in possession of facts which bring these terrible calamities very vividly 
before us. At this time the city was not densely inhabited. We read of 
void spaces within the walls. Stretching from the north of Cheapside, 
and reaching almost to the city wall, by Aldermanbury, was a large orchard, 
the memory of which is still preserved in the name of St. Martin Pomery, 
or the Apple -garth. 

The criminal classes avoided the city for their own reasons, and 
foreigners could not abide there on account of the riotous conduct and 
violence of the apprentices, by whom they were greatly illtreated, and were 
fain to take refuge with the former class in wretched wooden houses in the 
moors and marshes beyond Cripplegate, which were frequently destroyed by 
fire. The account which Mr. Denton gives of this district in his chapter on 
the "Field and the Moor," contains much curious matter reaching down 
to a late date. 

The account of the church and its vicars is well deserving of attention. 
Of the latter, unfortunately, the list may be said to commence only in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, and, with the exception of two intruders during 
the interregnum, contains only fifteen names, several of them of men of 
great eminence. Of the number five were called to the episcopate, two of 
whom, Pritchett and Fowler, having been made bishops of our own diocese 
of Gloucester. Of the most remarkable of these vicars short biographical 
notices are given. 

The chapter entitled " Beating the Bounds " is particularly interesting. 
In it is given an account of some of the more remarkable of the persons who 
have been residents in the parish. We cannot, however, linger longer over 
a work, the perusal of which has yielded us much pleasure, and must con- 
clude by commending it to all who take an interest in curious details of the 
byeways of history, and of the habits of life of certain classes in mediceval 
times 



202 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



SOME ACCOUNT OF THE OLDEST PLANS OF BRISTOL, and an 
enquiry into the date of the first authentic one. By William George. 
Bristol : W. George & Son, 26, Park Street, 1881. 

This work is a reprint from Vol. IV. of the Transactions of the Bristol and 
Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, of the interesting paper on this 
subject, read by Mr. George at the Bristol Meeting, with some additions, 
and the introduction of three of the earliest Plans in facsimile, and we 
must apologize to Mr. George for not having brought it under the notice 
of our readers at an earlier elate. 

We need only refer to Mr. George's monograph, to which reference is 
above made, for his close criticism of the dates and history of the earlier 
plans of the town, in which he shewed, conclusively, that the plan which 
passes under the name of Hoefnagle is an adaptation, printed in 1581, of a 
plan drawn by W. Smith, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant, in 1568, and that 
Smith's plan is the most authentic of the old plans of the town. 

The plans given by Mr. George are : 
I. Bristolia, from the Mayor's Kalendar, 1480, coloured like the original. 
II. Plan of Brightstowe, from Braun's Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Facsimile 
by Mr. John Lavars. 

III. Seyer's Plan of Bristol, between 1250 and 1350, from his original copper 
plate. 

The value of ancient maps in the elucidation of Topography is too well 
known to need any comment, and those who take an interest in ancient 
Bristol, cannot fail to be obliged to Mr. George for placing these truthful re- 
productions within their reach in such a convenient form. 



BRISTOL: PAST AND PRESENT. By J. F. Nicholls, F.S.A., Chief 
Librarian, Bristol Free Libraries, and John Taylor, Librarian, Bristol 
Museum and Library. Vol. III., Civil and Modern History. Bristol : 
J. W. Arrowsmith, 11, Quay Street. London : Griffith and Farran, St. 
Paul's Churchyard, 1882. 

( Second Notice. ) 

Our former notice of this work related to the first two volumes, which 
brought down the History of Bristol, both Ecclesiastical and Civil, to the 
period of the great rebellion and temporary overthrow of the Constitution in 
Church and State. The volume now before us, which completes the work, 
commences with the siege of Bristol by Sir Thomas Fairfax. In our last 
notice we alluded to the lively and spirited manner in which Mr. Nicholls 
had described the assault and capture of the ancient city by Prince Rupert 
in 1643, and the description of its siege by Sir Thomas Fairfax, and its un- 
expected and unaccountable surrender by the same Prince in 1645 on the 
eve of succours arriving from the King, is given in like graphic and vigorous 
manner by the same facile pen. Many of the particulars are derived from 
Cromwell's report to Speaker Lenthall, but the author betrays strong par- 
liamentary proclivities, and even justifies the murder of the King, whilst the 
disorders and violence of the period of the interregnum and arbitrary conduct 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



208 



of Cromwell are passed lightly over. Mr. Nicholls' work does not at all fall 
off in interest. A good account is given of Edward Colston and the foun- 
dation of his munificent charities in Bristol, and an amusing story is told of 
Robert Henly, afterwards Lord Northington and Lord Chancellor, and the 
legend is given relating to the erection of the picturesque ivy-mantled tower, 
known as "Cook's Folly," which stands on the edge of the cliff, near the 
Sea Wall, on Durdham Down. A brief, though telling, sketch, is given of 
Chatterton, "Bristol's Marvellous Boy," and also of another clever imposter 
who called herself " Caraboo Princess of Javasu." 

Notice is taken of the medieeval houses in Bristol, and though they have 
to a great extent disappeared, yet many still remain. The work throughout 
is illustrated by numerous beautiful bits of old Bristol, and its value is thereby 
greatly enhanced, as it will, in a very short time, become the only memorial 
of many architectural gems, Mr. Nicholls also refers to the old trades' and 
inn signs, and with reference to this subject, mentions that, in 1552, the 
taverns in Bristol were limited to six. There is, however, no portion of his 
book of greater interest than that which relates to the charities of Bristol, 
which are very numerous, and many of them possessed of large endowments. 
Mr. Nicholls cites a work published in 1818, entitled "A Mirror for the 
Burgesses and Commonalty of the City of Bristol, in which is exhibited to 
their view a part of the great and many interesting benefactions and endow- 
ments of which the city hath to boast, and for which the corporation are 
responsible as the stewards and trustees thereof; correctly transcribed from 
authentic documents," in which work it is stated that Bristol had more 
moneys vested in trust for benevolent purposes than the whole Empire of 
France. 

Under the head of eminent persons which have been connected with 
Bristol by birth or residence, short biographical notes are given of a large 
number of eminent persons, but one of them, at least, James Thistlethwaite, 
would be better described as notorious than eminent. 

Many remarkable incidents connected with Bristol are narrated through- 
out, but there is not one of a sadder interest than the deplorable Reform 
Riot of 1831. Sir Charles Wetheral, the Recorder of Bristol, it will be 
remembered, gave offence to the "reformers " of the city by his opposition 
in Parliament to the Reform Bill, and on his arrival in Bristol to hold the 
assize of gaol delivery, through the instigation of a certain Mr. Herapath, 
President of a body called the Political Union, it was determined to mob him. 
As Mr. Nicholls justly observes : " the scum rises to the top when the nation 
boils and overpowers the men who kindled the fire," and though at the 
commencement the number of persons guilty of breaking into and firing 
houses were fewer than twenty, and never exceeded hundred-and-fifty, 
through timidity, cowardice, and inefficiency of the magistrates, and the 
incapacity of Colonel Brereton, who commanded the troops which were called 
out to aid the civil power, the disorder became so great that for three days 
the mob had possession of the town, burnt the Bishop's Palace and the 
Mansion House, and destroyed much other valuable property, and also 
caused the loss of many lives. On the third day active steps were taken by 
Major Beckwith, acting nominally under the orders of Col. Brereton, and the 



204 



Notices or Recent Archaeological Publications. 



riot was quickly quelled, many of the leaders being made prisoners ; afford- 
ing an evidence how easily the disturbance might have been suppressed in 
the first instance had only ordinary vigour been displayed by the authorities. 
Major Beckwith, in his evidence on the subsequent enquiry, stated that the 
mayor and magistrates seemed stupid with terror, and that when he asked 
that one of them might accompany him on horseback, all but Alderman 
Camplin said they could not ride, and he said he had not been on horseback 
for eighteen years. 

We must, however, close our notice of this work. Though not the 
result of much original research, it contains much interesting and valuable 
matter brought together from various sources not easily accessible. The 
history of Bristol, in its various aspects, is treated of in a very clear and 
comprehensive manner, but we regret to add that the usefulness of the 
work, as a book of reference, is greatly diminished by the absence of a 
sufficiently full index, which is an essential requisite to a work of that 
character. 

CALENDAR OF STATE PAPERS, Domestic Series, of the reign of Chas. 
I., 1640-41. Preserved in Her Majesty's Public Record Office. Edited by 
William Douglas Hamilton, Esq., F.S.A., of H. M. Public Record Office 
and the University of London, under the direction of the Master of the Rolls, 
with the sanction of Her Majesty's Secretary of State for the Home Depart- 
ment. London : Longmans & Co., &c, &c, 1882. 

The Papers contained in this volume cover the last four months of 1640, 
and the first five of 1641, and thus embrace the first four months of the long 
parliament. The papers form authentic materials for the history of this 
eventful period, and are generally in the words of the actors therein. They 
commence with the retreat of the English army upon the advance of the 
Scots, under Leslie, to Newcastle. This remarkable instance of an English 
army fleeing before an inferior invading force can be accounted for only by 
the state of feeling and of parties in England disclosed by a study of the 
papers brought under notice in this volume. Mr. Hamilton remarks : ' ' what 
was really the state of mind of the English people in 1640 towards the King, 
the Government and the Scots, is a question of the deepest historical 
interest, but one which cannot be properly comprehended without some 
knowledge upon this subject far different from that which can be acquired 
from the ordinary authorities." Into this matter we cannot enter. 

As might be expected, we find numerous complaints from the Puritans 
against the prescribed Ritual of the Church, of the same character as is so 
familiar to us in our own day from the action of the emissaries of the " Church 
Association." We have by this means a knowledge of what was then the 
practice of the Church. Here is an instance : —Vol. cccclxxiv. , No. 80. 
"Information of Mr. Ramsdell, concerning the Puritanical doings at All 
Saints' Church, Northampton. Upon Ascension Day, at a lecture, Mr. 
Crawford preached against ceremonies ; against bowing before the altar, 
as though He, whom Heaven and Earth cannot contain, can be confined 
in a narrow room ; against burning of candles, as though He wanted light 
who giveth light to the sun, moon, and stars. God regards not bodily 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



205 



worship, for He is a spirit, and we must worship Him in spirit. To the 
King we may do reverence, because he is visible, but to do so to God 
invisible, hath a show of idolatry. These and many other things he 
preached, or rather prated of, as confidently as though he had been in New 
England. At that sermon there were 800, and there are no fewer than 
500 or 600 every lecture on Thursday, yet on Wednesday or Sunday, seldom 
above five or six at prayers, but when sermon begins, here is such flocking 
into the church, where they irreverently squat down in their seats, and 
few or none kneel either at their own devotion or at common prayers, or 
stand up at the Gloria Pair?, or bow at the blessed name of Jesus. 
Though the communion table is set altar-wise, at the end of the chancel, 
and railed in, yet ordinary townsmen follow the priest within the rails with 
the consecrated bread and wine. The Bishop of Peterborough preached 
here a Godly sermon, and did so humbly adore before the altar as did 
those with him, Dr. Heath and Dr. Clarke, as set an example to invite the 
beholders to do the like. But neither our vicar, Mr. Ball, nor his curate, 
Mr. Newton, do so ; neither do they bow at the name of Jesus, and they 
administer to the communicants sitting, and the Book of Recreations is never 
read. Mr. Rogers, the famous great preacher's son, in Essex, never shows 
himself in church, being master of the free school, when he can he shows 
himself a Nonconformist, and administers without a surplice to communicants 
sitting. He said, I would live more quietly if I would leave the town. The 
church- warden himself, Mr. Rushworth, affronted me and said I brought new 
customs into their church, which he neither found in the canons' rubric, nor 
was enjoined by an Act of Parliament, and I did know more. I am smiled 
at by the ministers and better sort, and laughed out of church by the vulgar. 
A tradesman's maid bid me heed my nose in bowing, and a tradesman's son 
did run a stool against me foot foremost when I did obeisance. I am 
accounted a papist throughout the town. There cannot be a more scornful 
parish in England." 

To this is annexed a list of the names of communicants who received 
sitting on the several Sundays specified. 

Of local matters, there are not many papers of importance though the 
two following documents, as affecting several Gloucestershire manors, are of 
local as well as of general interest. 

It will be remembered that Henry, the last Duke of Buckingham, who 
was descended from Thomas, of Woodstock son of Edward III. , was charged 
with treason as aspiring to the crown and for quartering the Royal arms, 
and being convicted by his peers, was executed in 1521. He was the builder 
of Thornbury Castle, and is said to have caused great discontent in the 
neighbourhood by the enclosure of a vast park there. He was, of course, 
attainted, and the estates became forfeited, and thus ended the princely 
honours of that ancient family, for though Henry, his eldest son, was 
immediately restored in blood, his honours and land were still retained in 
the King's hands. A small provision was, however, made for him out of the 
immense estates, which were his of right, but he was soon afterwards granted 
the Castle of Stafford, and, presumably, the Gloucestershire manors, though 
the whole was of small value. In the 1st Edward VI., he was restored to 
the Barony of Stafford, ±o hold to him and the heirs malt of his body. 



206 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



By Ursula, his wife, daughter of Sir Richard Pole, K.G., by Margaret 
Plantagenet, Countess of Salisbury, daughter and heir of George, Duke of 
Clarence, brother of King Edward IV. and King Richard III., he left four 
sons, of whom it will suffice to mention Henry and Richard. 

Henry succeeded his father as Baron Stafford, and dying s.p. was suc- 
ceeded by his brother Edward, who left a son of his own name, who, dying 
in his father's lifetime, left a son Henry, who succeeded his grandfather 
as fifth Baron Stafford of the new creation, but died unmarried, when his 
inheritance devolved upon his sister Mary, the wife of Sir William Howard, 
Knight of the Bath, a younger son of Thomas 20th Earl of Arundel and 
Surrey. 

Richard Stafford, younger son of Henry Lord Stafford before mentioned, 
was very poor. He married Mary, daughter of John Corbet, of Lee, co. 
Salop, by Ann his wife (relict of Sir William Brereton) and daughter of Sir 
William Boothe, of Denham Massey, and left a son Roger and a daughter 
Jane. Mary survived her husband, and sued for her dower out of Essington, 
co. Gloucester, but without success. Her daughter Jane Stafford, the great- 
grand-daughter of the mighty Edward Duke of Buckingham, the aspirant to 
the crown and the descendant of Kings, as mentioned above, became the wife 
of a joiner and her son a cobbler ! ! 

Roger Stafford, just mentioned, was the undoubted heir male of the body 
of Henry Lord Stafford, and upon the death of Henry 5th Lord Stafford, 
petitioned for his Barony, which Sir William Howard, in right of his wife, 
did also claim. These remarks are made to lead up to two documents which 
follow, showing a slight sketch of the romance of the peerage : — 

1640 (Sep. 12) cccclxvii. 47. Petition of Sir Wnr Howard, 2nd son of the Earl 
Marshal, Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surrey, and Mary his wife, to the 
King. Whereas King Henry VIII. and Queen Mary, by letters patent 
granted to Henry Lord Stafford and Lady Ursula his wife, and their heirs, 
the castle and manor of Stafford and other tenements in the borough of 
Stafford, and in the parishes of Bradley, Billington, Coppenhall, Litty- 
wood, and elsewhere in co, Stafford, found by inquisition to be of the 
yearly value of £30, and the honours of Gloucester and Hereford, in co. 
Gloucester, together with the manors of Thornbury, Falfield, Newnham, 
and Oldfield, in co. Gloucester, found by inquisition to be of the yearly 
value of £13 6s. 8d. ; and, whereas, the petitioner Mary, as sister and 
sole heir of Henry late Lord Stafford is, by virtue of the said grants 
tenant in tail of the said premises and is thereof actually seized, and 
both petitioners desire to settle this their estate to the best advantage of 
them and their posterity, their father and mother being disposed to 
settle on them and their issue lands of good value of their own inheri- 
tance, to which their intention your favour in vouchsafing to pass the 
reversion now in the crown before mentioned will contribute much. 
May it therefore please you, the value being small, and there being 
12 persons, at least, of the issue in tail, now living, and so long as any 
of them or their issue shall be remaining, no benefit by the reversion 
can come to the Crown, to grant petitioners the reversion remaining in 
the Crown of all such of the castles, manors, &c, as by the aforesaid 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



207 



letters patent descend to your petitioner, Mary, in such sort as your 
Attorney General or other of your learned counsel shall think meet. 
(lp.) 

(Sep. 12) 48. Summary of proceedings between Sir William Howard and 
Roger Stafford concerning the Barony of Stafford. This paper sets forth 
that after the death of Henry late Lord Stafford in 1637, Sir William 
Howard marrying Mary, his sole sister arid heir, came into possession 
not only of Stafford Castle, which is head of that barony, but of all other 
the lands granted by Henry VIII. and Queen Mary to a former Henry 
Lord Stafford, son of Edward Duke of Buckingham, beheaded in 1521, 
which lands were not sold by the ancestors of the late Lord Stafford. In 
November, 1637, Roger Stafford, who pretended to be heir male to 
Henry Lord Stafford (being son and heir of Richard, younger son of the 
said Henry claimed this barony by Act of Parliament, 1st Edward VL, 
and would have treated with the Earl Marshal concerning the interest to 
that barony, but the latter refused to do further than he should be 
directed by the King. Hereupon Roger Stafford, in December following, 
petitioned the King, and having set forth his pretences as well to the 
barony as to all the lands, which were the late Lord Stafford's, prayed 
the King in a summary and short way to restore him to the said honour 
and premises. The King having referred the examination of his pretences 
to the Lord Privy Seal, the Earl of Dorset, and Sec. Windebank, they, 
upon sight of the several letters patent found that without controversy, 
all the lands and possessions whereof Henry Lord Stafford died seized, 
descended to the Lady Mary Howard, his sister and heir, but, because 
Mr. Stafford had then no counsel, he was, by the said Lords willed to 
bring his counsel instructed in his cause the next day to the Counsel 
Chamber, which he did. That day being the 5th of November 1637, 
Sir William Howard and Roger Stafford, with his counsel, attended the 
Lords referees at the Counsel Chamber, where the title being debated it 
was by Mr. Stafford's counsel acknowleged that all the lands descended 
to the Lady Howard, which being known to the King, and some learned 
men being of opinion that by a reasonable construction of the said Act 
of Parliament she was also entitled to the barony, which before the 
attainder of the Duke (of Buckingham) descended to the heirs general 
of that family, it was his Majesty's pleasure to assume the cause into his 
own hands, whereupon both Sir William Howard and Mr. Stafford 
submitted themselves to the King's judgment, and subscribed to the 
submission then made and ratified the 23rd of September last before the 
said Lords and afterwards the same day before his Majesty. After 
which second submission his Majesty, considering the pretence of the 
Lady Howard who has the Castle of Stafford, and all other lands which 
were her brother's, and that Roger Stafford had no means to support the 
title and dignity of a baron, having no estate at all, nor was himself 
anyway qualified for such an honour, did declare his pleasure to be that 
Roger Stafford should surrender and resign all his claim and interest to 
that barony to his Majesty, and that the Earl Marshal should secure 
him £100 per annum during his life, which the Earl Marshal has done 
and given him £100 in money beside above £150 more which he expen- 
ded upon him otherwise. In pursuance of which his Majesty's pleasure,. 



208 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



Roger Stafford, by his deed dated 7th Dec., 1638, resigned the said title 
and dignity to his Majesty, and acknowledged the same before a Master 
in Chancery, which deed is enrolled in the same court, and is remaining 
in the hands of the Attorney General (1 p.) 

The influence of the Howards, as we have seen, was too strong for poor 
Roger. Sir William Howard and Mary his wife were created Baron and 
Baroness Stafford, with remainder to the heirs male of their bodies. He 
soon afterwards was created Viscount. In 1678 he was accused of taking 
part in the Popish Plot, of which he was found guilty, and beheaded in 
Dec , 1680, when his honours and title became extinct. His wife, however, 
retained her title during her life, together with the estates, but her sons 
were precluded from the succession by their father's attainder. James II., 
however, endeavoured to get the attainder reversed, but failing, he created 
Henry Stafford Howard, the eldest son, Earl of Stafford, and his mother, 
Mary, Countess, but this earldom became extinct in 1762, on the termination 
of the issue male of the brothers of Henry the first earl, on the death of John 
Paul Stafford-Howard, Earl of Stafford, s.p. 



THE EARLY GENEALOGICAL HISTORY OF THE HOUSE OF 
ARUNDEL, being an account of the origin of the Families of Montgomery, 
Albini, Fitzalan and Howard, from the time of the Conquest of Normandy 
by Rollo the Great. By John Pym Yeatman, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn, 
Barrister-at-Law, formerly of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, &c. London : 
Folio. Mitchell, and Hughes, 140, Wardour Street, 1882-3. 
Mr. Yeatman, in the work above-mentioned, the first and second parts of 
which are now before us, has undertaken a very difficult enterprise. The 
genealogy and early history of the great men who were the companions 
of William of Normandy in the Conquest of England, is a field which, as 
yet, has been very imperfectly cultivated. The Public Records of our own 
country, with the exception of the Domesday Survey made in 1086, do not 
carry us back to within a century or so of the invasion, and the early 
chronicles have to be carefully studied and verified before they can be 
accepted as conclusive evidence. Genealogists in effecting this are chiefly 
dependent upon the ancient Cartularies of the great Monasteries of Normandy 
and Britanny. Unlike those of our own country, which, at the dissolution 
of the Religious Houses were either destroyed or scattered to the winds, 
these at the period of the French Revolution were carefully preserved. It 
is to such records Mr. Yeatman has chiefly had recourse as his authorities 
for the earliest or ante-conquestal portion of his work, and for the later 
period to similar authentic documents preserved in the Muniment Rooms of 
the great houses in England, more especially, for his present purposes, at 
Wardour Castle and Belvour Castle, to which, through the kind liberality 
of the noble owners, he has been granted free access, a privilege of great 
value in respect to the distinguished family whose history he has undertaken 
to write. 

"The chronicles of the French writers,'" Mr. Yeatman tells us, "are 
very confusing and frequently contradictory. A result that arises very 



i 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



209 



generally from their carelessness as to dates, and the habit of the authors 
of giving the substance of the document they refer to without the exact 
words, generally without sufficient indication of the source of the authority. 
The French antiquarian (as he calls the antiquaries) usually states his facts 
as facts with sublime indifference to the curiosity of his reader as to the 
grounds of his assertion." The French, he says, suffer as do the English, by 
attaching too much importance to chronicles and histories which only copy 
and repeat each other, instead of going direct to original documents which 
would establish the truth on a sound basis. The principle here stated is 
the only true principle upon which an historian can rely, and Mr. Yeatman's 
recognition of it commends him at once to our confidence, though we must 
confess that in some instances he has followed the example of the antiquaries 
whom he condemns by not adhering sufficiently closely to the ipsissima 
verba of his documents. 

Most of the great Norman families were, more or less, closely alied, and 
in the plan of his work, our author, in the first instance, treats of those from 
which the d'Albinies, Earls of Arundel, were descended. 

Referring to the origin of the name of Arundel, Mr. Yeatman concludes 
that it w r as derived from the castle in Sussex so called, which was a place of 
importance known by the same name long anterior to the conquest, and not 
from any place in Normandy. The castle was granted by the Conqueror to 
Roger de Montgomery, afterwards Earl of Shrewsbury and also of Arundel, 
he having the rank of count or earl in his native land. He rebuilt and 
strengthened the defences of the fortress but was never known by the name 
of Arundel, nor does it appear that any member of the family ever assumed 
it. A pedigree is given, with a long and particular account of the great 
house of Montgomery. Roger Montgomery derived much of his wealth from 
his marriage with Mabel, eventual heiress of William Count of Belesme and 
Alencon, of which very ancient family the history, so far as it can be ascer- 
tained, is given. The Belesmes were the ancestors of the Warrens and 
Newburgs of England. We are next introduced to the family of Giroie, 
Lords of Echafour, whose daughter Hawisia married Robert Grentmesnil, 
and was by him the grandmother of Roger d'Albini dTvri, Viscount of 
Cotentin, from whom descended the Earls of Arundel, Dukes of Norfolk and 
Rutland and the Lords Arundel of Wardour. 

In his second book, Mr. Yeatman deals with the history of the house of 
Albini, the representative of the first branch of which, he says, has for five 
centuries been the head of the Heralds' College, nevertheless, he remarks, no 
pedigree in England is so disfigured as that of the Duke of Norfolk by 
serious errors and mis-statements, and, in fact, no family has had a more 
spurious pedigree foisted upon it. The Duke of Norfolk, he alleges, is the 
head of the senior branch of the family of Albini, and this, by a double 
representation from the two famous brothers William and Nigel Albini, the 
sons of Roger, who were probably born about the period of the conquest. 

The second branch, in point of rank, he says, is represented by the 
Duke of Rutland, in the history of which he charges the Heralds with being 
' strangely at fault " in asserting that William d'Albini, the first of the 
family seated at Belvoir, was son of Robert de Todeni, the Domesday tenant 
Vol. VII., part 1. 



210 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



of the manor. The author's researches at Belvoir Castle have resulted in 
his proving, by the most direct and indubitable evidence, that both the 
Ducal houses are descended from the above mentioned William Albini. 

The third branch is that of the Arundels of Cornwall and Wilts, whom 
he states to be the lineal descendants of the aforesaid William Albini, and, 
if so, they should in fact rank as the first house. This branch is repre- 
sented by Lord Arundel, of Wardour. 

The representation of the fourth branch became vested in the family of 
Perceval, and has now, the author says, devolved, as regards the senior 
branch, upon his own cousin-german, Morgan Yeatman, Esq., of Widmore, 
Kent, and the younger, on the Earl of Egmont. Provided, he adds, the 
descent is correct, in the proof of which he alleges he has made considerable 
advances, this branch can claim priority of all the other branches. We 
must, however, here, at once, observe that in his more recent researches at 
Belvoir Castle, he has found it necessary to alter the position of the several 
branches as regards seniority, as we shall see further on. 

After having detailed the history of the family of Albini from its cradle 
in 912 to the middle of the 15th century, the author proceeds to give a 
selection from the Charters of the Abbey of St. Sauveur, to which they were 
parties — a collection of great interest and value. 

The next pedigree given shews the descendants of Hamo aux Deuts, 
whose grandson, Robert fitz Hamon, was created Earl of Gloucester. Mabel, 
his daughter and coheir, became the wife of Robert, illegitimate son of King 
Henry I. They had issue, among others, two sons William and Richard. 
William succeeded his father as Earl of Gloucester, and held, our author 
says, the Manor of Conarton, in Cornwall, and dying without issue male, it 
devolved upon his brother Richard, who granted it to Richard Pincerna, 
ancestor of the Arundels, of Lanherne, which grant was confirmed by Mabel 
his niece, the eldest coheir of Earl William and wife of the Earl of Evereux. 

The next pedigree shews the decendants of Godfrey the Consul, son 
of Richard I., Duke of Normanday. From him descended the Clares, the 
Redvers and Courtenays, Earls of Devon, the Avenels, and others. 

In chapter XII. we find the history of the Hautvilles and Mowbrays, 
followed by a narrative of the family of the Counts of Ivri and Evroux, and 
a full pedigree of the family of Albini of England. 

The chapter on the settlement of the house of St. Sauveur, in the West of 
England, will be found of special interest to our readers, inasmuch as it gives 
the origin of many ancient families in the western counties, but the space 
at our disposal will not admit of our entering into details. 

Having thus laid the basis of his history, the author proceeds to give a 
narrative of the several branches, beginning with the Arundels, of Sandford 
Arundel, which became extinct in the male line in the reign of Henry III. , 
but from Ralph, Lord of Yewton, second son of the great-grandfather of the 
last heir male of Sandford, descended the Arundels, of Cornwall, and from 
the same stock the Fitzalans, Mowbrays, and Howards. 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



211 



Mr. Yeatman states, that in consequence of his recent discovery of most 
important evidence at Belvoir, he had been obliged to re-arrange, with many 
corrections, excisions and additions, the whole of his earlier chapters. 
" These discoveries," he adds, " throw so clear a light upon so many points 
of great historical and genealogical interest connected with the history of 
many English counties, and even with the history of England — they revive 
the memory of some families who were utterly forgotten and unknown to 
the present generation — some of them, at one time, filling an important place 
in the history of the leading families of England and Normandy — and they 
aid in the classification of the degrees of relationship of the different bran- 
ches of these families, in so important a manner that it is not too much to 
say that the remainder of the book has had to be re-written as well as 
re-arranged." It appears to have suffered in perspicuity from this cause. 

To compile an authentic pedigree of one ancient family is no light task, 
but to grapple with those of many of the Norman nobility and trace their des- 
cendants respectively from original authorities is a work Herculean labour, 
and Mr. Yeatman's work, when completed, will form a monument of industry 
and patient research. He seems to be well acquainted with the several 
personages who come within his range, and, throughout all their shifting 
scenes, maintains, upon the whole, a firm grasp of their individuality. That 
there are many, and possibly important, mistakes in such a work would 
be unavoidable, and some of the statements made seem to us not to be 
vouched by sufficient evidence, nevertheless, allowing for all these errors and 
shortcomings, the work will prove a most useful contribution to English 
history and geneaology. 

We cannot, however, close these remarks without expressing our regret 
that Mr. Yeatman should have disfigured his important work, in which we 
take much interest, by his unnecessary observations upon the management 
of the Public Record office. In a postscript to the Preface to his work he 
draws attention to ' ' the proposal for the destruction of documents (the 
pleadings and writs in law-suits since 1715)," and in several places in his 
work he casts reflections upon the Record Department with respect to 
"pulping" valuable records. The writer has been in the habit of fre- 
quenting the various record depositories which existed previously to the 
erection of the present Record Office and to the latter since, for a period of 
nearly forty years, long in fact before the facilities for searches which now 
exist were available to the public. He is well acquainted with the present 
Deputy Keeper, as he was with his late eminent brother and predecessor the 
. well known Sir Thomas Duffus Hardy, and with many other learned mem- 
bers of the department past and present. With this knowledge he has no 
hesitation in affirming that during the time he has mentioned, there has not 
been any member of the Department, from the Deputy Keeper downwards, 
who would be less zealous in the preservation of valuable public documents 
than the writer or Mr. Yeatman himself. 

In a great depository of papers, it is well known to all who are acquainted 
with the nature of the Public Records, considerable accumulations must 
arise of formal and worthless documents, which, from time to time, it 
becomes necessary to remove to make room for what is of real value. And 



212 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



this was the case on the occasion to which Mr. Yeatman refers. The docu- 
ments in question did not comprise any really material pleadings in suits, 
but consisted simply of formal writs and other process which could not be of 
real use to any one. 1 These documents were recommended for destruction, 
after careful examination, by a committee — in the manner prescribed by the 
Public Record Act, 1877 (40 and 41 Vict. c. 55) — of which committee the 
Deputy Keeper is chairman. 

We are sure Mr. Yeatman is labouring under some serious misapprehen- 
sion, and feel constrained, in justice to the parties, to endeavour to remove 
the bias which Mr. Yeatman has, from this misapprehension, conceived. 

We hope to give a further notice of this book at a future time when it is 
more advanced. 

1 With respect to those classes of which the destruction has been proposed, it may be 
confidently asserted that they were never intended for permanent preservation, and that the 
absence of them will not cause the slightest loss to suitors, lawyers, antiquaries, or historians. 
It has not been forgotten that there is an especial sanctity attaching to the records of the 
law courts (and especially to the Queen's Bench) which descend, in an almost unbroken series, 
from the time of the Curia Regis. But as a mark of respect to that very series itself, it 
should be freed from the rough notes of inferior officers, the rough drafts of entries elsewhere 
appearing of record, and the loose papers intended as vouchers, upon which were to be made 
up the recognised rolls of the Court.— -Extract from Return of Valueless Documents among 
Public Records (H.C. No. 103), 1882, p. 3k. 



Bristol mil) (BloumUxBhin ^rchfcfllojtcai gocfoty. 



Transactions at the Winter Meeting held at Bristol, 
On Tuesday, April 17th, 1883. 



The Winter Meeting of the Society was held at Bristol on this day. The 
members assembled at the Council House at noon. Among those present 
were Sir John Maclean, The Rev. J. W. Caldicott, D.D., Dr. Burder, 
The Revds. T. W. Blathwayt, F. J. Poynton, H. L. Thompson, and A. G. 
How ; Major Castle ; Messrs. D. T. Burges (Town Clerk), W. Adlam, 
*J. F. Nicholls, P. Hallett, W. K. Wait, J. Reynolds, G. E. Francis, 

C. P. Prichett, J. E. Jefferies, J. Derham, S. Derham, J. Uren, C. H. 
Low, S. H. Swayne, J. F. Lane. W. Lewis, Harold Lewis, J. Latimer, 

D. F. Burgess, T. Kerslake, W. George, J. Wills, P. Hudden, G. H. D. 
Chilton, Sherwood Smith, J. Taylor, J. Baker, J. M. Scott, J. Bramble, 
J. Fawn, &c. 

In the absence of the President (Edward Rhys Wingfield, Esq.) and 
the President of the Council, who, though said to have arrived in the city, 
had not reached the meeting, Sir John Maclean, a Vice-President of the 
Society, was requested to lead the members to the presence of the Mayor 
(Mr. J. D. Weston), who received them in the Council Chamber. The 
Mayor, addressing the members, said, that, on behalf of the Council, he had 
great pleasure in welcoming them to the City of Bristol, the birth place of 
the Society. He had caused, he said, to be placed on the table, for the 
inspection of the members, many articles of great antiquity and interest, 
connected with the history of the city, and had requested his friend, Mr. 
Nicholls, to direct their attention to the several objects. 

Sir John Maclean, addressing the Mayor, said that he regretted the 
President of the Society and President of the Council were not present, 
but in their absence he begged, in the name of the Society, to cordially 
thank his Worship for the very kind reception they had received. He had 
much pleasure in acknowledging, on behalf of the Society, the uniform 
kindness, cordiality, and hospitality with which the Society had always 
been welcomed to this ancient city by the Mayor and Corporation. 

The Rev. Dr. Caldicott said he been requested by the President to 
express his regret that he was unable to be present at the meeting to-day, 
having a particular engagement in London. He said he felt sure that the 
whole of the members would feel with him the deepest regret for the great 
Vol. VII., part 2, q 



214 



Transactions at Bristol. 



calamity which had befallen Sir Philip Miles in the very sad and unex- 
pected death of his daughter within the last few days. Sir Philip had very 
kindly given the Society permission to visit Leigh Court and inspect his fine 
Gallery of Pictures, but in consequence of this grevious family affliction, it 
became impossible to carry out this arrangement. The Local Committee 
hearing of this on Saturday, had held a meeting, and, in the emergency, had 
agreed to change the excursion to Leigh Court, as set out in the programme, 
for one to Westbury-on-Trym. Mr. J. Taylor had kindly consented to read 
a paper there on The Connection of the Church with the great Benedictine Order. 
The Committee was very sorry for the necessity of this change in the pro- 
gramme for the day, but he considered the course taken was the best which, 
in the circumstances, could be adopted. 

Sir William Guise, who during the proceedings had entered the room, 
said that he very fully participated in the feeling of regret which had been 
expressed for the loss sustained by Sir Philip Miles, and proposed that the 
Hon. Secretaries should be requested to convey to Sir Philip an expression 
of the great sorrow with which the meeting had heard of his bereavement 
and their warm sympathy with him and his family in their affliction. 

At the request of the Mayor, Mr. Nicholls then proceeded to give a 
description of the Municipal Muniments and Regalia displayed upon the 
table for the gratification of the members of the Society. Many of the 
members present had doubtless the privilege of inspecting these records 
and other treasures on the visit of the Society four years ago, which visit is 
very briefly described in Vol. III. of the Transactions of the Society, whilst 
many others, probably, were not present on that occasion. All, however, 
will be glad to possess Mr. Nicholls' detailed description of the several 
valuable and interesting objects exhibited. 

The oldest book in the City Archives, Mr. Nicholls said, is perhaps— 
/. The Little Red Boole. — The paper water-mark, he said, shows its date 
to be not later than a.d. 1344. Portions of it are written in Latin, others in 
Norman-French, others in English. Its contents are — 

The Ordinances for the Government of the Town. 
Oaths of the Electors to the Council. 
Rentals of the Town. 
Lists of the Mayors. 

Of the 48 Councillors who are called ' Electors.' 
Redcliff Charters. 
Laws of the Merchants. 
Ordinances of the Crafts. 

" Roules de Outeron " (The earlist Laws for Shipping). 
Estatutz de la Myer. 

Towns within the jurisdiction of the Admiralty of Bristol. 
Copies of Bristol Charters from 1177. 
Composition of Chantries. 
Charter Rights in other Towns. 
Oaths of Officers. 

The Leege taken between Englonde & Castyle, 1467. 
Proclamations to be made periodically in Bristol. 
The latest entry bears date 1574. 



The Mayor's Calendar. 



215 



The pages of this volume cover altogether about 250 years of the city's 
current history — independently of 150 years of its earlier charter history — 
altogether 400 years. 

II. The Great Orphan Booh <£■ Booh of Wills. — This is probably as old, 
or nearly so, as the Little Bed Booh. It begins on leaf 2 (the first is missing), 
with a will of the date 8th May, 6th Rich. II. ^1382). Abstracts of these 
wills have been very kindly made for this Society by that accomplished 
antiquary, the Rev. T. P. Wadley, M.A., and are now being printed by the 
Society, and issued with the Transactions. 

There are also two Begister Boohs of Wills : one dates from 1594 to 
1633, the other from 1633 to 1674. 

III. The Great Bed Booh. — This was begun probably about 1422, 
although some of its records bear date from about 1177. Its contents are 
chiefly entries relating to the reigns of Henry II. and Edward IV., and 
consist of statements of sums payable as Landgable for tenements in the 
town. 

Rental of the Farm of the Town. 

Agreements, Charters, Acquittances. 

Acts of Council. 

Ordinances of Crafts. 

Recognizances for Orphans. 

Duties and Privileges of the Water Bailiff. 

Some interesting Historical Notices. 

IV. Tlie White Booh of Becords, 1496 to 1698, begins with the quarrel 
between the Abbot of St. Augustine and the Corporation. It is only filled 
to the extent of one-eighth of its pages. 

V. The Mayor's Calendar. — This volume is well known, having been 
edited for the Camden Society, in 1872, by Miss Lucy Toulmin Smith. It was 
begun about 1479 by Robert Ricart, who was for the next 27 or 29 years the 
Town Clerk, previously he had been for 12 years Vestry Clerk of All Saints. 
He was a Lay Kalendar. This book contains 332 leaves ; each quire of 
paper was enclosed in a leaf of vellum before binding. These vellum leaves 
are illuminated, many of them with ideal sketches of the early Kings, also 
of the first Sheriff, with his headsman and mace bearer ; the induction of the 
Mayor. In this picture the perspective is reversed, the most distant figures 
being the largest. These principal figures are the two central, the outgoing 
Mayor, who is handing the Bible to the new Mayor, behind whom, is the 
Recorder and Chaplain. Behind the out-going Mayor stand three other 
Aldermen — those who have passed the chair. Below these, distinguished in 
size, stand the Chamberlain with his mace, the Sword Bearer with sword 
and cap of maintenance, whilst the Town Clerk is in the act of administering 
the oath. The Mayors, Serjeants (8 in number) are grouped at the left hand 
and around the frout of the table. On the right are more Aldermen. Out- 
side the bar are the Commonalty. On the table are depicted the Treasurer's 
money bag, an inkstand and penholder, a roll of parchment, and the case for 
the bible, The window bears 3 coats of arms : the Royal arms in the centre, 
Bristol on the right, and St. George's Cross — it was St. George's Hall — on 



216 



Transactions at Bristol. 



the left facing us. On a paper page of this interesting book there is what 
purports to be a pen and ink sketch of the town. The book is divided into 
six parts. 

The two first are English history, which must be taken cum grano salis. It 
was as Bicart understood it. 

The 3rd begins with the 1st Mayor and the Coronation of Henry III., a.d. 
1216, before which, the legal title of the chief officer was the Prepositor. 
This list of Mayors is continued to the present day, being a record of 
the Chief Magistrates of Bristol for 667 years. In this part there are 
some interesting historical notices. 

The 4th part contains r lies for the guidance of the officers ; the Mode of 
Electing the Mayor ; the Government of the Town ; Keeping of the 
Peace ; Keeping of the Popular Festivals ; and Tlays : How to receive 
St. Katherine's Players in November ; How to receive the Boy Bishop 
in December ; also to keep Advent Sermons, &c, &c. 

The 5th part contains the Charter which made Bristol a County, 47th Edw. 
III. ; and also a Table of Contents of the charter of John the Earl 
of Mortaigne, 1184, when he was Lord of Bristol. 

The 6th part is mainly a Copy of the Privileges in use in London, which, by 
various charters, had been granted to Bristol likewise. 

The Earliest charter granted to Bristol, of which we have any record, 
was in 1162, by Henry II. The most remarkable is that of John Lord of 
Bristol, granted during his father's life— about 1184 — in which no reference 
whatever is made to the King, although this was 15 years before John came 
to the throne. It is an unique specimen of a feudal Lord's concessions to, 
and confirmation of, privileges granted to his burgesses. 

The last Charter is that of 9th Anne, a.d. 1710. The number altogether 
ninety ; those in possession of the city, including Charters, Grants, &c, are 
45, 33 of these have been printed by Seyer. 

The Seals. 

There are four ancient Common Seals of the Town of Bristol, ranging 
from the time of Henry III. to that of Henry V., besides the Seals of the 
Staple, the Treasurer, and the Chamberlain. We shall abstain, however, at 
present from making any remarks upon these interesting objects, in the hope 
that, at some early date, Mr. Nicholls or some other competent gentleman 
will treat more fully of them than we could do on this occasion. 

The Eegalia. 

There are four State Swords, which were thus described by Mr. 
Niciiolls : — 

First, The Pearl Sword, of the date of 1431. It is thus inscribed on 
the handle ; beneath the arms of the Town of Bristol : — 

" John Willis of London Grocer and Mayor 
To Bristol gave this svvorde faire." 

Beneath, are the arms of the donor, with the motto : " Grace and Mercy." 
The scabbard was formerly covered with pearls, 

i 



Municipal Regalia. 



217 



Second, The Lent Sword, so named because borne before the judges at 
the Lent Assize. It is a two-edged blade 3 ft. 3f ins. in length, 2 ins. in 
width, tapering to a point; and has a cross hilt engraven with a honey- 
suckle on each side, silver gilt ; the handle is 9 ins. long, ending in a large 
round pommel of 9 ins. circumference, carrying the St. George's Cross, with 
a date, 1483 (1st Richard III.), and a shield of arms of the same monarch. 
The letter M within a T under a crown appears in a scroll of foliage, and 
around the pommel, in Roman Capitals, is inscribed : 

" THIS SWOKDE WE DID REPAIER 

THOMAS ALDWORTH BEING MAIOR." 

The scabbard, of black velvet, is richly decorated with symbols in silver 
gilt — stars preponderate, but on each side is a sun. The point itself ends 
in a crown of fleur-de-lis and crosses pattee, surmounted by depressed 
arches ; over all, the orb and cross. Justice with sword and scales, Wisdom 
with a serpent ; Temperance, Fortitude, the Garter and Motto, with the 
arms of Richard III., the arms of the City of Bristol, St. George slaying the 
dragon, and an eagle on a tree stump, surrounded by rose bushes in bloom, 
are the principal mountings^ which are linked together by the fetter-locks of 
the House of York. The first four verses of Romans xiii., " Let every soul 
be subject to the high powers," &c, are inscribed on one of the sides, with 
date "ano 1594, ano. el. reg. 36. francis knight, maior," all being in 
Roman capitals. 

This third sword is also straight and two-edged ; the blade measures 
3 ft. 2^ ins. ; the handle is gilt, 8^ ins. in length, and is covered with gilt 
wire ; the cross hilt is of Gothic pattern, and is 14 ins. across ; the oval 
pommel has in a sunken panel the arms of the city, and on the reverse are 
two shields bearing, one, the Cross of St. George, the other, France and 
England quarterly. The ornaments of the black velvet scabbard are of silver 
gilt, within Gothic scrolls and tracery. They consist of the figure of a King 
in his robes under an Italian canopy, holding the sceptre and orb ; the royal 
arms of France and England quarterly, the dexter supporter being a lion, the 
sinister a dragon ; a large five-leaved rose seeded ; the letter T in a Gothic 
scroll, and a death's head with crossbones, and the inscription from Heb. ix. , 
27, in Roman capitals, "memento mori statutum est omnibus semel 
moki," and on the reverse, " john knight, esq., maior anno dom. 1670." 
There are also remains of the velvet bands, fetter-locks, and suns of the 
House of York plainly to be traced. 

The fourth, and last, of these handsome swords is also the largest ; the 
blade is 3 ft. 5 ins. in length and 4 ins. in width, slightly tapering — it is of 
blued steel with gilt pattern ; the hilt is 17 ins. long ; the handle, including 
the pommel, is 15 ins. long, silver gilt, of Louis Quatorze style, elegant and 
massive in its scroll-work and its cabled spiral foldings, which merge into 
and form the pommel. The scabbard is of rich crimson velvet ; it is edged 
with gimp lace, surmounted by an ermine cap, and over this an imperial 
crown. 

The silver gilt mountings are the royal arms as described on No. 3 sword ; 
also those of George II., with the inscription in Roman capitals, "anno 
regni georgii secundi vicesimo quinto, annoque salutis 1752." It bears 



218 



Transactions at Bristol. 



also the figures of Religion, Faith, Peace, and Commerce. This sword was 
purchased by the corporation in a.d. 1753. The silver weighs 201 oz. 13 
dwts.; its cost was £188 16s. 3d. 

The Maces. 

In 1722 eight maces of silver were purchased by the corporation for the 
use of the officers in civic processions ; these are in the usual 17th century 
style of art, and weigh 208 oz. 

The insignia of the City Exchange Keeper and the City Bellman are of 
wood, silver mounted, the weight of the metal being about 48 oz. : date 
1715. There are also two silver trumpets of the same date, weighing 54 oz. 
12 dwts. The following curious entry relating to these is found in the 
Council book for 1715 : — " Several gentlemen of this city in the time of our 
late danger having, by the consent of the Earle of Barkeley, our Lord 
Lievetenant, formed themselves into two troops of horse, a thing both for the 
honour and security of the city ; itt is ordered for their encouragement 
that two banners, two trumpets, and two standards, and two new coats for 
the two trumpeters belonging to the troops, be provided att the city charges, 
and that the said trumpeters be added to the city musick with salarys, all 
which is referred to the care and management of the mayor, the aldermen, 
and sherrivs. 

Henry Walter, Mayor, xi January 1715." 

The gold chain of office worn by the Mayor is elaborate in ornament and 
peculiarly handsome ; it weighs 26 oz. 4 dwts , and was purchased by the 
corporation in 1828, at a cost of £285. 

The small mace borne by the City Treasurer, as the insignia of his office, 
is of 17th century work, and is copper gilt ; it is about 18 ins. in length, 
finishing in an imperial crown of four arches, surmounted by an orb and 
cross pattee ; the head has in 4-shield raised the city purse and the city 
arms, both repeated ; between these, four angels, with extended wings, bears 
up a collar and the crown. 

In conclusion, Mr. Nicholls proposed that the thanks of the Society 
be given to the Right Worshipful the Mayor, to the City Treasurer (J. 
T. Lane, Esq.) and the Town Clerk (D. T. Burges, Esq.) to whose kindness 
and courtesy the Society is so greatly indebted for an inspection of these 
most interesting memorials of the ancient and long continued greatness of 
the City of Bristol. This was cordially accorded, as was also a vote of 
thanks to Mr. Nicholls for his interesting address. 

The Mayor's Chapel. 
The members of the Society then proceeded to the Chapel of St. Mark's 
Hospital, now known as the Mayor's chapel, upon which a Paper was read 
by Mr. W. E. Jones. 

Referring to the Monograph on the Hospital of St. Mark, by Mr. J. . 
Taylor, printed in Vol. III. of the Transactions of the Society, Mr. Jones 
remarked that there was not much more to be said on its history, and what 
he had to say would assume the form of the criticism of an architect rather 
than the researches of an antiquary. Mr. Taylor had given a fairly com- 
plete and accurate history of the founders ; that was of those who found the 

i 



The Mayor's Chapel. 



219 



money and granted the land ; but of the actual builders they had no records. 
Of the works of the greatest of our builders or master workmen of the middle 
ages there was generally but scanty record. An architect's first thoughts 
when examining the hallowed remains of the past were the faithful hearts 
and cunning hands of those workers. His examination must be severe and 
critical, not blind and indiscriminate admiration of everything that was old, 
be it beautiful or otherwise ; and, whilst detecting their weaknesses and 
deficiencies — and they had many — he must endeavour to absorb the beauties 
of their design, and fathom the intricacies of their wonderful workman- 
ship ; and by loving admiration of their art try to catch a spark of 
their fire and enthusiasm, to kindle the lamp of beauty and of truth 
in his own heart. In our great cathedrals and large churches there was 
abundant evidence of the work of a master mind, of one who could grasp 
the idea, and, with his trained band of workmen, generally direct and 
supervise, leaving the details of the work to the individual workman em- 
ployed upon that particular portion. Hence the great charm of the work, 
which, as a whole, was not only a faithful record of the artistic thought 
and workmanship of the time, but afforded evidence of the enthusiasm 
of the individual workman — the deshe to do his best to excel in his art 
or craft, not for the great pay he expected to get, but for the love of his 
work and to the honour and glory of his God. It was curious to note the 
influence of the minds of these men upon their work. In one part they had 
the work of the man of sober habit and gloomy imagination, who portrayed 
the legends of the earlier Fathers of the Church in a more or less crude 
fashion ; then the workman with the vein of humour, who transferred to 
stone the face of some brother not blessed with a comely countenance, or 
some grotesque conception of his own mind. Some of the carvings in this 
chapel, he remarked, were very beautiful, especially on the cornice under 
the parapet of the south aisle. There was no doubt in his mind that in the 
majority of cases the work of building those religious houses was left to the 
brothers themselves, without any help, except perhaps labourers for quarry- 
ing the stone, &c. Most of the Order of Masons were skilled in some special 
branch of work connected with the art of building. Some of them had 
travelled and worked in many lands, and brought with them the accumulated 
experience of their craft. That might, perhaps, account for the apparent 
inconsistencies in some buildings — the absence of the master mind, a guiding 
hand, of which they had so many evidences, of the lack of forethought on 
the part of the designers, and yet such ingenuity displayed in surmounting 
these difficulties. For instance, they would set one string-course or horizon- 
tal moulding that should be continuous at one level, at one height in the 
transept, and another in the nave ; and when they met at the corner they 
saw their mistake, and many were the beautiful and artistic devices in car- 
vings, scrolls, or other work executed to remedy the error. The workers in 
this priory were brothers of the Order of the St. Dominic. Their habit was 
white not black, as mentioned by Mr. Taylok. Their first dress was a white 
tunic, similar to the Augustinian Canons regular, but in 1218 the white wool- 
len scapular, or habit, an ample garment reaching from the neck to the 
ground, was adopted, and when out of doors they wore the black cappas, a 
small cape reaching just over the shoulder with hood attached, signifying their 
detachment from the world. It was from this black cappa they obtained 



220 



Transactions at Bristol. 



the name of " Black Friars " — the most simple and impressive costume of 
all the Orders. The Order was very popular, and came to England early in 
the 13th century. They were not long in finding a home at Bristol, for 
Maurice de Gaunt, the founder, died in 1230, and was buried in this chapel. 
Of the hospital itself, what had they left ? The chapel only — the building 
in which they then were assembled — a building so mutilated and defaced, 
from the 15th century downwards, that without the closest examination it 
was impossible to obtain any idea of its original plan or general arrangement. 
Mr. Jones then proceeded to describe, with much minuteness, the various 
architectural features of the building, and pointed out evidences of mistakes 
made by the early workers. He directed particular attention to the interest- 
ing character of the monuments in the Gaunt's chapel and to the unparalleled 
beauties of the Poyntz chapel. Several of the tombs were excellent speci- 
mens of Italian Renaissance work, wrought in choice marbles, and although 
not in keeping with their surroundings, taken by themselves they were 
works of art and of great merit. The glass in the windows of the nave was 
a curious mixture of subjects and fragments in various styles in fashion 
during the 16th century, and brought from Fonthill. He need hardly say 
there was, in an art point of view, little or nothing to admire in the whole 
collection. A few fragments here and there exhibited good drawing and 
harmonious colouring, and the finely-drawn and delicately-tinted figure sub- 
jects, of Flemish workmanship, in the two chapels, were worth examination. 
Of the modern abominations around them he had nothing to say, except in 
a spirit of disgust and contempt. They were hardly up to the level of 
theatrical properties. After a careful and diligent comparison of the remains 
in that chapel of the work of what they were pleased to call the ' ' dark 
ages " with late renovations, what must be the thoughts of any intelligent 
and honest man ? Why that it was scarcely worthy of the ancient city of 
Bristol — the city of churches, famous at one time for its works of art and of 
faith — that the spiritual home of the Mayor and Corporation should be 
decorated wiih such jimcrackery, such glaring ugliness and hypocrisy. 
After remarking that the modern choir stalls were largely composed of 
plaster and putty, he said the man who painted those plaster and deal 
abominations must have had a very poor idea of the intelligence of the 
Mayor and Corporation of Bristol if he thought that they would imagine 
that those stalls and canopies were wood, or that the curious attempt to 
imitate an old rood screen and loft was of stone — an imposition he was sorry 
to see perpetuated in our local history. Let them clear such rubbish as that 
away, and if they could not afford to build up a work of art and of beauty, 
at least let them be honest and truthful in their work, and when they had 
learnt all those old men of the dark ages could teach them, then they 
might begin to talk of "our light, our truth, and our honesty." 

After thanking Mr. Jones for his interesting and instructive Paper, 
the company adjourned for lunch at the Royal Hotel, College Green, after 
which, two parties were formed : one making an excursion to Westbury-on- 
Trym, under the guidance of Mr. John Taylor, and the other visiting 
certain objects of interest within the city, conducted by Mr. J. F. Nicholls. 

At Westbury Church, Mr, Taylor read a paper with a view to eetab* 
JkU that the Benedictine rule, which by the 10th century had died out in 



The Benedictine Rule. 



221 



England, again began its systematised course at Westbury Monastery, a 
colony of monks from Fleury having been there introduced by Oswald, the 
successor to Dunstan in the see of Worcester. He mentioned that when in 
a.d. 680, the province of Wiccia was allotted to Worcester by iEthered 
King of Mercia, it embraced not only nearly the whole of Worcestershire 
and part of Warwickshire, but all Gloucestershire on the east side of the 
Severn, including Bristol, Clifton, Westbury-oivTrym, Henbury, and Aust. 
Westbury had been the site of a religious house as early as a.d. 794, a char- 
ter being yet in existence (Hadden & Stubbs' Concilia, III., 483) by which 
Offa King of the Mercians, grants land at that place for building a monastery. 
Mr. Taylor combated the assertion of Professor Willis, and confirmed by Mr. 
E. A. Freeman, that Dunstan was " the first abbot of the first Benedictine 
monastery in England," meaning Glastonbury. It appears by a reference to 
the Chronicle of Abingdon (Vol. II., p. 258 Rolls) that when, in 955, JEthel- 
wold, who was Dunstan's friend at Glastonbury, left that house in order to 
reconstitute the monastery at Abingdon, he was accompanied by clerks (or 
seculars) from Glastonbury (quidem clerici de Glastonia ), which shows that 
the secular clergy then held that place either from not having been supplan- 
ted by Dunstan, or through being replaced by King Edwy, who favoured 
the seculars. This statement is made by a monastic scribe, who could not 
mistake clerks for monks, and who writing the Life of yEthelwold within 
(at most) 20 years from that canonised prelate's decease, lived in a time 
when the distinction between these two ecclesiastical classes was well under- 
stood. The same biographer, moreover, affirms that when iEthelwold had 
re-contructed the monastery of St. Mary, at Abingdon, a.d, 957, he sent 
Osgar, one of the brethren, to Fleury in order to learn the Benedictine rule 
and bring it home. Now had that rule been already practised at Glaston- 
bury, whence he had lately come, there would have been no need to introduce 
it afresh from the continent. Yet Mr. Freeman affirms that "no one 
ever tried at Glastonbury as was tried at Winchester, at Coventry, and at 
Malmesbury to displace the monks in favour of secular priest," whereas we 
have seen by the Chronicle of Abingdon that monks, or secular priests, were 
at Glastonbury in the time of Dunstan himself. But whatever efforts there 
had been in the days of Edmund and Edred to drive out the secular clergy 
from the religious houses, the success was desultory and partial until the 
reign of Edgar. The practical reformers of monasticism were Oswald Bishop 
of Worcester, and afterwards Archbishop of York, together with iEthelwold 
Bishop of Winchester. It was Oswald, we are told ( Vita Sancti Oswaldi 
auctore anonymo in "Historians of the Church of York," Vol. I., p. 426 
Rolls) who " first made known to King Edgar the fame of that worthy soldier 
of Christ, Saint Benedict," and it was ^Ethelwold, who had been appointed 
to Winchester in a.d. 963, who was the King's chief adviser in ejecting the 
seculars from the monasteries. The reforms of ^Ethelwold were ineffectual 
till 964, when Edgar, who had been as indecisive as Dunstan, for the first 
four years of his reign, gave royal sanction to enforce the changes that 
revolutionised the religious communities. But it was Oswald, whose signature 
as bishop first occurs in 961, who, without waiting for legislative enactment, 
began his uncompromising movement against the seculars by planting in 
the sequestered valley of Westbury a colony of twelve monks from Fleury, 
in the cloistral rades of which place six years of his own life had been passed. 



222 



Transactions at Bristol. 



Oswald's chief friend at Fleury had been Germanus, whom he choose to be 
the head of the new community to instruct in the Benedictine Rule, and he 
appointed Ednoth, afterwards Bishop of Dorchester, to be prepositor of the 
household. So much favour did Westbury find in the eyes of the King that 
he ordered more than forty monasteries to be constituted after the same 
model. 1 

About the end of the 13th century the house here was changed into a 
College of Dean and Canons. Bishop Carpenter (who ordained that himself 
and each successor should be styled " Bishop of Worester and Westbury ") 
rebuilt and enlarged the fabric and surrounded it with a turreted wall in 
the manner of a castle ; a square embattled tower and some other remains 
of which are still to be seen. He died in 1476 at Worcester, but was buried 
at Westbury, on the south side of the high altar, where his tomb (empty) 
remains. 

Church historians have invariably been at as much loss to assign the 
topographical situation of Westbury as if it had been for ages blotted out of 
the map of England. Archdeacon Churton has placed it between Evesham 
and Pershore, while Messrs. Hadden & Stubbs make no attempt to define 
its position, nor does the Rev. James Dixon, in his edition of the Vita S. 
OsivaML Of the identity of the place with Westbury-on-Trym there is a 
concurrence of evidence to establish. Its early mention in connection with 
Stoke and Henbury close by (at which latter place the bishops of Wor- 
cester had a palace) and its being described in the charter of OfFa as 
Westburg prope flumen qui dicitur Aven, and no other place being opposed 
to its claim are alone sufficient to verify the fact in question. Moreover, 
Sir Robert Atkyns and other Gloucestershire historians in their sketch of 
Westbury-on-Trym, describe the monastery here as being existent from 
Saxon times. 

The second party first proceeded to the 

Church of All Saints. 
On visiting this church Mr. Nicholls, remarking upon its great an- 
tiquity, observed that William Wyrcester had said it was founded before 
the conquest ; this was not improbable, but no reliable mention of it had 
been found before 1216. The earliest existing portion of the building, he said, 
without doubt, was the west end, to which he directed attention, and 
which he ascribed to the 11th or 12th Century at the latest. There 
are six circular pillars with cushioned capitals supporting semi-circular 
arches. On these stood a low tower of freestone, which was repaired in 
1443. This is shewn in Millerd's large map of the city. It was taken down 
in 1713, and three years later the building of the present tower was com- 
menced and executed at a cost of £589 10s. 3d., of which sum £250 was 
contributed by Edward Colston. 

Mr. Nicholls next called attention to the aisles, which are divided 
from the nave by arcades of pointed arches resting on clustered columns of 
the Perpendicular period, and the windows conform to the same style. The 
south aisle, he said, was rebuilt in 1431, and the north aisle just thirty 
years later, but this was considerably altered in 1782 when the lean-to 

1 Cottonian MS., Nero E. I., fol. 76. 

t 



Church of All Saints. 



223 



Tolsey, which abutted on the church, was removed. An interesting engrav- 
ing of the church, previous to the last mentioned date, is given in Bristol : 
Past and Present, Vol. II., p. 92. Mr. Nicholls mentioned that Sir 
Thomas Marshall, vicar in 1422, built, at his own expense, on the north- 
west a vicarage-house, which stands partly on the churchyard and partly on 
the church itself, resting on the Norman columns before alluded to. He 
also remarked that in 1333 the house of the Gild of Kalendars was built on 
the north side of the church, upon a site granted by John (Snow ?) Abbot of 
St. Augustine's, of Bristol. Of this fraternity, its character and constitution, 
he gave a most interesting account, remarking that it was the founder of the 
first Free Library in England, adding that Bristol has also the credit of 
founding the first Free Library of Printed Books, which was established as 
early as 1613. 

The Kalendars' Library, Mr. Nicholls said, contained many MSS. 
of great beauty and value, but it was unfortunately destroyed by fire in 
1466. Some few of the books were, however, preserved, and are now in the 
possession of the Churchwardens of All Saints, and, he added, that some of 
the books in the City Library bear such marks of the action of fire and 
water that he is led to believe that they formed part of the salvage. Among 
these he mentioned : 

Biblia sacra Latina, vellum, fol. circa, 1225. Exquisite in its caligraphy. 

Opus Philologicum, fol. circa 1250. 

Opus Theologicum, fol. circa 1280. 

Conciones Quadragesimales, circa 1360. 

Lydgate's Book of Troy (English), circa 1420. 

Missale Romanum, circa 1430. 

Isidorus de Summa Bono, &c, circa 1450. 

Opus Medicum, a copy from (Chirurgia Guidonis de Cauliaco, 1363) on 
paper, 1423. 

We should have wished to have quoted Mr. Nicholls' interesting paper 
at greater length, especially that portion which relates to the Gild of 
Kalendars, did the space at our disposal admit, but it is the less necessary 
as the subject is fully treated by Mr. J. Taylor in that popular work, 
Bristol : Past and Present, Vol. II, 

Mr. Nicholls then conducted the party to 

St. Peter's Hospital, 

which is said to have been erected in the latter part of the 12th century, 
but, he observed, there is nothing left of that early date unless it be the 
foundation of the eastern portion of the building. There is no record of 
its having been in its inception either a Charitable or Ecclesiastical edifice, 
its present title only dating from the close of the 17th century. Whether 
the original building was erected by one of the Norton family as a private 
residence is also uncertain, but in 1400, Mr. Nicholls said, the house was 
rebuilt by one John Norton. Its fine old timber roof remains, but is hidden 
by the ceiling of the more modern rooms, that, in the 15th century, were 
built up within the Hall of the Merchant, which for loftiness, size and 
beauty of its roof, must have been one of the finest in the city. In 1435 the 



224 



Transactions at Bristol. 



house was granted by Thomas Norton to his two sons Thomas and Walter, by 
whom it was divided into two tenements. From that date it passed through 
several families. In 1607 it was the property of Robert Aldworth, of Bristol, 
merchant, by purchase, who rebuilt the greater portion of the house in the 
style of the period, and it contains some fine examples of Jacobean work. 
In 1666, Mr. Nicholls said, it was being used as a sugar refinery, and it is 
supposed that this was the place in Bristol visited by Evelyn, who, in 1654, 
wrote, "Here I first saw the method of refining sugar and casting it into 
loaves." In 1695 a mint was set up here, and in 1698 the property was sold 
to the Corporation of the Poor, and it is now used by the Board of Guar- 
dians of the Poor of the City. 

St. James' Church. 
The next place visited was St. James' Church, Mr. Nicholls still acting 
as cicerone. This was originally the Church of the Benedictine Priory, foun- 
ded by Robert Earl of Gloucester, who died in 1147, as a cell to the Abbey 
of Tewkesbury. Mr. Nicholls pointed out that the only portions of the 
Norman structure now remaining are the arcades of the north and south 
aisles, which now consist of five bays. There were, he said, originally seven. 
The arches are semi-circular, with plain soffits surmounted by hoods with 
lozenge mouldings, and supported by massive piers, circular in plan, having 
four small semi-circular ones attached, with cushion capitals. Between the 
arcade a,nd clere-story windows is a string-course with lozenge and billet 
enrichments. At the west end is a fine rose-window ornamented with a 
deep moulding of cats' head masques, as Mr. Nicholls thought rather than 
zig-zag, as had been supposed, below which is an arcade of intersecting 
arches, three of which are pierced for windows. The doorway is a modern 
restoration and the wall has been underpinned. The arcade of arches is 
continued on the south side of the clerestory, the windows having cushioned 
capitals on columns 2 ft. 6 ins. in height, whilst the arches of the windows 
are alternately semi-circular and pointed — the others are all eliptical. On 
the north side the arcade is not continued, but nook shafts are placed between 
the windows. These beautiful portions of the structure are now hidden, but, 
originally, when the lean-to roofs of the aisles reached only to the string below 
the windows, the effect must have been very good. He remarked that the 
chancel was removed in 1730 and had never been rebuilt; and that the tower 
is an addition built between 1374 and 1380 at the joint expense of the prior 
and the parishioners, and that the bells were provided under the same con- 
dition. Mr. Nicholls gave at some length the history of the building, which, 
in 1543, was granted to Henry Brayne, merchant tailor, of London. 

The Mayor's Banquet. 

In the evening the Mayor entertained the Society, and many of his 
Worship's private friends, at a sumptuous Banquet, at the Mansion House. 
The tables were elegantly decorated with flowers and fruit, enriched with a 
fine display of old city plate, and sxipplied with all the delicacies of the season 
and choice wines. Nearly 100 ladies and gentlemen partook of the hospitality 
of the Mayor and Mayoress, among whom were Sir Wm. Guise, Sir John 
Maclean, Mr. W. K. Wait, Dr. and Mrs. Caldicott, Mr. and Mrs. J. 
Reynolds, Dr. and Mrs. Beddoe, Mr. and Mrs. Hallett, Miss Elliott, 
Mr. and Mrs. Fryer, Mr. J. F. Nicholls, Mr. S. H. and Miss Swayne, 
Mr. and Mrs. J. Taylor, Mr. W. E. Jones, and Mr. Yate Stevens. 



i 



The Mayor's Banquet. 



225 



As soon as the ladies had retired the Mayor gave the toast of the 
"Queen," which having been drunk, he gave, as the toast of the evening, 
" The Prosperity of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society," 
coupling with it the name of Sir Wm. Guise, the President of the Council. 

Sir William Guise, in suitable terms, returned thanks, enlarging upon 
the encouragement the Society had always received from the Corporation 
of Bristol, and the hospitable welcome it had ever met with on its visits to 
the city, of its reception by successive Mayors, on no occasion more cordial 
than the present, and concluded by proposing the healths of the present 
Mayor and Mayoress. 

The Mayor, in acknowledging the toast, proposed the health of the Local 
Committee, thanking the members for the trouble they had taken in organ- 
izing the present meeting, coupling with the toast the names of Dr. Caldicott 
and Mr. J. Reynolds. Both these gentlemen returned thanks, and in doing 
so, expressed their regret that the names of the Rev. William Bazeley, one 
of the present General Secretaries, and Mr. P. Hallett, late General 
Secretary, to whom the Society owed so much, especially in its original 
formation, had not been associated with the toast. The healths of those 
gentlemen were then proposed by Dr. Caldicott, and most cordially drunk 
by the company. 

Mr. W. K. Wait then proposed the health of Sir John Maclean, as 
Editor of the Transactions of the Society, speaking in very flattering terms 
of the very careful manner in which that work was performed. Sir John, 
in a few words, thanked the members for the compliment paid him, and said 
it was a great gratification to him to feel that the members, who were so well 
qualified to form a judgment upon the subject, were satisfied with the way 
in which the work was done. He said it had always been a maxim with 
him that whatever was worth doing at all was worth doing in the best 
manner possible, that he had always acted upon this principle and hoped to 
continue to do so to the best of his ability, though he was quite conscious he 
eould not reach the standard he desired to attain to. 



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Manor and Advowson or Staunton 



227 



HISTORY OF THE MANOR AND ADVOWSON OF 

STAUNTON, IN THE FOREST OF DEAN. 

By SIR JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., &c. 

The ancient British name of this Parish is unfortunately lost, as 
are almost all other British place names within the Forest district, 
but that a place so prominent had a name during the period of 
the British occupation cannot be doubted. Its present name 
would seem to have arisen from the rocky character of the 
geological formation upon which it rests. Stane-ton, Stonetown, 
Stanton, Staunton. This may have been derived directly from 
the remarkable rock known far and wide as the " Buckstone," 
Bwlch Stone, Bwbach Stone — for an account of which, see ante 
(Vol. VI., 359), or from the number of great conglomerate boul- 
ders which crop out on Staunton Mynde, and which probably in 
ancient times were more abundant than they are at present. 

Roman coins and other remains have been found at Staunton, 
and the Roman road from Gloucester to Monmouth passed through 
the place. Within 100 yards on the south-west of the church is 
a small meadow known as the Castle field. It is of quadrilateral 
form, and on the south-west side is a deep ditch. No remains of 
stone walls have been found. The ditch is spoken of as an ancient 
ditch, unum vetus fossatum, as early as the reign of Edward III. 
(1342). It is not unlikely that it was a "Roman Speculum," a 
small outpost used for reconnoitering the country and signalling. 
Within a mile on the south-west is a remarkable monolith called 
the " Longstone," by the side of the Roman road, which has been 
supposed to be a Roman centurial mark, (see ante Vol. VI., p. 
357). 

With these conjectural remarks on the history of the place we 
proceed to historical times, 



228 



Transactions at Bristol. 



It appears from the Domesday Survey, that ' in the time of 
King Edward the Confessor, the Manor of Stantone was held by 
one Toni, and that at the date of the Survey it was parcel of the 
lands of Turstin fitz Rolf. There were there five hides. In 
demesne were two carucates and eight villans, and six bordars, 
with ten ploughs. There were there four bondmen, and two 
mills of the value of 35 shillings, and ten acres of meadow. 
Wood one league long and half a league wide. It was worth in 
the time of King Edward, and then, 100 shillings. Of this land 
Toni held two hides in alms of the King. Turstin held also six 
other manors in Gloucestershire, two of them in Omenie (Ampney), 
Achelie (Oakeley) in Cirencester, Hildeslie, in Grimboldeston, 
Tortworth and Fridorne, and manors in various other counties. 

He had also possessions of considerable extent in Wales, 
situate between the TJsk and the Wye, and six carucates beyond 
the Usk, with a mill and the moiety of a fishery. 

" Unless," Mr. Ellis says, " there was another Thurston living 
at this date also son of a Rolf, this must be Toustan fitz Rou le 
Blanc, who was chosen at the last moment on the field of battle 
of Senlac to bear the gonfanon of the Duke, after the Standard- 
bearer, Ralph de Conches, had excused himself that he might fight 
more freely, and Walter Giffard had pleaded his grey hairs and his 
shortness of breath, as well as the necessity of leading his own 
followers into action." In a note Mr. Ellis adds that, in 1066, 
there must have been another Tonstan fitz Rou, by this man being 
distinguished by the name of le Blanc, one or other, he says, was 
probably of the family of the Viscounts of the Avranchin, in which 
these names both occur, and the Turstin fil Rollonis, who had wit- 
nessed the charter of William fitz Osbern, Earl of Hereford, to the 
Abbey of Lyre (Galia Chr. XI., Instr., p. 123). There is only one 
Turstin fitz Rou named in the Survey. 1 

There is no distinct evidence to shew that Turstin fitz Rou 
left issue, but Mr. Ellis states strong reasons for believing that he 
was the ancestor of the Turbervilles and the le Despensers. We 
do not, however, trace that any member of either of those families 

1 Vale Trans., Vol. IV., p. 18G. 



Manor and Advowson of Staunton. 



229 



inherited any portion of the possessions of Turstin fitz Rou, in the 
County of Gloucester. The next possessors of Staunton, of whom 
we have any knowledge, derived their name, as was usual, from 
the manor. 

In the time of Gilbert Foliot, Abbot of, Gloucester, 1139-1148, 
Roffer de Staunton, with the consent of Hazenil his wife and 
William his son and heir, granted to the Abbey of Gloucester, in 
alms for the welfare of his own soul and the souls of his ancestors, 
one virgate of land called Duna, which Robert the chaplain held 
of him. 1 He also granted one rustic (rusticum), called Edmund 
(evidently a Saxon bondman) with the land, and part of a meadow 
near the mill, &c. And this Cecilia Talebot afterwards confirmed, 
by her charter, in the time of Abbot Hameline, 2 who was con- 
secrated on 5th December, 1148. About the date of the first 
grant mentioned, William de Staunton, son and heir of the above- 
mentioned Roger, with the assent of Cecilia his wife, and his heirs, 
granted to the said abbey the land which Edward de Gatefield 
then held of the abbey, at Gatefelde, for 3s. rent per annum, and 
two acres of land in Berkeley (Birecleia), which Alfred the car- 
penter held, which acres, with the aforesaid land, Robert the 
priest of Staunton had of the gift of the grantor's father, who 
now assented to this grant. 3 Cecilia Talebot, just mentioned, was 
doubtless the relict of this William. Roger de Stauntone, with 
the assent of Haenilda his wife, and William his heir, gave also to 
the Abbey of Gloucester the water of Ledene and the water of 
Clenche with the pool of Ledene, anno regni regis, 7th Rich. I., 
in the time of Abbot Breodone. The date here given is erroneous 
in both particulars, because the time of Abbot Breodone, who was 
consecrated 31st August, 1224, does not coincide with the reign 
of Richard I., who died in 1199, and a reference to the charter 
itself shews that the grant was made in the time of Abbot Gilbert. 4 

The family of Staunton, from an early period, would appear 
to have been called Waldyng and de Staunton indiscriminately, 

1 Historia et Cartularum Monasterii Gloncestrire, Vol. I., p. 73, Vol. II., 
p. 124. 

2 Ibid. * Ibid U i 12 3. 4 Ibid, Vol. I., p. 375. 

Vol. VII. , part 2. n 



230 



Transactions at Bristol. 



of which the reader will notice many instances as we proceed. 
Whether this arose from an alliance between a Waldyng and the 
heiress of Staunton, and thus, while retaining his original name, 
from his possession of the manor became known as " de Staunton, 
we are unable to say, but this would appear to have been not an 
unlikely origin for the double name. 

Richard Waldyng, probably the son or son-in-law of William 
de Staunton just mentioned, held the Bailiwick of Staunton, 
probably in conjunction with the manor, early in the 13th cen- 
tury, whereof before Robert de Passalewe and his fellow Justices 
in Eyre, at the Pleas of the Forest, in the County of Gloucester, 
the said Richard was abjudicatus fuit for many trespasses made 
in the Forest of Dene. By letters patent, dated 26th October 
1265, King Henry III., at the request of his son Prince Edward, 
for the service which a certain Walter Wither had done to them, 
granted to Thomas Wauding, kinsman of the said Walter and heir 
of Richard Wauding his grandfather, being within age, the said 
Bailiwick, of which his said grandfather had been deprived, as 
stated above, to hold to the said Thomas in the same way as 
Richard had held it, the said Walter to have the custody of it 
until the lawful age of the said Thomas. 1 And it appears, from 
an Inquisition taken at Five Oaks, in the Forest of Dene, on 
Saturday next before the feast of St. George the Martyr, 18th 
Edward I. (April 22nd, 1290), after reciting the above-mentioned 
grant that Walter Wyther sold the custody of the Bailiwick to 
Richard de la More, Knt., who held it until the full age of the 
said Thomas Waldyng. It also appears that afterwards Grimbald 
Pauncefot, Steward of the Forest, 2 took the custody into his own 
hands to perform his lease of the forest and for no other occasion, 
and the jurors say that the said Thomas made no trespass in the 
forest whereby he should forfeit that bailiwick, and it is presumed 
he thereupon recovered it. 3 

1 Rot. Pat. 49th Henry III., m. 2, No. 1. 

2 Grimbald Pauncefot was Constable of St. Briavels and Keeper of the 
Forest between 1282 and 1287. He seems to have been a man of an arbi- 
trary and tyranical character (See ante Vol. III., p. 361). 

8 Inq. p.m., 18th Edward L, No. 101. 



MiNOK AND ADVOWSON OF STAUNTON. 



231 



In 1313 John de Staunton, probably son of Thomas, was Lord 
of the Manor and patron of the advowson on the 4th of the nones 
of March, in which year the Bishop of Hereford, in which diocese 
Staunton then was, remitted to the Arches Court of Canterbury 
a contention as to the right of presentation to this benefice, between 
Mr. Thomas de Boleye, who had been presented by the Prior and 
Convent of Monmouth, and Robert de Alveston, who had been 
presented by John de Staunton, which the said John, in the court 
of the King's Bench had recovered against the prior and convent, 
and the said Robert was duly instituted upon the presentation of 
the said John, and the Dean of the Forest was ordered to induct 
him into the corporal possession of the benefice. 1 

In the 9th of Edward II. (1315), John de Staunton held of 
the King in cajnte the manor and bailiwick during his life, 2 and, 
after an Inquisition ad quod damnum, 3 obtained the King's licence 
to grant 1 messuage, 1 carucate of land, 20 acres of meadow, 12 
acres of wood and 20 shillings rent, with appurtenances to Thomas 
Waldyng his son and Margaret his wife, upon their marriage, to 
hold the same to them and the heirs of their bodies, by the services 
due and accustomed, and in default of such issue, remainder to 
the said John and his heirs. 4 The residue of the said manor and 
the advowson of the church the said J ohn granted to John Wal- 
dynge, jun., and Roger de Hall, chaplain, to hold to them and 
their heirs, and the said J ohn and Roger had thereof full seizin, 
and granted it to the aforesaid J ohn de Staunton for the term of 
his life, remainder to the aforesaid Thomas and Margaret his wife, 
and their heirs, in default remainder to the right heirs of the said 
John de Staunton. And the jurors say that the said manor and 
advowson are held of the King in capite by service and fealty and 
rent of two marks per annum, to be paid on the feast of St. 
Michael at the Castle of St. Briavels, and they say that the residue 

1 Bishop Swinfi eld's Register, fol. 208. 2 Nom. Vil. 

3 Esch. Inq. 13th Edward III., No. 25. 2nd Nos. 

4 This John de Staunton may have been the father of Adam de Staunton, 
elected in 1337, 17th Abbot oi St. Peter's, Gloucester in succession to John 
Wigmor. He died in 1351, and his brother John de Staunton constructed a 
a tomb to his memory (Hist. Mon. St. Petri, Glouc, Vol. L, p. 48), 



232 



Transactions at Bristol. 



of the manor aforesaid contains 1 messuage, 1 wood, 1 mill, 24 
acres of land, 6 acres of pasture, and 100 shillings rent, and that 
the said messuage is of the value per annum of 3 shillings, the 
mill, 40 pence, because it is ruinous, each acre of land worth 4 
pence, each acre of pasture 2 pence, and the perquisites of the 
courts 40 pence per annum. And they say, further, that the said 
John de Staunton was seized on the day on which he died of a 
certain Bailiwick in the Forest of Dene, which is held of the King 
by the service of carrying the King's bow before him in the said 
bailiwick when he shall hunt there, and by homage, wardship, and 
marriage, and that he shall have for keeping the said bailiwick, 
housebote, haybote, and one old foss (unum vetus fossatum) a 
sparrow-hawk (espervarius) and bark of every kind of tree 
delivered by the King, and all oaks and other trees broken by the 
wind. And the jurors say that the aforesaid Thomas de Staunton, 
son of the said John, is the nearest heir, and is aged 30 years and 
more. 1 Thomas did homage the same year, and had livery of 
seizin, and died on the feast of St. Michael, 35th Edward III. 
(1361). We do not find that any inquisition was taken at the time 
of his death, but it appears from an inquisition taken on Monday 
next after the feast of St. Martin, 8th Richard II. (1384), more 
than 20 years afterwards, that Thomas Waldyng left a son and 
heir named John r who was of the age of 17 years on his father's 
death, and that the King, on the 12th March, 1361-2, had granted 
to Richard des Armes, his esquire (valletus), the custody of the 
Manor of Staunton, which he occupied for five years from the 
death of Thomas Waldyng, and that John Waldyng, at the time 
of taking this inquisition, was aged 38 years. John Waldyng 
would have been of full age at Michaelmas, 1365, nevertheless, 
the benefice becoming vacant by the death of John de Staunton, 
the King presented one Henry Busch, who was admitted on 30th 
April, 1366. The King again presented in 1384, because John 
Waldyng did not sue for the advowson out of the King's hands, 
he being found to be patron by an inquisition taken before the 
Bishop of Hereford, but, it is added, the bishop did not by this 
institution intend to derogate any right of presentation of John 
1 Inq. p.m., 16th Edward III., No. 27 (1st Nos.) 



Man ok and Advowson of Staunton. 



233 



Harold, John Selle, John Ernes, and Thomas Upton, 1 who were 
trustees probably for John Waldyng. John Waldyng himself, as 
Lord of Staunton, presented, in 1393, 2 and again in the following 
year, 3 and John Staunton, Lord of Staunton, presented in 1420. 4 

On 21st April, 1428, a commission was issued by the Bishop 
to the Dean of Irchenfield to enquire, by a jury, as to the vacancy 
and right of presentation to the Church of Staunton, to which 
E/ichard de Staunton had presented a certain clerk, which in- 
quisition was held on the 26th of the same month. The jurors 
say that certain material questions as to the right of patronage 
to this church, between the Prior of Monmouth and John Lord 
of Staunton, arose in 1316, and that the cause was remitted to 
the Court of Arches, and that a certain John Alveston, clerk, 
upon the presentation of the said J ohn, was admitted, and that 
the right has been enjoyed to this day ; and they say that the said 
church is pensioner of the Church of Duxton (Dixon) in 12d. per 
annum, and the Church of Monmouth 4s. per annum. 5 Sir 
Richard, Lord of Staunton, presented again in 1449. 6 

In the assignment of dower made on 8th September, 16th 
Henry VI. (1437) to Richard Wyclville, Knt., and Jacquett de 
Luxemburgh, Duchess of Bedford, his wife, relict of John Duke 
of Bedford, out of the lands, &c, which fell into the King's hands 
by the death of the said Duke, there were assigned, inter alia, one 
third part of the Castle of St. Briavels, which had been granted to 
the said Duke in fee with all its members and appurtenances, and 
all and singular the homages and services of divers tenants who 
held of the castle, inter alia, of Richard de Staunton and his heirs 
for the Manor of Staunton, which he held by military service and 
the rent of 28s. 8d. per annum ; the rent and services of the same 
Richard and his heirs for lands, late Holewsthyng, which he held 
in Staunton in socage and rent of 6s. 8d. per annum. They were 
assigned also the rent and service of Richard Skynner and his 
heirs for lands called Bromalls, which he held in Staunton at the 

1 Bp. Gilbert's Reg., fol. 13. 2 Bp. Treffnant's Reg., fol. 19. 

3 lb., fol. 23. 4 Bp. Lacy's Reg., fol. 31. 

5 Bp. Spofforth's Reg., 118. 6 Bp. Beauchamp's R^eg., fol. 5. 



234 



Transactions at Bristol. 



rent of 4s. per annum ; also the rent and services of Thomas Bayn- 
ham and his heirs for lands called Gawsland, in Staunton aforesaid, 
at a rent of 16d. per annum. 1 

It is stated in an Inquisition, taken at Gloucester on 30th 
October, 16th Edward IV. (1476) after the death of Thomas 
Staunton, that a certain Richard Staunton, father of the said 
Thomas, whose heir the said Thomas was, was seized of the Manor 
of Staunton and of certain other lands and tenements in Colford, 
etc., in his demesne as of fee, and so being seized by his charter 
dated 10th September, 6th Henry VI. (1427), thereof enfeoffed 
certain Robert Joce, Thomas Woodward, Richard Joce, Thomas 
Skynne, and Richard Henbarrow, to have and to hold the same 
to them and their heirs for ever, by virtue of which enfeoffment 
they were thereof seized in their demesne as of fee, and the afore- 
said Richard Staunton died, as did also Thomas Woodward and 
Thomas Skynne, and that the same Robert Joce, Richard Joce, 
and Richard Henbarrow survived, and were thereof seized in 
demesne as of fee ; and afterwards a certain covenant was made 
between the said Thomas Staunton and a certain William Walsh, 
Esq., that the said Thomas should marry Johanna Walsh, daughter 
of the said William, and that the said William should give the 
said Thomas =£40 as the marriage portion of his daughter, and that 
after the marriage the said Thomas should settle a certain estate 
upon the said J ohanna for the term of her life, and that the said 
Robert J oce and the others were required by the said Thomas to 
make such estate in the manors and lands aforesaid, which they 
did by a charter dated on the vigil of St. Paul, 36th Henry VI. 
(1457-8) in virtue of which the said Johanna was seized in her 
demesne as of a free tenement, and the jurors say the said Thomas 
held the said manor, &c, on the day on which he died in the right 
of the said Johanna who is still living, and they say that the said 
Thomas died on the feast of St. Katherine the Virgin, 1 3th of the 
now King (25th November, 1473), and that John Staunton is son 
and next heir of the said Thomas, and is aged 12 years and more, 
and they add that the value of the said lands, &c, beyond reprises 

1 Esoh. 15th Henry VI., Nu. 76. 



Manor and Advowson of Staunton. 



235 



is 100s. per annum. 1 Legal proceedings were taken in respect to 
this inquisition, and a further inquisition was taken at Gloucester 
on 7th February, 17th Edward IY. (1477-8) before Robert Hiett, 
one of the King's commissioners in chancery, and a jury, who say 
upon oath that Richard Staunton, father, of Thomas Staunton, 
named in the writ, whose heir the said Thomas was, was seized in 
fee on the day of his death of the Manor of Staunton, which he 
held of the King in capite by the service of the 15th part of a 
Knight's fee and the rent of 30s. 4d. and heriot when it should 
happen, and of 3 messuages, 40 acres of land, 20 acres of meadow, 
40 acres of pasture in Colford, which he held of William Abbot of 
Flaxley, but by what service the jurors were ignorant. And that 
Richard Staunton died seized as aforesaid and did not enfeoff 
Robert Joce, Thomas Woodward, Richard Joce, Thomas Skynne, 
and Richard Henbarrow, named in the writ, and that the said 
Thomas Staunton was son and heir of the said Richard, and after his 
death entered into the manor, and died seized in fee. After his 
death the lands, &c, descended to John Staunton as son and heir of 
Thomas Staunton, and Hugh Almondesham and J ohanna his wife, 
late wife of the said Thomas Staunton, after the death of the said 
Thomas, entered into the said manor and received the profits from 
the time of the death of the said Thomas until now, and they say 
the said Thomas died 3rd November, 15th Edward IY. (1475), 
and that John Staunton is son and next heir of the said Thomas, 
and is aged 16 years and more. 

Upon this inquisition the said Hugh Amondesham and Johanna 
his wife were dispossessed of the said manor and lands, whereupon 
they appealed to the Court of Chancery, and another inquisition 
was taken, which after reciting the last cited inquisition states 
that now: viz., 16th March, 18th Edward IY. 2 (1477-8), before 
the King in chancery, Hugh Amondsham and J ohanna his wife, 
came by William Curtes their attorney and say that Richard 

1 Inq. p.m., 16th Edward IV., No. 65. 

2 On 7th August, 1476, John Lyttleton presented to the church, for 
that turn, as the true patron by grant of Johanna who was the wife of 
Thomas Staunton, in her pure widowhood, and on the 28th March, 1477, 
Hugh Hamersham presented as true patron in right of his wife. 



236 



Transactions at Bristol. 



Staunton, sometime before the death of Thomas Staunton, was 
seized in fee of the said manors, and thereof enfeoffed the afore- 
said Robert Joce and others, who leased the said manor, &c., to 
Johanna, then wife of Thomas Staunton, to hold for her life only. 
Thomas died and J ohanna survived him, and before the 7th Feb. 
married the said Hugh Amondesham and were possessed of the 
said manor, &c, until they were unjustly expelled by the aforesaid 
inquisition. 

The final conclusion of this dispute we do not trace. The 
reader will notice that there are several discrepancies in the 
inquisitions which have not been cleared up, but it is probable that 
the dispute was settled upon the basis of the last inquisition. 

An inquisition was taken at Standish, co. Gloucester, on 5th 
June, 18th Henry VEIL, after the death of John Staunton, 
gentleman, before John Huntley, Esq., escheator, on 5th June, 
18th Henry VIII. (1526). The jurors say that the said John 
was seized of the Manor of Staunton with the advowson of the 
church in fee, and of 3 messuages, 40 acres of land, 20 acres of 
meadow, 40 acres of pasture, in Colford, and of 30 acres of pasture 
in Clorewall, in fee and died seized, and that the Manor of 
Staunton and advowson of the church is held of the King by the 
service of the 4th part of a Knight's fee, that the messuages, cfec, in 
Colford are held of the King as of the Castle of St. Briavels by 
fealty and service of 33s. 4d. yearly, to be paid at the castle afore- 
said, for all services, and that the 30 acres of pasture in Clorewell 
are held of the Abbot of Flaxley, but the jurors do not know by 
what service. And they say that John Staunton died 4th April 
last past without issue of his body, and that Thomas Staunton is 
brother and next heir, and is aged 54 years and more. Thomas 
Staunton did not long 1 survive his brother. It appears from the 
inquisition taken at Gloucester on 13th July, 20th Henry VIII., 
1528, before Robert Wye, Esq., escheator, that he died on the 
19th May then last past, and that Margaret Staunton, his daugh- 
ter, was his next heir, and on the day of taking the inquisition was 
aged 5 years and more. 2 We do not know what became of this 

i Esch. Inq. Glouc, 18th Henry VIII, No. 2, 

8 E.sch, 1114, Glouc, 20th 11 'wiry V III, 



Manor and Advowson of Staunton. 



237 



child. She probably became the wife of Robert Saunders, Esq., 
of whom we shall speak again presently. But in Michaelmas term, 
1552, William Beynham, Esq., and Thomas AMorgan, and Anna 
his wife, suffered a fine to James Bell, of the manors of Eewland 
and Staunton, and of 2 messuages, 2 tofts,- 6 gardens, 6 orchards, 80 
acres of land, 20 acres of meadow, 80 acres of pasture, 6 acres of 
wood, and 20 acres of furze and heath in Newland, Heyemedowe, 
Coif ord, and Staunton, for which fine the said J ames gave the said 
William, Thomas and Anne, 160 marks. 1 This fine was levied pro- 
bably in trust for Henry Brayne, who, on the 27th Aug., 1558, died 
seized, inter alia, of the Manor of Staunton, and 6 acres of pasture 
and 20 acres of wood in Staunton, and of the advowson of the 
church and of the office of Woodward of Staunton, and the jurors, 
upon the inquisition taken after his death, say that he had this 
Manor of Staunton, &c, from Bobert Saunders, Esq, and Margaret 
his wife, we suppose the daughter and heir of Thomas Staunton, and 
the jurors say further that the said manor and certain lands in 
Colvorde are held of the Queen as of her Castle of St. Briavels by 
the 4th part of one Knight's fee, and that Bobert Brayne his son 
is his nearest heir, and is aged 30 years and more. 2 The said 
Bobert Brayne being seized in fee of the said manor, &c, by inden- 
ture, inrolled in chancery, dated 14th February, 12th Elizabeth 
(1569-70), sold the same to Christopher Kenne and John Seymour, 
Esq., and they were duly seized, and being so seized in Hilary 
term, 10th Elizabeth, levied a fine to the use of the said John, and 
that of his wife Goditha. 3 The jurors further say the said Bobert 
was seized of the advowson of the Church of Staunton, and of the 
office of woodward, and that Emma wife of Charles Somerset, Esq., 
aged 30 years and more, and Anna wife of George Winter, Esq., 4 
aged 34 years and more, are sisters and nearest heirs of the said 
Robert. 5 The land and manors therefore of which Bobert Brayne 
died seized devolved upon these two ladies as tenants in common 
subject, to the life interest of Goditha relict of Bobert Brayne. 

1 Pedes Fin. 6th Edward VI., Michs. 2 Inq. p.m. 1st Elizabeth. 

3 She was the daughter of William Sheldon, of Berley, co. Wore. (See 
Ped. Visit, of Wore., 1619). 

4 This George Winter was of Dyrham. 5 Inq. p.m., 13th Elizabeth. 



238 



Transactions at Bristol. 



This lady married, secondly, the aforesaid John Seymour, who, in 
1594, in her right, presented to the Church of Staunton. 1 

We have in our collection a document dated the 27th January, 
21st Elizabeth (1584-5), purporting to be the copy of a deed of 
partition of all the lands, <kc, lately descended from Robert Braine, 
deceased, unto Dame Emma, now the wife of Sir Charles Somerset, 
Knt., and to Ann Winter, wife of George Winter, Esq., sisters 
and coheirs of the said Robert Braine, and alleged to be fully 
agreed upon by the parties concerned. The whole of the lands 
were divided into two portions. We shall not, however, concern 
ourselves with this partition further than it relates to the manor, 
etc., of Staunton, which was divided into moieties, a moiety being- 
assigned to each of the two coheirs; and as all the tenements are 
set out in detail, together they form a complete terrier and rental 
of the manor at that date. 

The partition and division Indented the 27th January, 21st Elizabeth, of all 
the lands, ten ts & hereditam tes lately descended from Rob te Braine, Esq. , 
deceased nnto Dame Emma now wife of S r Charles Somerset, Knight, 
and to Anne Winter, wife of George Winter, Esq., sisters & coheires of 
the said Rob te Braine, made by the said George Winter by (torn off) & 
fully agreed vppon by & between the said S r Charles & the said George 
Winter by their naturall consents & assentg into two pt e whereof the one 
is sett downe Entituled & called by the name of the first pte and the 
other by the name of the second pte Of the w ch two pt e that pte w ch is 
called by the name of the first pte is allotted & laid to bee the pte of the 
said George Winter & Anne his wife and the other pte w cl1 is called the 
second pte is allotted & laid to bee the pte of the said S r Charles Somersett 
& dame Erne his wife as followeth. 

The First Parte. 

The Mannor of Staunton & other land e tent e & hereditam tes in the County 
of Glouc. & Monmothe. 

Item a meadow called Blincie meade in the tenure of Thomas Walden lyinge 
vppon the west pte, vppon a way leadinge to Blincies well on the southe 
side vnto a mill of Thomas Longes on the east pte vppon twoe meades 
of Thomas Wisanes & on the northe vppon the land of Withn Baddam 
& James Millard. 

Item one Close of pasture called ffatche lande in the tenure of Thomas 
Handly and Boundeth on the northe vnto the land of Thomas Smythe on 
the east vppon a lane called Mill lane, on the southe vnto a pcell of 
land called Blubberwell & vpon the west vnto a lane called the ynege 
& Skinscroft now James Bells. 
1 Bishops' Registers, Glouc. 



Manor and Advowson of Staunton. 



239 



Item one meadowe called Ivory meade in the tenure of James Bell & lying 
on the northe and east side vnto a way called Greeneway & on the 
southe vnto a pasture called fnaxbrook e & on the west vnto a peece of 
land of Charles Hyatt called the Murralls. 

Item one meade called the Lord f meade in the tenure of Thomas Meior lyinge 
on the northe & east side vppon land of Charles Hyett, on the southe vnto 
the land of James Bell called Ambirs meade & on the west vnto a way 
leadinge towarde the Leyfield. 

Item all that greate peece of arrable land in the Leyfield in the tenure of 
Thomas Waldynge lyinge on the west pte vppon the land of xpofer 
Howell on the northe pte vnto the land of Thomas Treahearone & John 
Naylor called the Bande land & Batteridges Held, on the east pte vnto 
the land of John Nailor called the Batche & on the southe pte vnto the 
lande of John Ambrie called Crafters Crafte 

Item all that peece of grounde called the lower lands in the tenure of 
Thomas Smythe & one grove adioiiringe to the same called the Lord^ 
grove lyinge vppon the west pte vppon land of John Nailor called 
Batterus held & on the northe pte vnto the land of Thomas Smythe 
called Hunslees, & on the east pte vnto land of John Nailor called the 
greate Batche. 

Item all that peece of land & wood called Hennigates & rebells Cockshott 
in the occupacbn of Parson Winter lyinge on the northe vppon a field 
called Hennyfield & the cradle on the east pte vnto a grove called the 
coppes of Richard Bevihams, Esq re on the southe pte vnto a highe way 
leading from Staunton vnto the forest & on the west pte vnto lands of 
Thomas Trehearon & Thomas Longe. 

Item all those lands called Brace lande in the tenure of John Cole lyinge on 
the west vnto a grove of Richard Beniehames Esq. called the cops on 
the Queen's forest on all ptes. 

Item all that pte of land called the Lord e land in the tenure of James Bell 
lyinge vpon the west vppon the highe way leadinge from Staunton to 
Colford on the south pte vnto a lane called Ruavengreene lane on the 
east vnto land of Moore Appowell called Heymoore & vppon y e north. 

Item one close of pasture called Longe stone 1 in the tenure of Robte Smythe 
lyinge vpon the west pte on the highe way leadinge from Staunton to 
Colford & the land of Robte Smythe on all other ptes. 

Item all that peece of land called the Hay Ridinge in the [tenure] of Xpofer 
Hall, & one grove more adioyninge to the same in the northe & west 
side called the whood grove, & on the southe pte on the land of Xpofer 
Hall called the Clowers & on the east vnto a cben field called Shobbley. 

Item one acre of errable land lyinge in a comon called the Shobbley in the 
tenure of James Bell abuttinge on the way leading from Staunton to 
to Heymeadowe on the west & on the northe & east pte the land of 
James Bell & the southe pte the land of Thomas Longe & Harry Marshe, 

Item one messuage or tenement w th garden in the tenure or occupacbn of 
Thomas Hawkins or of his assignes adioyninge neare vnto the highe 
crosse a house of James Bell, on the northe side a house of John baddam 
on the east side & the highe way on the southe side. 

1 This ©lose and others adjoining on each side of the highway were, about 60 yeais ago, 
planted with oakg, and now bear flourishing young timber. 



240 



Transactions at Bristol. 



Item one messuage or tent e w th a garden in the tenure of James Waldynge 
or of his assigns called Jefferies howse adioynge on the north side to 
the Church e yard & on the south side on the highe way. 

Chief Rents in Staunton. 
Item of Christofer Hall for his landes there - - iij s vj d 

Item of James Bell for landes there ... v s vj d 

Item of Thomas Wy shame for Baddames garden - - iiij s viij d 

Item of Christofer Hall for a ten te in the tenure of Davie Trehearon ij s 
Item of John Nailor for a tent e in the tenure of Thomas Trehearon xj d 
Item of John Hiett for a tent 6 there a red rose & six pennce in money vj d 
Item of Christofer Hawle for Balls howse - xij d 
Item of John ffiller for a Tenemt .... iij d 
Item of John Webb for a Tent called Topplace - vj d 
Item of Edward Bell for Ambrid € meadowe - iij s 

Item of John Ambrie for a tent te - - - vij d 

Item of Alice Waldinge for a close called Tillice hill - vj d 

Item of pishioners of Staunton for the chappie or churche house there j d 
Item of John Steevens for a ten te & landes - - j s x d 

Item of heirs of John Ambrie thelder for his land & ten te - iiij s x d 

Item of Wiiim Tayler for a Ten te .... vij d 
Item of James Vppton for a Ten te - vj d 
Item of Owen Steevens for a Ten te called the Brewerue in the tenure 

of Alice Worrall - vj d 
Item of John Nailor for Tent e & landes in the tenure of John Bond viij d 
Item of Edward Bell for a Tent e in the tenure of Robte Sly viij d 
Item of Thomas Watkins for a Ten tG & land € - - i s vj d 

Item of Xpofer Bonde for a peece of land called Colliers land vj d 
Item of Wittm Wirrall gent for Tuffthorne - - - xij d 

Item of Thomas Hiett for a meadowe called Hyett's meadowe in the 

tenure of Harry Yerworthe - - - - xij d 

Item of the heirs of John Bufford for a mese - - - j s viij d 

Item of Thomas Carpinter for a close of pasture called Lord t hill xij d 
Item of Anne Bufford for close called the Lord^ marshe xij d 

COLEFORDE IN THE COUNTY OF GLOUC. 

Item all those pcells of landes called Edingewall in the tenure of Wittm 
Yerroth lyinge on the northe east side vppon a highe way called 
Collway leadinge from Colford toward € the forrest on the southe pte, the 
Queenes forrest on the west side, vppon the landes of Witt Wirrall Esq 1 ' 
called Tuffthorne & landes of Xpofer Hall called little Edingewall And 
all the lands and heriditaments called ffitterell now in the tenure & 
occupation of Thomas Appowell Shoemaker 

Item that hee to whome this first pte of the said division & ptition shall 
chance shall have and enjoy for one whole yeare next after the feast of 
Thannunciacbn of o 1 ' blessed Lady the Virgin Marie next ensewinge the 
date hereof the woodwaidshipp of Staunton, & in like manner he to 
whome the second pte of the said division & pticbn shall appen shall 
have & enioy the said Woodwardshipp for one other whole yeare then 
next followinge, and so from thencefourthe the said Sir Charles & 
George Winter & theire heircs to have and enioy the same woodwaid- 
shippe alter nia vicibua for euer. 



Manor and Advowson of Staunton. 



241 



Moreover there is allotted & assigned to this first pte of the division & pticbn 
aforesaid all rents reuercons service & other duties whatsoeu 1 reserved or 
due vppon any demise or grante heretofore made of the landes tent te & 
hereditam tes or of any pte thereof allotted to this first pte of the said 
division & pticon by lease or Indenture for terme of life or lives for term 
of yeere or yeeres att will or by Coppy of Court roll accordinge to the 
custome of any Mannor whereof the same is pcell And alsoe all Courtg 
Leet^ Lawdaies pquisites of Court e Royalties Jurisdiccbns lib ties pffitt e 
& comodities whatsouer as to the said landes tent tes & hereditam ts allotted 
to this first pte of the said division & partition beinge accompted & 
accepted for the moyty or one halfe of all the said landes tent € & 
hereditam ts descended from the said Rob te Braine to the said Dame Em 
& Anne wife to the said George Winter as aforesaid of right ought to 
belonge & appteyne, the tolles liftties Jurisdiccbns Royalties Pfviledges 
comodities pffits & advantages within the city & lifities of Bristol duringe 
& continuinge the whitson weeke for euermore to be enioyed Alternis 
vicibus by the said S r Charles & George Winter & theire heires as is 
aforesaid on e ly excepted. 

The Second Parte. 

The Manor op Staunton & other landes Tenem tes & hereditam te in the 

County of Glouc & Monmothe. 
Item the Mansion or Capitall howse of Staunton being vtterly decayed & 

nothinge remayinge but broken old walls & a barne w th one orchard 

called Court Orchard adioyning to the same howse. 
Item one little Close of meade w th a Culver howse [in] the same on the east 

side of the howse. 

Item one other meade adjoyning to the Court or Orchard in the tenure 
or occupation of Rofite Sly or of his assigns. 

Item one meadowe called by the name of Orchard meade w ch meadow is 
mored on all sides w Lh a high way savinge on the southe side w ch boun- 
deth vppon the land of Charles Hyett. 

Item twoe closes of pasture called by the name of greate peece in Morrall 
side which extendeth on the northe vppon the land of John Nayler, 
on the east vppon the land of Thomas Carpenter & James Ambry on 
the southe vnto the land of Thomas Smythe & Thomas Longe & on the 
west pte to the land called the Mill lane. 

Item one pcell of land & a grove called by the name of bingeopps now in the 
tenure of Xpofer Hall w ch land boundeth vppon the northe vnto a grove 
of the said Xpofer Hall & Thomas Watkins, vpon the east pte of the 
land called Nortons land in the tenure of Hughe George vpon the southe 
on the land of Xpofer Hall & on the west vnto a brooke called Grange 
brooke. <, 

Item one close of pasture called the winmill field wherein standethe the 
walls of an old winmill 1 in the tenure of Harry Marshe ioyning on the 
northe west side vppon the way leadinge from Staunton to heymeadowe 
on the south vppon the land of James Bell vnto a grove called the black 
grove on all other ptes. 

1 This is doubtless the Windmill described as ruinous in the Inquisition of 16th Ed. HI. 
(See ante p. 232). 



242 



Transactions at Bristol. 



Item all the pastures & wood € called the black t in the tenure of James Bell 
lyinge on the northe & vpon the east pt € vppon the way leading from 
Staunton to Colford on the southe pte to land of Thomas Carpinter & 



Xpofer Hall & on the west vppon Winmillfield. 

Chief Rents in Staunton in the County of Glouc 

Item of Hughe George for his landes there - - - js x d 

Item of Thomas Wysame for his landes there - - iijja v iij d 

Item of Thomas Jones for a ten te there - - - iiijd 

Item of James Walden for a tente there - - - yjd 
Item of Charles Hyett for landes in the tenure of David Traherrone 

& James Bell ------ iiijs viijd 

Item of Thomas Longe for diQse tent e & land e - - x s 

Item of John Norton for a tente a red rose & sixpence - vjd 

Item of John Webb for Nortons Tente - - - xijd 

Item of John Hanly for three tent t - - - - ijs 

Item of Howell Hooper for Nortons Tent € & land^ - - vj s 

Item of Thomas Smyth for diuse Tente & land € - - viij s viijd 

Item of Wifhn Walden for a tente there - - - js iijd 

Item of Howell Hooper for the Smyth garden so called - iiijd 
Item of John Nayler for a tente & land in the tenure of Richard 

Wheeler - - - - - xij d 

Item of William Badden for twoe tent t - - - xiij d 
Item of John Nayler for twoe tefit e called Millstone Close in the 

tenure of John Bond ----- ijs 

Item of John Nayler for a tente & land called Skins land - xij d 

Item of Thomas Walden for a tente & curteledge - - ij s x d ' 

Item of William Yeme for twoe tent € & certen landg - ij s xj d 

Item of James Davis for a messuage Ruinous - iijd 

Chief Rents & other hereditam te w th in Colford 

Item of Xpofer Hall for a close called little Eddingwall lying in 

Colford ...... v s 

Item of Richard Yeme for a Messuage ... jd 

Item of Xpofer Monmouthe for a tente ... xij d 
Item of Thomas Carpinter for a Messuage called Monmouthes howse iiijd 0 fi 

Item of the same Thomas for averell field ... js v jd 
Item the patronage of the parsonage of Staunton 



Item that he to whomethe first pte of this division & partition shall chaunce 
shall have & enioy for one whole yeere next after the feast Th annotation 
of o r blessed Lady the virgin Mary next ensewinge the date hereof the 
woodwardshipp of Staunton and in like manner hee to whome the second 
pte of the said division shall chance shall have and enioy the said wood- 
wardshipp one other Whole yeere then next followinge & from thence 
fourthe the said S r Charles & George Winter & their heires to have and 
enjoy the same woodwardshipp Alternis vicibus. 

Item, all landes Tefit e & hereditaments in Staunton [known] by the name of 
Nortonnes landg now in the occupation of Hughe George or of his assign 
or assignes w Gh [land extendethe on the northe to a certaine wast or com on 
called Stauntons mynde and on the southe pte vppon a high way leadinge 
from Newlund towarde Monmouthe vppon the west pte on certaine 



Manor and Advowson of Staunton. 



243 



landes and woodes called by the name of Buigeops now in the tenure of 
Xpofer Hall and on the east vppon land of the said Xpofer and vpon 
a lane called wall lane leading to the nyne walls. 

We thus have the manor, advowson, &c, held in moieties by 
Charles Somerset and Emma his wife, and George Winter, and 
Anne his wife. 

Sir Charles Somerset, for subsequent to the date last cited he 
had received the honour of Knighthood, died 2nd March, 41st 
Elizabeth (1598-9), and upon an inquisition taken thereupon at 
Chepstow, it was found that sometime before his death, Goditha 
Seymour was seized, and then still continued seized for life, in, 
inter alia, the Manor of Staunton, and that a fine was levied in 
Hilary term, 36th Elizabeth (1593-4) between Sir Thomas Gerrard, 
Knt., and Philip Gerrard, Gent., plaintiffs, and the said Sir Charles 
Somerset, defendant of, inter alia, the moiety of the Manor of 
Staunton and the moiety of the office of Woodward of Staunton, 
in the Forest of Dean, and of the moiety of the advowson of the 
Church of Staunton. 1 And the jurors say Elizabeth wife of Edward 
Foxe, Esq., and daughter of the said Sir Charles, is the next heir 
of the said Charles, and at the time of her father's death was aged 
21 years and more. 2 

Edward Foxe was knighted at Newark, 22nd April, 1603. 
Elizabeth Lady Foxe would appear to have died cir. 1609. Her 
inquisition jjost-mortem is found noted in the Calendar of Chancery 
Inquisitions, under 6th James I., Part II., No. 118, but the office 
itself is missing. 

At present, therefore, we have no certain knowledge whether 
the fine levied in 1593-4 was simply for purposes of settlement 
or whether it was a bona fide alienation, but in the early part of 
the following century this moiety, as well as the other, as we shall 
see presently, had passed to Benedict Hall. 

George Winter died 29th November, 24th Elizabeth (1581), 
and it was found, upon the inquisition taken thereupon, that he 
died seized, inter alia, of a moiety of the Manor of Staunton, New- 
land, Cowlford, Bicknor, and Westbury, also of a moiety of the 

1 A similar fine was levied in Mich, term, 1597 

2 Inq. p.m., 43rd Elizabeth, Part II., No. 121. 



244 



Transactions at Bristol. 



Advowson of the Church of Staunton and of the office of Wood- 
ward of Staunton, and of the office of Yerderer Ambulant, in 
the Forest of Dean, likewise dependant upon the death of the 
aforesaid Goditha, and the jurors say that John Winter is his 
son and nearest heir, and is aged 26 years and more. 1 The 
said John Wynter died 2 2nd August, 17th James (1619) 2 
seized, inter alia, in his demesne as of fee of a moiety of the 
same manor, lands, and offices, and his son George Winter was 
found to be his next heir, and to be aged 27 years and more. 3 
George Winter did not long continue to hold his moiety of 
the manor, tfec, for on 18th November, 1621, he suffered a fine 
to Benedict Hall, Esq., of 2 messuages, 1 toft, 2 gardens, 2 
orchards, 60 acres of ]and, 24 acres of meadow, 140 acres of 
pasture, 30 acres of wood, 60 acres of furze and heath, and 30s. 
rent in Staunton, ISTewland, and Bicknor, and of the moiety of the 
Manor of Staunton, and view of Frank-pledge in Staunton, and 
for this fine the said Benedict gave him £200. 4 

Benedict Hall (who, it may be worth mentioning, derived 
his christian name, which became very prominent in the family, 
from his uncle Benedict Winchcomb, of Noke, co. Oxon, whose 
sister and heir his father, William Hall, had married), having 
acquired this Manor of Staunton, died in 1668, leaving by Anne 
his wife, daughter of Sir Edward Winter, of Lydney, Knight, 
and the Lady Anne Somerset his wife, daughter of Edward Earl 
of Worcester, a son and heir named Henry Benedict, who presen- 
ted to the Church of Staunton, in 1670, 1677, and 1679, and dying 
in 1687, left a son and heir named Benedict, who, with Jane his 
wife, and Thomas Gage, Esq. by Indres of Lease and release, 

1 Inq. p.m., 24th Elizabeth, Part II., No. 79. 

- This John Wynter commanded a little vessel called the " Elizabeth," 
in Drake's expedition, to circumnavigate the globe, but deserted him in the 
Straits of Magellan, and returned to England, leaving Sir Francis in his 
solitary barque, "The Golden Hind." His burial is entered in the Parish 
Registers of Dyrham under the date of the 22nd Sept., 1619. " Captayn 
John Wynter, Esq., who died at Bath, August 23rd and was buried in 
Dyrham Church. 

z Inq. p.m., 19th James, Part L, No. 19. 

4 Pedes Finium, 19th James I., Michs. 



Manor and Advowson of Staunton. 



245 



conveyed to certain trustees, inter alia, all that Manor of Staunton 
and scite of the manor, together with the advowson of the church, 
etc., upon trust to sell the said premises for the purpose of paying 
the debts of the said Benedict, and to pay over any surplus to the 
said Benedict and Thomas ; and by Indres ,of seven parts, of even 
date, between Thomas Gage of the first part, the said Benedict and 
J ane his wife, and Benedicta Maria Teresa Hall, daughter and only 
child of the said Benedict of the second part, and divers trustees 
for divers trusts of the other parts, after reciting the last abstracted 
Indres, witnessed that in consideration of a marriage, to be solem- 
nized between the said Thomas Gage and Benedicta Maria Teresa 
Hall, the surplus arising from the sale of the said lands, after 
payment of the incumbrances, should be paid over to certain trus- 
tees, and, after the payment of £1000 to the said Thomas Gage, 
should be invested in real estate of inheritance, and conveyed to 
certain trustees to the use of the said Benedict for life, and in 
default of issue male of the said Benedict, to the use of the said 
Thomas Gage and Benedicta Maria Teresa his wife, and the heirs 
of their bodies, under certain limitations. 

Thomas Gage, on 14th September, 1720, was created Viscount 
Gage of Castle Island and Baron Gage of Castlebar in the King- 
dom of Ireland. Sufficient of the lands having been sold to pay 
off all the incumbrances on the estate, and, inter alia, the manor, 
&c, of Staunton remaining unsold, it was agreed that the said 
lands should be accepted as newly purchased lands' and settled to 
the uses declared, which was done by Indres dated the 18th and 
19th July, 1726. Viscount Gage presented to the Church of 
Staunton, in 1724 and 1726. Benedicta Maria Teresa Viscountess 
Gage ( died 25th July, 1749, and was buried in the north chapel 
at Newland. The Viscount married, secondly, Jane, relict of 
Henry- Jermyn Bond, Esq., of Bury St. Edmunds, by whom he had 
no issue, and died in 1754, leaving issue by his first wife, William 
Hall his successor, Thomas, the famous General Gage, and Bene- 
dicta Maria Teresa, who married George Tasburgh, Esq. 

William Hall Viscount Gage succeeded his father in the title 
and estates and presented to the Church of Staunton in 1764 and 
Vol. VII., part 2. s 



246 



Transactions at Bristol. 



1765. Various settlements of the estates were made during his 
life but nothing which affected the devolution of the manor , &c, 
of Staunton. In 1780 he was created a Peer of Great Britain by- 
title of Baron Gage of Firle, in the co. of Sussex. He married, in 
1757, Elizabeth, daughter of Sampson Gideon, Esq., and sister of 
Sampson Lord Eardley, by whom he had a son, who died in 
infancy ; and, in 1790, having no further issue, he obtained a new 
Patent of British Peerage as Baron Gage of Highmeadow, in the 
County of Gloucester, with remainder to his nephew and heir 
presumptive, Major-General Henry Gage, son and heir of General 
Thomas Gage above mentioned, who, on his uncle's death on 11th 
October, 1791, succeeded to the titles and estates, except the first 
British Barony, which became extinct. 

Henry Lord Viscount Gage died 29th January, 1808, and was 
succeeded by his son and heir Henry Hall, 4th Viscount Gage, 
who presented to the Church of Staunton in 1813 and in 1822. 
By Indre, dated 9th February, 1813 and Recovery suffered 
thereupon, Lord Gage barred the entail upon the Manor of Staun- 
ton and the advowson of the Church of Dixon, in co. Monmouth, 
and by Indre, dated 15th February, 1820, the Manor of Staunton 
was discharged from all liabilities chargeable thereupon, and all 
the manors and advowsons in the counties of Gloucester and Mon- 
mouth were conveyed to John Gage and William Hall Gage in trust 
for the said Henry Hall Viscount Gage, his heirs and assigns, to 
be conveyed as he or they shall direct. Meanwhile Lord Gage, by 
articles of agreement dated 15th May, 1817, covenanted to sell to 
the Commissioners of His Majesty's Woods, Forests, and Land 
Revenues all those his Manors of Staunton and English Bicknor, 
with all courts, <kc. &c, pertaining to the said manors, with rights 
of common and all other his rights in the Forest of Dean, and all 
his right in the pews of the Parish Church of Newland to the late 
Mansion House of High Meadow belonging, or usually held or 
occupied by the owners or proprietors of such mansion house, 
with all lands, &c, except the advowsons of the Rectory of 
Staunton and the Vicarage of Dixton, for the sum of £155,803 
3s. 2d., to be paid by instalments as arranged, and the last instal- 
ment having been paid on the 2nd August, 1820, by Indentures 



Manor and Advowson of Staunton. 



247 



dated 9th May, 1821, the aforesaid John Gage and William Hall 
Gage, in whom the freehold was then vested as stated above, by 
the direction of the said Lord Gage, conveyed all the said manors 
and lands, except as excepted, to the said Commissioners on behalf 
of the King, and they still continue parcel of the Crown Lands. 

HALL OF HIGHMEADOW. 

The ancient house of Highmeadow, of which considerable 
remains still exist, some portions apparently as early as the 15th 
century, is situated partly within the parish of Staunton and partly 
of Newland, the parish boundary passes through it, but the Halls 
would seem always to have considered themselves parishioners of 
the latter parish, notwithstanding that the new mansion, built 
early in the 18th century and entirely demolished about sixty 
years, was in the former. As, however, the family held the 
Manor of Staunton for a considerable period, which would seem 
to have been the most important of their possessions except the 
Manor of English Bicknor, we propose to treat of it under this 
parish. 

The first of the family, of whom we have any knowledge, is 
William Hall, who died 1st August, 1545. In the Inquisition 
taken after his death, at Dedbury, on 14th October, 38th Henry 
VIII., he is described as of Newland, gent., and he was found to 
have been seized of certain messuages, lands, and tenements in 
Clowerwall, Church End, and Coleford, in the parish of Newland, 
and of lands in Heymeadow and Staunton. In the pedigree of 
the family, recorded at the Heralds' Visitation of Gloucestershire 1 
in 1623, he is shewn to have married a daughter of . . . Butler, of 
Badmington, by whom he had a son and heir Christopher, of whom 
presently. By his charter, however, dated 12th November, 33rd 
Henry VIII., he conveyed a certain tenement in Clowerwall to 
trustees to the use of himself and Juliana Nurse, widow, for their 
lives, remainder to the heirs male of their two bodies, but he had 
no issue by this ventre. His wife Juliana survived him. 

Christopher Hall, son and heir of William, was born on the 
feast of the Purification of B.V.M., 1521-2, and was aged 23 years 
1 Harl. MS., 4543, fol. 82 b ). 
s 2 



248 



Transactions at Bristol. 



on his father's death. He does not appear to have resided at High 
Meadow but at Newland like his father, for James Bell, by his 
charter dated 12th Dec, 19th Eliz. (1576), in which he describes 
himself as of Hyghmeadow, grants to his brother, Henry Bell, 
gent., inter alia, a messuage and garden, &c, at Church end, in 
Newland, bounded on the west part by the messuage, garden, and 
orchard of Christopher Hall, gent., thus seemingly shewing that 
the said Christopher dwelt at Newland and the said James at 
Highmeadow, unless there were two messuages at the latter place. 
The said Christopher, by Joan daughter of James Hyett, of 
Lydney, with other issue, had a son William, who, in a charter 
dated 30th June, 1st James, describes himself of Heymeadow, in 
the parish of Newland, gent., which is the first instance we have 
observed, which establishes this place as the seat of the family. 
By Mary his wife, daughter of Thomas Winchcombe and heir of 
her brother, he had, with other issue, Benedict Hall his successor, 
and Henry Hall, in 1639 a benefactor to the parishes of Staunton 
and Newland, the special reasons he assigns for his bequest to the 
former parish being that he was born there, and that the manor 
house of his brother Benedict Hall, Esq., now standeth therein. 
Whether this implies that the old Manor House of Staunton, 
which we have seen was in ruins in 1584, had been restored, or 
whether the new house had been erected at Highmeadow as early 
as 1639, we know not of certainty, but probably the latter was 
the case. 

The members of the Hall family, in the 16th century, con- 
tinued adherents to the " old learning," and were subject to all 
the persecutions and disabilties which befel the Roman Catholics 
during the reigns of Elizabeth and James. Like most others of 
their co-religionists, they maintained their loyalty during the great 
rebellion of the middle of the 1 7th century. Benedict Hall 
garrisoned his house at Highmeadow for the King, and took an 
energetic part during the war in the forest district, generally 
acting with Lord Herbert and Sir John Wintour his brother-in- 
law. Beside his estates in Gloucestershire, stated at this time to be 
worth £1000 a year, he was possessed of Ganarew and Thruxton, 



Manor and Advowson of Staunton. 249 

in co. Hereford, and the curious castellated house, at Gillow, in 
the parish of Hentland, in the same county, belonged to him. 1 

Benedict Hall was present at the siege of Gloucester in 1643, 
with six of his servants armed, and was stationed at Newent 
under the command of Lord Herbert. 2 He had provisioned Lydney, 
Goodrich, and other places, and rendered many eminent services 
to the Royal cause. In 1644 the successes of the Parliament 
tarians in the Forest of Dean rendered the residence there of Mr. 
Hall and his family dangerous. Mrs. Hall at the end of August 
departed for Bristol, and Mr. Hall, soon afterwards, was obliged 
to abandon his home and take refuge first at Raglan and after- 
wards at Hereford. At this time Colonel Kyrll, who had rendered 
himself infamous by his several desertions from the King to the 
Parliament and from the Parliament to the King, held Monmouth 
for the latter, with the rank of Lieut-Colonel, and anticipating the 
final triumph of the former, made a proposal to Massey, Governor 
of Gloucester, to betray the town. Massey was a soldier and 
man of honour, and for some time paid no regard to these over- 
tures, but when the Governor was with his army in the forest they 
were renewed and so pressed upon his attention that he was 
induced to entertain the proposal, and Highmeadow was selected 
as the rendezvous of the parties. It was arranged that Colonel 
Kyrll should leave Monmouth with a small party, under the 
pretence of procuring provisions, and suffer himself and party to 
be surprised and made prisoners. He then undertook to guide a 
party of the Parliamentary soldiers into the town, and marching in 
front, the guard supposing it to be a portion of their own forces, let 
down the drawbridge, when the enemy entered without opposition, 
and the garrison was surprised, and fled in every direction. We 
must not pursue this detail further, it is no part of our subject. 
In the Indices to Royalist Composition Papers in the Publie 
Record Office, there are no fewer than 82 references concerning 
Benedict Hall. We have not had an opportunity of examining 
the papers, but they would probably throw much light upon the 
connection of Mr. Hall with the Royal cause, and possibly upon 

1 Webb's Memorials of the Civil War, citing Robinson's Mansions of 
Herefordshire, Vol. I., p. 226. 

- State Papers, xcvi. 305, et seq., cited by Webb, Vol. I., p. 330. 



Transactions at Bristol. 



the progress of the civil war in this district. He was doubt- 
less heavily fined. In the Return of the Recusants of the County 
of Gloucester who refused to take the oath of allegiance to 
George I., Benedict Hall, of High Meadow, Esq., grandson of 
the above-mentioned Benedict, is stated to hold lands in the 
county of the value of £627 12s. 6d. a year, and his cousin 
Benedict Wakeman, of Beckford, Esq., as holding lands of the 
value of £397 13s. 4cl. a year. 1 For further particulars of the 
family see annexed pedigree. 

The Advowson of the Church. 

There is not much to be written concerning the Advowson of 
this church, for, until within the last few years, it has always been 
appurtenant to the manor, and consequently has no special history 
of its own. When, in 1817, Lord Gage's lands and manors in this 
neighbourhood were sold to the Crown, the advowsons of the 
churches were reserved, and by Indenture dated 9th February, 
1830, the advowsons of the Churches of Staunton and Dixon, in 
the counties of Gloucester and Monmouth, were conveyed by John 
Hall Gage, Esq., and Admiral William Hall Gage, in whom the 
said advowsons were then legally vested in fee simple as trustees 
for Henry Hall Viscount Gage, and by the direction of the said 
Viscount, to Edward Machen, Esq., then of Whitemead Park, and 
his son the Rev. Edward Machen, of Eastbach Court, in the 
parish of English Bicknor, is the present patron. 

The parish contains 2090 statute acres, of which the greater 
part is wood-land, and the annual value of all the real property 
in 1815 was £915. According to a Return in the Bishop's 
Registry at Gloucester, the population, in 175- was 100, and the 
population, and number of houses inhabited and uninhabited at 
the several decennia in the present century have been as under : — 







1801 


1811 


1821 


1831 1841 


1851 


1861 


1871 


1881 


Population - 


159 


171 


200 


204 


188 


211 


202 


179 


121 


OT 


Inhabited 




41 


43 


42 


45 


48 


44 


37 


35 


<U 

r 


Uninhabited 




4 


6 






3 


3 


2 




w 













































See Gloucestershire Notes and Queries, Vol. IL, No, dlxvi, « 



Manor ani> Advowson of Stai/nto^. 



251 



The benefice, which was anciently in the Deanery of Irchenfield 
and Diocese of Hereford, is now in the Deanery of the Forest and 
Diocese of Gloucester, was rated in Pope Nicholas's Taxation at 
<£6 13s. id. 1 But in 1341, in the Nonarum Inquisitiones, it is stated 
of the ninth of the sheaves, fleeces, and lambs of the parish Church 
of Stauntone, in the Deanery of Yrchenfeld, that they are taxed at 
yj. marks lviij s xj d , therefore less than the tax, because the land of 
the rectory, the tithes of hay, heriott's, oblations, and other small 
tithes are taxed in the same year at xxj s j d . 2 In Wolsey's Valu- 
ation, 1535, the clear annual value of the benefice is stated to be, 
in rents and farm together with the tithes there, beyond yj s 
paid to the Archdeacon for procurations and iiij s of the Prior of 
Monmouth by a certain pension, £6 lis. 3 

The tithes were commuted on 28th March, 1844, when, there 
was awarded to the rector the annual sum of £147 5s. 2d. in lieu 
of tithes and moduses upon all the lands in the parish except the 
glebe lands, which contain 12a. lr. 2p., the tithes of which, when 
not in the manurance of the Rector, would be £2 per annum. 

The following Terriers of the Glebe lands and other particulars 
relating to the Benefice at various dates, preserved in the Bishops' 
Registry at Gloucester, will be read with interest : — 

Staunton. Churchwardenes Thomas Books (?) and . . . raffe lyne 

A true Tarare of all the grounde that apperteyneth to the parsonage 
w th in the lordshipp of Staunton as hereafter followeth 
On yarde lande 

An narchard conteyinge on rowde of grounde 

in the braude medowe of medowe grounde ij leyes and a half and halfe a 
rowde. 

in harrowell v. leyes on brawde grine conteyinge the iiij medowe ground ' 

part of an nacare on leye in Whittes leys (and a fardelle of, in another hand) 

in Darmore on leye and ij fardelles of medowe. 

of earablle ground in the northe fyld xiiij rudeges 

in the fyld called honniburne fild xix rudeges 

in the myddell fild xij rudges 

in the south fild . . . rudgls 

of commene of pasture for v beastes 

for iiij horscis iij score shippe 

This document is not dated, but would appear, from the writing, to be 
very early in the 17th century. 

1 Taxaxio Ecclesiastica, p. 160. 2 Nonarum Inquisitiones, p. 416. 

3 Valor Ecclesiasticus, Vol. IV., p. 502. 



252 



TRANSACTIONS AT BRISTOL. 



Staunton, Forest Deanery. 
Exhibit. 16th Janu. 1677 coram Rich. Parsons LI Bacc Cancel! Dioces. 

Glouc. 

A Terrier of all the glebe lands belonging to the Rectory of Staunton in the 
County of Gloucester being in the fforest of Deane near the river Wye 
together with an account of all the tythes and dues belonging to the 
Rector given into the office at Gloucester by the Churchwardens of 
Staunton january the sixteen in the year of our Lord one thousand six 
hundred seventy and seven. 

One parcel of glebe land known or called by the name of the Parsons 
land lyeing and being in the parish of Stanton adjoyning to the lands 
of Mr. Boothby on the south side now in the occupacon of Richard 
Wysham and to the land of Arthur Smith on the north and east 
sides to the lane that leadeth from the towne of Staunton to the 
Reddings on the west side thereof conteyning by estimation six acres 
be the same more or less and to be bounded by the Parson on the north 
and west sides thereof and not elsewhere. Also one other parcel of land 
behind the parsonage house and adjoyning to the lands of Richard 
Wysham on the south and east sides and to the lands of Ymine Higgin 
on the north side and to the Churchyard on the west side thereof con- 
teyning by estimatbn Two acres be the same more or less and to be 
bounded by the parson on the east west north and lower half of the 
south side and not elsewhere Also one other parcel of land lyeing near 
the Towne of Stanton comonly known or called by the name of the Court 
Orchard and adjoyning to the land of James Syms on the south east side 
and to the lane that leads from the upper end of the Towne to High- 
meadow on the east side and to the lane that leads from the lower end 
of the town to Highmeadow on the west side and adjoying to the Towne 
on the north side conteyneing by estimacon two acres be the same more or 
less to be bounded by the Parson on the two lanes sides and not elsewhere. 
Also one other parcel of land lying by the lane side which leadeth 
from Stanton to Cover and adjoyning to the lands of Ymme Higgin on 
the east north and south side thereof and west to the lane aforesaid 
conteyning by estimacbn One acre and an half be the same more or 
less to be bounded by the Parson on the west side thereof and not 
elsewhere. These Eleven Acres and half before expressed with the 
Parsonage House Garden and Barne will amount to the yearly value 
of ffive pounds and Ten shillings All Tythes are payable to the 
Rector of our parrish in kind as woods Corne Hay Wooll and lamb 
and Twelve pence for every Horse or Mare that is kept in our parrish 
have been our Custome time out of mind Two allowed only as unpay- 
able to everyone that keeps a plough for his or theyi own proper use. 
All other dues and Tythes that ever have or that can or may belong to 
a Minister have been ever held payable to the Rector of our parrish. 
This is a just and true account upon our othes which we have given into 
this office We in testimnoy whereof our hands have hereunto put the 
day and year first above written, 

The mark off 
Arthur A Smith 
The mark /\/\ oil* 
Will Ades, 

i 



Churchwardens. 



Manor and Advowson of Staunton. 



253 



A Terrier of all the Buildings Offices &c belonging to the Rectory of 
Staunton in the County of Gloucester. 

Impfs, a Dwelling house with 5 Roomes on y e ground and five Chambers a 
Barne consising of about 6 bayes of building, two shares behind y e barne 
for any conveniencyes, a stable with a Tollett for Hey. 

A large Garden adjoyning to the Dwelling house and a large yard that leads 
to it besides 4 parcels of Arable or pasture ground, one piece directly 
beneath the dwelling house, and joyning to it by estimacbn 3 acres : 
another called psons Land by estimacbn 8 acres, the lands of Benedict 
Hall Esq in the occupation of Thomas Tummy the land George Bond 
Gent called Long meadow, and the Lane leading to the Biddings, being 
on all parts thereoff. Another parcel called Court Orchard, the lane lead- 
ing from Stanton to High meadow, the Castle ditch and the land of 
Thomas Wysham jun 1 * being on all pts thereof. Another pcell of land 
called the Acre, but by estimacbn almost two bounded on all pts w th 
the land of Lmme Higgins and the highway leading from Staunton to 
Coleford. 

Besides belongs to y e Rector of Stanton for Offerings at Easter from persons 
fit to Communicate 2 d w th tythe in kind of all manner of Corn, Hey, wood, 
wooll lambs, piggs, geese and all other things Tythable without any 
pretence of exemption or composition whatsoeuer 

Onely except that every householder is to pay for his garden l d for eggs l d 

for every Cow l d for every Calf or Colt 6 d for every horse y* carrys Coal 

or Ore a shilling, unless the owner plow or sow his land therew th and 

then he is allowed two horses for his husbundry. 

Wm. Harrison Rec r 

Geo. Dew 1 ' Church a c< i t a 

WillReignold j wardens A Seal of Arms. 

A jess (Jkecquy between 

Indorsed three talbots' heads 

Stanton In y e Forest Deanery erased. 
1698 

A Terrier of the Buildings Lands, Tythes and Customary Rights belonging 
to Rectory of Stanton in the County of Glouc. delivered into y e Registry of 
the Diocess January I70f 

Imprs, A Dwelling house with 5 rooms on each floor, a Barn of about 4 bays 
of building, with 2 Sheets on the east side and a stable at ye north end 
of the Dwelling house 

A garden that conteynes about y e 4 t0 part of an acre of Land a fold reacheth 
from y e barn to the wast called the Butts bounded with ye Church-yard 
and Garden 

A parcell of land behind the dwelling house by estimacon 3 acres bounded 
with Lands Thomas Wysham & Imm Higgens A parcel of land called 
Court Orchard formerly belonging to William Hall Gent but long since 
exchanged for a like parcel at the end of M r Halls stable, this Court 
Orchard bounds with the poors Garden, the highway leading from Stan- 
ston to Hymeadow the wast called the Castle ditch and the land of 
Thomas Wysham called Dade Pool on all parts thereof 



254 Transactions at Bristol. 

A parcell of Land called Parsons-land by estimacbn 6 acres bounded with 
the Lands of Benedict Hall Esq in the occupacon of Elinor Tummy 
wid. the Lands of Christopher Bond gent in the occupation of George 
Dew, and the lane from Staunton towards the Hidings on all parts 
thereof 

A parcell of Land called the acre surrounded with the Lands of Imm 
Higgens, and the high-way from Stanton to Coleford on all parts 
thereof. 

The Parson of Stanton hath right to the Tythe in kind of all Corn, Hey, and 
Coppice wood, wooll and Lambs, roasting pigs, gees, apples and Pears, 
he hath likewise right to the Tythe of all sorts arising or accruing from 
a farm called the Ridings, whether it be in the parish of Stanton or not. 

The present incumbent Mr. Harrison hath granted a Lease to Benedict Hall 
of High Meadow Esq of all sorts of Tyth arising from the demesne 
and from all his woods in the parish of Stanton (which he desires to 
insert here to prevent a modus decimandi) at yearly rent. 

The Parson of Stanton hath right to Easter Offerings, viz 2 d from every 
person aged 16 years, l d for every garden, l d for eggs from every 
person keeping hens, for every Cow depastured in the parish l d for 
every Calf 6 d for every Colt 6 d . Every fforeyner or person Living in 
any other parish is to pay for whatsoeuer Lands he depastureth in the 
parish of Stanton 20 d a pound, and every inhabitant of the parish that 
keepeth Horses for carriage is to pay 1 / yearly for each Horse : but if he 
imploys any Lands in husbandry two horses are allowed for yt. 

The Perquisites or surplice fees are for every wedding with Bans published 
2/6 for bans and a certificate or for any person marryed out of the parish 
the like sum, for every wedding with a Licence 5/, the usual offering 
for women at thanks giving after Child-birth is 4 d , for baptisms and 
burials there is no fee due 

This is a true account of the rights of the Church as they came to my hand 

March 7 1678 and they have so peacably continued to this present January 1 

170|- witness my hand and seal Jan 1 st 170f- 

William Harrison, Rector 
(Seal of Arms) 

William Wysham A fess Chequy betio. three Talbots' 

Thomas Wysham heads erased. A similar head 

for a crest ( a fine seal ). 

List of Institutions to the Rectory of Staunton. 
dir. 1139-1148. Robert was Priest of Staunton. 1 
1302. 8th Kal. Nov. John de Woodward, 2 Clerk, was admitted to 

the Church of Staunton in the Forest, upon the presentation 

of the Prior and Monks of Monmouth. 
1316. 4th nones March. Robert de Alueston 3 was admitted to 

the Church of Staunton upon the presentation of John de 

Staunton. 

1 Vide ante p. 229. 2 Bishop Swinfield's Reg,, fob 133, 

3 Ibid. fol. 201, (See also ante p. 233). 



Manoe and Advowson of Staustok. 



255 



Unknown. John cle Staunton. 

1366. April 30. Henry Burch, Clerk, 1 was admitted to the Church 
of Staunton, vacant by the death of John de Staunton, last 
parson upon the presentation of Edward, King of England. 

1384. June 8. Thomas Woborne, Clerky 2 was admitted to the 
Church of Staunton, in the Forest, vacant, and in the 
presentation of the King, who presented the said Thomas 
because John Waldyng did not sue for the advowson out 
of the King's hands. 

1393. Sept. 17. Thomas Staunton, Clerk, was 3 admitted to the 
Parish Church of Staunton in the Eorest, vacant, upon the 
presentation of John Walwyn, Lord of Staunton. 

1394. June 27. Philip Digris, Clerk, 4 was admitted to the Church 
of Staunton, in the Eorest, vacant upon the presentation 
of John Waldyng, Lord of Staunton. 

Unknown. Sir Henry Wodestoke 

1420. July 9. William Smarte 5 was admitted to the Church of 
Staunton, vacant by the resignation of Sir Henry Wode- 
stoke upon the presentation of John Staunton, Lord of 
Staunton. 

1426. April 26. John Clifford Chaplain 6 was admitted to the 
Church of Staunton in the Eorest, upon the presentation 
of Richard de Staunton. 

1 Bp. Lewis Chorlton's Reg., fol. 20. Inq., p. no. 8th Rich. II., No. 39. 

2 Bishop's Gilbert's Reg,, fol. 13, Inq. p.m., 8th Richard II. No. 39. 

3 Bishop Trefnant's Reg., fol. 19. 4 Ibid 23. 

5 Bp. Lacy's Reg. fo, 31. 6 Bishop Spofforth's Reg., fol. 118. 

A caveat was entered against admission to this vacancy, and on 21 st 
April, 1428, a commission was issued by the Bishop to the Dean of Irchen- 
field, to enquire by a jury as to the right of presentation. An Inquisition 
was accordingly taken on the 26th of the same month, and the jurors 
say that certain material questions arose as to the right of patronage to 
this church between the Prior of Monmouth and John Lord of Staunton, 
in 1316, and the cause was remitted to the Court of Arches, and a Robert 
de Alveston, Clerk, by virtue of the presentation of the said John was 
admitted, and the right has been enjoyed to this day, whereupon John 
Clifford was instituted accordingly under the commission ; and the jurors 
further say that this church is pensioner of the Church of Duxon (Dixon) in 
12d, per annum, and of the Church of Monmouth in 4s. per annum. This 
John Clifford was Chaplain of the Greyndour Chantry in the Church of 



256 



Transactions at Bristol. 



1449. June 18. Sir Walter Ocle, 1 Chaplain, was admitted to the 
Church of St. Nicholas, of Staunton, vacant by the resig- 
nation of John Clifford, last Eector, upon the presentation 
of Sir Richard Lord of Staunton. 

1476. August 7. Sir Nicholas Austeyn, 2 Chaplain, was admitted 
to the Parish Church of Staunton, vacant, upon the presen- 
tation of John Lyttleton, son of Thomas Lyttleton, Knt., 
for this turn the true patron, by the grant of Johanna, who 
was the wife of Thomas Stanton in her pure widowhood. 

1477. March 28. Sir Thomas More, 3 Chaplain, was admitted to 
the Parish Church of Staunton, vacant, by the resignation 
of Nicholas Austeyn, upon the presentation of Hugh 
Hamersham, true patron in right of his wife. 

1551. [John] Wynter 4 was Rector in this year. 

1582. Sept. 5. John Trubshawe, Clerk, was collated to the Rec- 
tory of Staunton by lapse, vacant by the death of [John] 
Wynter, last incumbent. 

1594. Nov. 4. John Westbury, Clerk, 5 was admitted to the Rec- 
tory of Staunton, vacant by the resignation of John 
Trubshawe, Clerk, last incumbent, upon the presentation 
of John Seymour, true patron. 

1597. April 26. Thomas Williams, Clerk, was admitted to the 
Church of Staunton, vacant by the resignation of John 
Westbury, Clerk. 
John Williams 

Newland, which he resigned in 1448, on the 4th March, in which year 
(1448-9) William Coberley was instituted as his successor. (Bishop Beau- 
champ's Reg., fol. 2). 

1 Bishop Beauchamp'sReg., fol. 5. 

2 Bishop Wyllyng's Reg., fol. 21. 3 Ibid, fol. 72. 

4 The Registers of Institution at Gloucester commence only in 1551, 
and the institution of John Wynter is not traced either at Hereford or 
Gloucester. Bishop Hooper, of Gloucester, issued his Articles of Visitation 
in this year. One of the articles of the Examination of the Clergy was : on 
the Creed : {a). What are the Articles of the Christian Faith ? (b). Can the 
examinant repeat them? (c.) Can the examinant prove them by scripture 
authority? Mr. Wynter's proper answer, as regards proving the Articles 
of the Creed, was that he could not prove them unless it were: "thus 
saith the Church Catholic." (See Trans., Vol. IV., p. 18). 

5 John Westbury, resigned 1st April, 39th Elizabeth. Grant of next 
presentation to John Lavaker, which seems to have been voided. 



Manor and Advowson of Staunton. 



257 



1623. March. 13. John Anderton was admitted to the Church of 
Staunton, vacant by the death of John Williams, upon 
the presentation of Thomas Hill, pleno jure. 

1629. April 15. Francis Hampton, A.B., 1 was admitted to the 
Church of Staunton, vacant by the death of John Anderton. 

1656. Stephen Chamberlaine. 2 

1660. July 28. Charles Godwyn, Clerk, 3 was inducted (Parish 
Register). 

1663. February 16. William Hughes, Clerk, was admitted to 
the Church of Staunton, vacant by the cession of Charles 
Godwyn, Clerk, the last incumbent, upon the presentation 
of [Benedict] Hall, Esq., the true patron. 

1670. August 31. Oliver Hughes, Clerk, M.A., was admitted to 
the Rectory of Staunton, vacant by the resignation of 
William Hughes, Clerk, last incumbent, upon the presen- 
tation of Henry Hall, Esq., the true patron. 

1672. March 28. George Dalston, M.A., 4 was inducted [Parish 
Register]. 

1677. April 4. Thomas Stripling, 5 was admitted to the Rectory 
of Staunton, vacant by the death of George Dalston, upon 
the presentation of Henry Benedict Hall, Esq. 

1679. May 10. William Harrison, Clerk, M.A., 6 was admitted to 
the Rectory of Staunton, vacant by the death of Thomas 
Stripling, upon the presentation of Henry Benedict Hall, 
Esq., the true patron. 

1 Francis Hampton signed the Transcripts of the Parish Registers for 
the years 1638 and 1653. 

2 We find a person of his name described as " Minister " in this year. 
"Joseph the son of Stephen Chamberlaine," "Minister " of this towne was 
borne the eleaventh day of September in the year of our lord 1656." — (p.k,.) 

3 Charles Godwyn was probably related to Morgan Godwyn, son of the 
Bishop of Hereford, who was instituted to the Church of English Bicknor, 
29th April, 1639, and to Thomas Godwyn, his successor, who himself was 
succeeded at Bicknor by William Hughes, on 2nd December, 1669 (Trans., 
Vol.1, p. 85.) 

4 He was inducted, and read the articles, 14th April, 1672. 

1676. George Dalston, Rector of this Parish, was buried 4th Nov. (p.r.) 

5 He was inducted, and read the 39 articles, 25th Nov., 1677. (p.R.) 

6 He was inducted 25th August, 1 679. 



258 



Transactions at Bristol. 



1724. July 27. James Birt, Clerk, M.A., 1 was admitted to the 
Rectory of Staunton, vacant by the death of William 
Harrison, last Rector, upon the presentation of the Lord 
Viscount Gage in Ireland. 

1726. March 1. Thomas Hill, Clerk, 2 was admitted to the Rectory 
of Staunton, vacant by the cession of James Birt, last 
incumbent, upon the presentation of Thomas Lord Viscount 
Gage. 

1764. Sept. 4. Daniel Price, Clerk, M.A., was admitted to the 
Rectory of Staunton, in the Forest, vacant by the death of 
Thomas Hill, the last incumbent, upon the presentation of 
the Lord Viscount Gage. 

1765. Nov. 29. William Barnes, Clerk, M.A., was admitted to 
the Rectory of Staunton, void by the resignation of Daniel 
Price, last incumbent, upon the presentation of Lord Vis- 
count Gage. 

1813. March 23. Thomas Kenedy Mallett, Clerk, B.A., 3 was 
admitted to the Rectory of Staunton, in the Forest, void 
by the death of William Barnes, Clerk, last incumbent, 
upon the presentation of the Lord Viscount Gage. 

1823. January 18. Richard Davies, Clerk, M.A., was instituted 
to the Rectory of Staunton, upon the presentation of the 
Right Hon. Henry Hall Lord Viscount Gage, vacant by 
the death of Thomas Mallet, Clerk, the last incumbent. 

1857. Edward Machen, Clerk, B.A., was instituted to the Rectory 
of Staunton, void by the death of Richard Davies, the 
the last incumbent, upon the presentation of Edward 
Machen, of Eastbach Court, patron in full right. 

1680. William Harrison, Rector of the Parish, and Elizabeth Machen, of 
English Bicknor, were married 28th April. 

1684. William son of William Harrison, and Elizabetli his wife, was bap- 
tised 17th August. 

1715. .Elizabeth wife of William Harrison, Rector, was buried 24th Dec. 

1720. April 24. The Benefice was sequestrated upon the death of William 
Harrison, Clerk, last incumbent. 

1 1726. Dec. 21. The Benefice was sequestrated, vacant by the cession of 

James Byrt. 

2 1733. Elizabeth daughter of Thomas Hill, Clerk, and Elizabeth his wife, 

buried llth Sept. 
1764. Thomas Hill, Clerk, was buried 9th July, 1764. 
8 Died suddenly 21st Oct., 1822, and was buried at Staunton on the 25th. 



Manor and Advowson of Staunton. 



259 



1874. Sept. 28. John Senior, Clerk, was instituted to the Rectory 
of Staunton, vacant by the resignation, on the 25th, .of 
Edward Machen, Clerk, the last Rector, upon the presen- 
tation of the said Edward Machen, the true patron. 

* • ■ 

Charities. 

Henry Hall, described as of Highmeadow, in the Parish of 
Newland, second son of William Hall, Esq., deceased, by his will 
dated 29th March, 1639, bequeathed as under. If he did not in 
his lifetime settle lands of inheritance for the relief of the poor of 
the parish of Newland, where he was born, and of the parish of 
Staunton, in which the manor house of his brother Benedict Hall, 
Esq , now standeth, he did, by his will, bequeath the sum of £1000 
towards the relief of the poor of the two parishes equally: viz., to 
buy some lands, &c, to be settled, and the yearly issues and profits 
to be distributed among the poor of the two parishes equally at 
Christmas and Pentecost: viz., 10s. at each feast, first allowing such 
two as his brother Benedict Hall and his heirs might appoint, 
2/6 each for their pains in distributing it, and 12d. to the clerk of 
the parish, or to such person as should read the said will, the better 
to continue and maintain the gift. Appoints his brother Benedict 
Hall and his heirs to see that the gift be settled as near as may be 
to the gift of testator's great-grandmother Mrs. Johan Bradshaw's 
gift in Oxfordshire. He gives full power to his brother Benedict 
Hall, to his brother-in-law Edward Morgan, Esq., his brother-in- 
law John Farmer, Esq., his cousin Arthur Doddington, groom of 
the privy chamber to Her Majesty, his nephews Henry Hall, John 
Hall, and William Hall, gents., sons of his brother Benedict Hall 
and his cousin Walter Williams, gent., and Thomas Sternhold, 
gent., son of John Sternhold, gent., or to any two of them, whereof 
the said Benedict Hall, Edward Morgan, John Farmer, Arthur 
Doddington, shall be one of the two, and in case of their death 
before the testator, Henry Hall, John Hall, or William Hall, one of 
his nephews, to sell or grant leases of certain houses in St. Olave's, 
Southwark, or any other of his lands to raise the said sum. And he 
appoints his brother Benedict Hall, Esq., in case of his disclaimer, 
then his sister Cecilia Morgan, in case of her disclaimer, his sister 



260 Transactions at Bristol. 

Mary Farmer, and in case of her disclaimer, Henry Hall, John 
Hall, and "William Hall, his nephews, in succession, and in case of 
their disclaimer, then his brother-in-law Edward Morgan, of 
Pencoyd, Esq. , his executor. The will was proved by Mary Farmer, 
on 19th May, 1648. The will, was, however, disputed by Benedict 
Hall, and in Mich, term, 1641, a Bill in Chancery was exhibited by 
John Farmer and Mary his wife, and other inhabitants of New- 
land and Staunton, against Benedict Hall and Ann his wife, 
concerning the said will, and on 3rd August, 1655, it was ordered, 
by consent, that a commission should be awarded to John Smith, 
William Gardiner, John Smith, and Thomas Ayleway, to examine 
witnesses, and hear and determine all differences between the 
parties, and certify the same into court. This resulted in a com- 
promise, by which it was agreed that the said Benedict Hall 
should, of his own accord, settle the lands of the aforesaid testator 
upon the said Benedict's second son John Hall, and also pay 
.£510, bequeathed by the said Henry Hall, to the aforesaid John 
Farmer and Mary his wife, and likewise pay 1000 marks (£750) 
to the poor of the said parishes, or in lieu thereof, charge land to 
the value of £20 per annum to each parish for ever, for which 
arrangement a decree was made on 23rd October, 1655. Where- 
upon, by Indenture dated 3rd February, 1657, Benedict Hall and 
John Hall his son, did give and grant unto Baynham Throck- 
morton, Esq., and other inhabitants of the parishes of Newland 
and Staunton one annuity, or yearly rent-charge, payable out of 
certain houses and lands called Trippenkennett Farm, in the parish 
of St. Weynard's, in the County of Monmouth, to hold to the said 
Baynham and the others and their heirs for ever, the same to be 
paid at or in the church porch at New] and, on 1st December and 
1st June in each year, by equal portions, in trust, that, upon the 
punctual payment of the said rent-charge, they, the said trustees, 
should, within ten days, pay over one moiety thereof to the Church- 
wardens of Newland and the other moiety to the Churchwardens 
of Staunton to be distributed by the said several and respective 
churchwardens at their several and respective parish churches 
among the poor of the said several parishes. And it was provided 
that in case of neglect on the part of the said churchwardens, 



Manor and Advowson of Statjnton. 



261 



the said Benedict Hall, or such person or persons as should be 
heir of the body of the said Benedict, who, for the time being, 
shall dwell in the said Capital Messuage of Highmeadow, shall 
appoint other fit persons to fill up vacancies in the trust. And a 
fine was levied in the Court of Chancery on 20th February in the 
same year. 

An accompt of the Several Charitable Benefaccbns towards the use of the 
porre of the parish of Staunton in the fforest of Deane in the County of 
Glocestre. 

1 There is at Trippenkennit in the County of Heref . a rent charge of £40 p 

annu equally to be divided between the parishes of Staunton and New- 
land for the reliefe of the poor of the sayd parishes wch is secured by 
deed. The Trustees for Staunton are Henry Hall, Esq. and Richard 
Wysham who are joyned w th others for the parish of Newland. 

2 There is a house and Garden at the vpper end of Staunton nere the Church 

which was purchased for the Habitacon of Poore people w th money 
improved out of the rent charge above mencbned. 

3 There is one hundred pounds in money improved likewise from the same 

Originall secured by the Bond of Henry Hall Esq & Richard Wysham. 

4 And likewise £50 in money equally to be divided between the parishes of 

Staunton and Newland aforesaid, secured by the Bond of William Hall 
of Peterchurch in tke County of Hereford gent 

There are at present no other charitable gifts bequeathed to our parish 
y t we know of. 



An account of Charitable Gifts belonging to the poor of the parish of Stanton 

in the County of Gloucester 
Impri s A Dwelling house called the Alms-house usually inhabited by 4 poor 

familyes with a large garden formerly in two parts bounded with the 

land called Court Orchard belonging to o r Minister and the wast called 

the cinder-hill on most parts thereof. 
A Rent Charge of £40 per ann upon an estate called Trippenkennit in the 

County of Hereford equally to be divided between the poor of the 

parishes of Stanton and Newland for which there are in the parish of 

Stanton 6 Trustees. 
There doth likewise belong to the poor of Stanton the sum of £140 w ch at 

present is secured by an estate of Benedict Hall Esq called Braceland 

in the parish of English Bicknor in this County. 
There is at present in the Trustees hands the sum of £20 and upwards of 

ready money for which they want Security. 




Church 
wardens 



Approved by us 



1 Jan 1704 



W m Harrison Rect r 
William Wysham 
Thomas Wisham 



Vol. VII., part 2, 



T 



262 



Transactions at Bristol. 



The Church. 

The church, which is dedicated to All Saints, has been already- 
described, ante Vol. VI., p. 358, and some remarks on the antient 
and remarkable Baptismal Font will be found in Vol. V., p. 67, 
but the Bells and Communion Plate have not been noticed. The 
former consist of a ring of six, which are thus descrbed by Mr. 
Ellacombe : — 

1. £lje mft 0 of Jftr* Samuel lElt Harris, 0 ©tmwitoar&en 
of <Staunton, Cartel) <•> <&lQUtt8teX8i)tvt f 1863 - - 27 

2. Qfyt ©tft of ffl)t Itetomnti JFames i^ammontr, %M*> of 
Itterton College, ®sfortf, to tfje parts!) of Staunton, 
^foueesterstfnre - - - - 29 

3. GIVE ' THAINK ' TO * GOD ■ I.P. 1 623 - 3 1 

4. (Blank) 

5. ►{« Entonat IE Celts box Campana Jftteijaelts 35 

6. *i* Sanct &i)oma ®ra pro nofcts 1 - - 39 

G 

We much regret to state however that the two ancient and 
interesting bells are now lost. The Rev. Richard Davies, Rector 
of Staunton, who died 3rd August, 1857, by his will, elated 20th 
July previously, bequeathed a sum of £1300 towards the repairs 
of the Church and the Parsonage of Staunton. This gave an 
impetus to certain reparations and improvements in the church, to 
which considerable sums were contributed by members of Mr. 
Davies's family and Mr. Hammond abovementioned. Among 
other works, in 1862, the two ancient bells, being cracked, and the 
fourth bell, also cracked, were recast to make the ring complete. 
Other improvements were also made, chiefly at the expense of Mr. 
Hammond, e.g. a tower clock, a stained glass east window in the 
chancel, and an organ. He further gave a sum of £100 to be 
invested and the interest derived therefrom to be applied for the 
benefit of the organist. 

Communion Plate. 
This consists of the following articles : Cup, with cover and 
paten, each of which bears the following inscription : " The Gift of 

1 With reference to these ancient bells, see ante p. 65. 



Manor and Advowson of Staunton. 



233 



Henery Benedict Hall, Esq re to y e Church of Staunton in y e 
Countie of Gloucester." The maker's mark is LB., surmounted 
by a stag. The year-mark, which is very indistinct on each article, 
would appear to be a small black letter Jj, the mark for 1685-6, 
and this would agree with the inscription, for Mr. Hall died in 
1687. A modern chalice with the following inscription : " In 
the year of our Lord 1844 Edward Eeild D.D. Bishop of New- 
foundland, once Rector of English Bicknor, to the Rector and 
Church of Staunton for ever." 

A modern plated flagon. 

Parish Registers. 
The Parish Registers commence in 1653, but are very imperfect 
and in bad condition. 

About the year 1860, the Rev. Edward Machen, then rector 
of the parish, by his deed granted certain lands in augmentation 
of the glebe to meet a grant of £200 made from Queen Anne's 
Bounty to increase the revenues of the benefice ; and Miss Emily 
Elizabeth Gibbon, by her Deed Poll dated 6th August, 1870, for 
the enlargement of the churchyard, gave a garden plot containing 
one rood and five perches of land, numbered 24 on the tithe map. 
This additional ground was consecrated on 4th October, 1873. 



264 



Transactions at Bristol. 



Pedigree of Hall and Gage, of Highmeadow. 
Compiled from Records in College of Arms, Harl. MSS., and other authorities* 














"""" r% / 



Juliana, Nurse, widow, = 
second wife. Marriage 
settlement dated 1 2th 
Nov., 33rd Henry VIII. 
s.p. 



^William Hall, of New- 
land, gent. Died 1 Aug. , 
1545, seized of lands at 
Highmeadow, &c. Inq. 
p.m., 38th Henry VIII. 
Wards & Liveries. 



=- - - - dau. of. 
- - - - Butler, 
of Badmyng- 
ton, co. Glouc. 
Arms : gu. two 
bars erm. 



Christopher Hall,= 
of Newland, held 
lands at High- 
meadow. Born 2 
Feb., 1521, son 
and heir, aged 23 
yrs. on his father's 
death. 



Joan dau. of Thomas =f=Christian, dau. & coheir of Henry 



James Hyett, Winch- 
of Lydney. combe, of 
Arms: ar. a Chol- 
a lion ramp, grove, 
and a chief (?Chal- 
indented sa. grove.) 

co. Oxon. 



Bradshaw, Lord Chief Baron of 
the Exchequer, by his wife Joan 
. . . Arms : quarterly, 1 & 4. ar. 2 
bendlets sa, and in sinister chief a 
fleur-de-lis gu. (Bradshaw) 2 
qrtly. , 1 & 4 per bend, az. <k gu. a 
cross crosslet ar. (Gourney) 2 do 3 
ar. on cross sa. five lozenges of the 
field. (Blakenhall) 3, ar.six batons 
interlaced az. (Hurst). 



Mary, mar 

Harper, of co. Here- 
ford, secondly, John 
Probyn, of Newland, 
named as Mary 
Probben in brother 
William's will, 1615. 

r" 
a 



Thomas Hall, 
2nd son named 
in his brother 
William's will, 



Jane Hall, mar. 
Moor Gwilliam, 
of Monmouth. 



Other daughters 
referred to in 
brother's will, one 
of whom married 
Thomas Sternhold. 



Manor and Advowson oe Staunton. 



265 



William Hall, of : 
Highmeadow, son & 
heir. Bur.f . . 1615. 

Will dated 

Prob. 13 May, 1615. 
(45Rudd.) To be bur. 
in ch. of Newland. 



-Mary, dau. 
Thomas, & sis 
& heir of Bene 
diet Winch- 
combe,of Noke. 
co. Oxon. 



of 



Benedict Winch- 
combe, of Noke, 
co. Oxon, named 
in will of William 
Hall as executor 
ob. s.p. 20th May, 
1623. 



=. . . da. & coheir 
of Wm. Falconer, 
of Lavesrstock, 
co. Wilts. Arms : 
quarterly: 1 & 4> 
sa. three falcons 
ar., 2 and 3, ar. a 
cross moline sa. 



Henry Hall, ; 
2ndson,bap.f 
8 June, 1594. 
Founder of 
Charity at 
Staunton and 
Newland. 
Will dated 29 
Mar., 1639, 
ob. Jan. 1644. 
Prob. 19 May, 
1648. Died 
Januar. 1644. 
Bur. at Rol- 
ston, co. 
Heref. M.i.f 



Cecilia Hall. 
Bap.f 21 Feb., 
1599. Mar.Edw. 
Morgan, named 
in bro. Henry's 
will. Arms : or, 
a griffin segreant 
sa. crescent for 
| a difference. 

L ~ l . ' 
Anne, wife of 

Christopher 

Turberville, of 

Pinline Castle 

co.Grlam., ob.29 

Nov. 1699. Bur. 

Bath Abbey Ch. 

M.I. 



Benedict HALL,=f=Anne, da. of Mary Hall, 



son& heir, of High 
Meadow, held the 
Manor of English 
Bicknor in 1635, 
exec, to father's 
will. Died at Cam- 
bray, 6 Ap., 1668, 
aged 78. Will dat. 
1 Dec, 1667. Prob. 
6 May, 1668. 
Desired to be bur. 
at Noke, but in- 
terred at New- 
land. M.I. 



Edw. Winter, bap.f 6 Ap. 
ofLydney, 1597. Mar. 
Knt.,byLady John Far- 
Anne Somer- mer, named 
set, 3rd dau. in brother 
of Ewd. Earl Henry's 
of Worcester, will, 1369. 
Died 10 Mar. 
1675. Admin, 
granted to her son 
Henry Benedict Hall. 
Arms: set. a fess erm. 
on a canton of the 2nd 
a lion ramp, of the first, 
a crescent for a differ- 
ence. 



HenryBene-- 
dict Hall, 
son and heir, 
of High 
Meadow, pre- 
sented to the 
Rectory of 
Staunton, 
1670, 1677, 
1679. Died 
. . . 1687. 



=Frances, dau. and 
heir of Sir John 
Fortescue, son & 
heir of Sir John 
Fortescue, of Sei- 
dell, co. Bucks, by 
Frances, eld. dau. 
and coheir of Sir 
Edward Stanley, 
of Tong Castle, co. 
Salop, by Lady 
Lucy Percy, 2nd 
dau. and coheir of 
Thomas 7th Earl 
of Northumber- 
land. 



Anne Hall. Mar. Cecilia. 

Richard Wake- Born 22 

man, of Beckford, June, 

co. Glouc. , named 1625, 

in her father's 

will, witness to 

nunc, will of Edw. 

Scudamore, of 

High Meadow, 

Esq. Proved 30 Sept., 

1650 (149 Pembroke). 



Benedict Wakeman. Born at High 
Meadow, 10th Jan., 1653 (p.r.) 



John Hall ex- 
ecutor to uncle 
Henry's will, 
1639. Erected 
monument at 
Newland to his 
uncle Henry. 



William Hall, Edward 4th Mary Frances Elizabeth 
of the Middle son. Died 14 Hall. Hall. Mar. Hall. Mar. 
Temple, named August, 1663, Born 22 . . . Con- .... Harvey 
in his uncle agd. 24. Bur. X June, quest named in 
Henry's will, m.i. 1625. named in father's will, 

1639. father's 1667. 

will, 1667. 



Benedict Hall, son &=j=Jane, dau. of 
heir, living in 1713. j 

Died Dec. 1714. | Died before 19 July, 1726. 

c 

t At Newland. i At Staunton. 



John Hall. Born 13 and 
bur.f 15 March, 1657. 



266 



Transactions at Bristol. 



Jane, relict of Henry= 
Jermyn Bond, Esq., 
of Bury St. Edmund's 
2nd wife, s.p. 



-Thomas Gage, Esq. , settlement 
before marriage dated 3rd Oct., 
1713, created Viscount Gage, 
of Castle Island, and Baron 
Gage, of Castlebar, in the 
Kingdom of Ireland, 14th Sep., 
1720. Died 21st Dec, 1754. 
Buried at Firle, co. Sussex. 



Benedicta Teresa 
Maria, only child and 
heir. Died 25th July, 
1749. Bur.t m.i. 



William Hall Gage,= 
eldest son & successor. 
Born 1st Jan., 1718, 
2nd Viscount Gage, 
presented to the Ch. 
of Staunton in 1764 & 
1765. Created a 
British Peer by the 
title of Baron Gage, of 
Firle, co. Sussex, 7th 
Oct. 1780, Being with- 
out issue of 1st Nov., 

1790, he obtained 
another Patent of 
creation as Baron 
Gage, of Highmeadow, 
co. Glouc, with re- 
mainder to his nephew 
and heir presumptive 
Major- General Henry 
Gage. Died 11th Oct., 

1791, s.p. 



^Elizabeth, 
I dau. of 

Sampson 
I Gidgeon, 
| Esq., and 

sister of 

Sampson 

Lord 

Eardley, 

s.p. 



Thomas 
Gage, a 
General in 
the army. 



; Margaret, 
dau. of Peter 
Kemble, 
President of 
the Council 
of New J er- 
sey. 



Benedicta 
MariaTeresa, 
married 
George 
Tasburgh, of 
co. Norfolk. 
Died s.p. 



Henry Gage, borm 
4th Mar., 1761, was 
an officer in the 93rd 
— — | foot, and obtained 

A son who the rank of Major, 
died in 17th Feb., 1783, & 
infancy. that of Major-Gen. 

before 1790. Suc- 
ceeded his uncle as 2nd 
Baron Gage of High 
Meadow, and 3rd Vis- 
count Gage. Died 29th 
Jan., 1808. 



Henry Hall Gage. Born 14th Dec, 
1791, 3rd Baron and 4th Viscount Gage, 
became of age 14th Dec, 1812, presen- 
ted to the Church of Staunton in 1813 
and 1822, sold the Manors of Staunton 
and Bicknor, High Meadow, and other 
lands in cos. Glouc. &Mon. in 1820, and 
the Advowsons of the Churches of 
Staunton and Dixon in 1830. 



-Susannah, John 
Maria, only Gage, of 
child and Rogate 



heir of 
William 
Skinner, 
Esq. 



Lodge, 
co. 

Hants. 
Bn.1767. 



Hon. Thomas William Gage, 
2nd son, of Westbury, co. 
Hants. Admiral in the Royal 
Navy. 



t At Newland. 



t At Staunton. 



N.ii,— The names of the known Lords of Staunton are printed in small capitals. 



Prinknash Park. 



267 



HISTORY OF PRINKNASH PARK, 

By the Rev. WILLIAM BAZELEY, M.A. 

At the time of the Norman Conquest the land now forming 
Prinknash Park was included in the great beechwood, which 
extended from Birdlip, on the east, to Painswick Beacon, or 
Kymsbury, on the west ; and from Brockworth and Witcomb on 
the north, to Brimpsfield and Oranham, on the south, and which 
still retains its Saxon name of Buckholt. In the time of 
Edward the Confessor, a thane, called Duns, or Dunne, who had 
also manors in Rockhampton and Stoke, held that part of Buck- 
holt which lay to the south of the Cotswold ridge ; whilst Turchil, 
who had also lands in Herefordshire, held Brockworth. The lands 
of Dunne were conferred by the Conqueror on Osbern Giffard; 
and those of Turchil on Hugh l'Asne, from whom they passed 
before the time of Henry I. to Roger de Chandos: 

A portion of both these properties came into the hands of the 
Abbots of Gloucester. 

The early history of Prinknash is closely connected with that of 
Brimpsfield and the Giffard family. Walter Giffard, the father of 
Osbern, fought as a grey-headed warrior at Hastings, and died 
before 1086. His descendants held Brimpsfield till the reign of 
Edward II. 

The last two barons were the most famous : Sir John Giffard, 1 
who fought against Henry III. at Lewes, and for him at Evesham ; 
and his son Sir John Giflard, who, siding with the Earl of Lan- 
caster against the Spencers, Edward II. 's favourites, was taken 
prisoner, and was hanged at Gloucester in 1322. 

Immediately after the death of the latter baron, the Castle of 
Brimpsfield, which had been for many years a terror to the 
citizens of Gloucester and the curse of the whole neighbourhood, 
was razed to the ground by order of the King. 

1 See Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle for an account of this Baron, 



268 



Transactions at Bristol. 



Helyas, the son of Osbern Giffard, gave to S. Peter's Abbey, 
Gloucester, in 1096, a portion of Buckholt with 3 bordarii. 1 In 
1121 Helyas Giffard and Ala his wife, together with their son 
Helyas confirmed this gift to the abbey.' 2 

In 1129 the boundaries of the abbey property in Buckholt 
were carefully marked and entered in the register. The entry in 
Abbot Froucester's chartulary of 1381, copied from an earlier 
register, is difficult to understand. The following is a translation : 

Boundaries between us and Helyas [Giffard]. 

The following are the boundaries of this property : Ledenecome 
is the boundary between us and Helyas ; and it extends as far as 
Alcamsode : between the archbishop and us, Wydecomsede. The 
highway is the boundary between us and Boger de Chandos : 
between us and Pain fitz John, Salcomesbroc as far as Idelsbridge. 
And between the King, and Elgar de Kenemesbury, and us, Prink- 
nash as far as the beech where the robber was hanged. Between 
us and Ernulph de Matesdon, Prinknash as far as Idelsbury. 
There is a certain mill there. And this was done in the year 
that King Henry married Adeliza [1129]. 

The obscurity of this passage is somewhat increased by the 
editor's foot-note in the History and Chartulary of S. Peter's 
Monastery published under the direction of the Master of the 
Rolls.3 

Le dene combe is no doubt Cranham Valley. Budder says 
that Dene signifies a valley, or woody place ; 4 but in other parts 
of England, and especially in Kent, it signifies a clearing in a 
forest. I think Le dene must be Cranham Common. Alcamsode 
is now called Holcombs wood. Gloucestershire people have 
always called wood " ood," and Alcams ode is an example of 
phonetic spelling in the 1 2th century. 

Wydecomsede is now called Cooper's hill, and terminates to 
the south in High Broadridge. 

1 Historia et Cartularium Mouastcrii Sancti Petri, Gloucestria;, Vol. I. 
p. 63. 2 Ibid., Vol. I., 62. * Ibid> VoLj L> p> 63> 

4 History of Gloucestershire, p. 28, 



Pejxknash Park. 



269 



Thurstan was Archbishop of York in 1121, and held Witcombe 
as part of his Manor of Churchdown by an arrangement with S. 
Oswald's priory in Gloucester. Aldred, the last Saxon Bishop of 
Worcester, had rebuilt the Abbey church of S. Peter's, Gloucester, 
and probably also S. Oswald's Priory, at his own expense. On the 
strength of this, when he was translated to the Province of York 
in 1060, he retained, by way of mortgage, 49 hides of the abbey 
lands, and the Manor of Churchdown belonging to the priory. In 
1095 Serlo, the first Norman Abbot of S. Peter's, regained the 
lost abbey manors from Thomas, Archbishop of York 1 ; but the 
Prior of S. Oswald's was not so fortunate. 

The road which lay between the abbey property and that 
of Roger de Chandos was no doubt the ancient track-way, which 
ran down from the camp on High Broadridge to Yalley Farm, the 
former residence of the Carwardines, and joined Portway at the 
foot of Prinknash Hill. Part of this road still exists and forms a 
boundary of Prinknash Park on the north, 

Salcomb is the valley below Cranham ; and Salcomb's brook, 
the head of the river Frome. The wood on the south side of the 
valley is still known as Salridge Wood. 

Pain fitz J ohn, who, as Lord of the Manor, gave his name to 
Painswick, was the patron of S. Peter's Church, Hereford, and is 
mentioned on several occasions in the Gloucester Chartularies. 

Idelsbridge was probably one of the many bridges that spanned 
the Frome between Cranham and Painswick. 

The King held Upton S. Leonard as part of the royal demesne 
of King's Barton. 

Elgar de Kenemesbury (or Kynemeresbury, as it is often called 
in the Chartulary) had his moated dwelling in the meadow which 
lies between Painswick Beacon and Kimsbury Farm. His family 
is often mentioned in the Abbey records. Kynemere was perhaps 
some hero in the border wars between the West Saxons and 
Mercians. Kempsford is written Kynemere's ford in the char- 
tularies, and Kemerton may mean Kynemere's town. 

1 Hist, et Cart., S. Petri Vol. L, p. 11. 



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Ernulph cle Mattesdon and his descendants were for many 
generations 1 tenants of King's Barton, under the King, and after- 
wards under S. Peter's Abbey A part of Pope's Wood is still 
known as Idelsbarrow; but the hill has been quarried to such 
an extent that I have been unable to distinguish the barrow from 
the numerous heaps of quarry rubbish. Idel, who gave his name 
to a bridge and a barrow, was probably another Saxon warrior of 
these marches. 

To the east of Idelsbarrow rises up High Broadridge with its 
camp, having an area of 200 acres, which Mr. G. B. Witts, 2 
believes to have been an extensive British settlement ; and 
between them, where the roads meet, is " Girding Knap, the 
traditional scene of a great battle. 

Prinknash is also written Prinkenesse, Prinkenesche, and 
Brinknash, in the abbey records. P and B are always interchange- 
able, especially in parts of England bordering on Wales. The first 
syllable suggests the brink of the hill : but whether the latter 
syllable is " ash," and refers to some " ash grove " in the midst 
of the surrounding beeches, as the spelling seems to imply, or 
"edge," as the pronunciation suggests, I must leave to better 
judges. If it means edge, then it is an instance of tautology, like 
Brea-don-hill and Buckholt-wood, a natural result of the retention 
of old names when the lan<rua£e which £*ave them birth has ceased 
to be the mother tongue. I believe that " Prinknash," in 1129, was 
the name of the ridge between High Broadridge and Kymsbury, 
and that it was in later times that it came to be applied to the 
land on the northern slope. 

The mill at Prinknash, near the source of Twy ver, is mentioned 
in 1122, and in later grants and inquisitions up to the 18th century. 
It does not now exist : but close to the Mansion House there 
are fields called Upper Mill Mead, Lower Mill Mead, and Mill Yat. 

During the time of Abbot Hammeline (1148-1179), Helyas 
Giffard, the second of that name who held Brimpsfield, became a 
monk of 8. Peter's in his wife Berta's lifetime, and gave Cranham 

1 For descendants of Ernulph de Mattesdon, see Pedigree ante Vol. II.. 
p. 2>3.— Ed. 2 Archaeological Handbook of Gloucestershire, p, 15. 

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Pbinknash Park. 



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to the abbey. 1 Soon after his son Helyas and his wife Berta 
exchanged lands in Ullingswick for Cranham, and so regained 
that part of Buckholt. 2 

The abbey property in Buckholt was largely increased by the 
grant or sale of lands by Lawrence de Chandos in the 13th century. 3 
In 1266 a survey was taken of the 23 manors of the abbey, 
Buckholt being included in the Manor of Barnwood. There were 
at that time three kinds of tenants under the abbey : (i). Ferendelli, 
or holders of a fardel (ten acres of land) ; (ii). Consuetudinarii, or 
customary tenants ; (Hi). Lundinarii, or tenants compelled by 
their holding to work for their lord on Monday in every week. 
The tenants of Buckholt, who appear to have been ferendelli, were 
seventeen in number. John Gosling, Adam Athill, John Athill, 
Elyas Athill, Alice of Broadridge, Richard of Broadridge, Robert 
Bulky, Elyas the Woodward, and Dyonisia Attcroft, held each a 
fardel of land and a messuage. Osbert of Broadridge held 4 acres 
and Prinknash Mill. William Atwell, John Rogers, William 
Faythes, and Agnes By-the-way, held each a messuage and 6 acres, 
William Attecroft and John Attecroft held 2 messuages and a 
fardel between them, and Matilda Bulky held a messuage and 3 
acres. Every tenant paid 4s. rent for his fardel of land and mes- 
suage, and about Is. for "aid to his lord," made 3 bederipes (i.e. 
three days' gratuitous reaping or mowing) every year, gave tuck to 
the abbot's hogs, paid tax for beer, when he brewed it for sale 
and for each horse he sold off the manor, and had to obtain the 
abbot's consent before he could give a daughter in marriage or 
send a son away from home. 4 

The total sum paid as rent from Buckholt was 59 shillings, and 
for aid 15s. 6d. The total value of the labour was 6s. It would 
seem that as early as the 1 3th century all customary labour might 
be compounded for by a fixed payment. 

In 1316 Sir John Giffarcl, Lord of Brimpsfield, granted the 
right of free pasturage in Buckholt to the Abbey of St. Peter, 5 

1 Hist, et Cart. S. Petri, Vol. I., p. 69. 2 Ibid., Vol. I., p. 117. 

3 Ibid., Vol. I., p. 65. Laurence de Chandos dissipated all his property, 
6ee ante p. 149 and Chandos Pedigree, p. 171. — Ed. 

i Ibid., Vol. III., p. 121. '° Ibid., Vol. III., p. 271. 



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on the attainder of Sir John Giffard the Manor of Brimpsfield was 
granted to Hugh Despencer, and on his attainder to John Mal- 
travers. 1 Maltravers was also attainted, and Sir Maurice Berkeley 
obtained a grant of Brimpsfield in 1340.' 2 

In 1343 the Abbot of S. Peter's pleaded at Westminster that 
Maurice de Berkeley had unjustly seized 66^- acres of wood belong- 
ing to the abbey ; and on the case being tried at Gloucester 
he regained the property. 3 

In 1355 Edward III., amongst his many favours to the abbey 
in return for the honour done to his father's body, granted the right 
of freewarren, or of hunting and killing game, in that part of 
Buckholt which has since been called Prinknash Park. 4 In 1397 
Richard II. confirmed this grant. Soon after this the Pope allowed 
Prinknash to become extra-parochial, a privilege which it enjoyed 
till very lately. 

We have seen that there was a woodward of Buckholt in 
1266. Yery probably a hunting lodge was built at Prinknash 
soon after the grant of freewarren in 1355, and was occupied by 
this officer when the abbot and his suite were not there. 

Some parts of the present house may be as old as the 14th 
century. Tradition says that there was a house at Prinknash 
before Abbot Parker or Malverne's time, 1514-1539 : but that he 
was the first to use it as a residence. 

At the commencement of the 16th century, as I find from 
Abbot Braunche's Register, the office of Woodward of Buck- 
holt was held, together with the site of the Manor of Barnwood, by 
John Farley, a brother or nephew of William Farley, abbot from 
1472 to 1499.' On the 1st of May, 1501, the abbot granted the 
reversion of this office and site to Dame Margaret Bruges, widow, 
to her son Richard Banaster and his wife Agnes. Dame Margaret 
must have been the second wife of Sir Thomas Brydges, of Cuber- 
ley, and the widow of a person called Banaster. 5 In 1517 Abbot 

1 Close Roll, 15th Edward II. , as cited by Fosbrooke, Vol. II., p. 529. 

2 See Smyth's Berkeley MSS. : Lives of the Berkeleys, Vol. L, p. 249. 
8 Hist, et Cart. Vol. III., 247. 

4 Close Roll, 23rd Edw. III., as cited by Fosbrooke, Vol. I., p. 266. 

5 Abbot Braunche's Register No. 18. 

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Prinknash Park. 



273 



Malverne granted this office and site to his brother Humphrey- 
Parker and Isabel his wife, for 70 years, if they lived so long. 1 

It is stated, incidentally, in Malvern's register, that in 1519 he 
was residing at Saintbridge because he had no other suitable abode. 2 
This seems to show that Prinknash was not yet an abbatial 
residence. The first mention of it as such appears in the Register 
in 1526. In an abbey lease, dated 4th Nov. of that year, of certain 
lands in Upton S. Leonard to John Bayly, it is stipulated that he 
should fell and carry within Buckholt Wood sufficient and necessary 
fuel to the house of the abbot at Prinknash so long as the abbot 
should there personally reside. 3 

Amongst the State Papers in the Hecord Office there is an 
account of the proceedings at Malmesbury Abbey on the 20th 
December, 1527, before William, Abbot of S.Peter's, Gloucester, 
who exhibited a commission from John, Abbot of the exempt 
monastery of St. Peter's, Westminster, and President of the Black 
Monks of the Benedictine Order in England, which commission he 
had received on the 4th of December, at Prynkemarsh, in the 
presence of John Trye, Justice of the Peace, and Thomas Hall, 
Notary Public. 

Prinknash is spoken of in the county histories as a summer 
residence of the Abbots of Gloucester. The only notices of it 
which I have found in the Abbey Registers and the Calendars 
of State Papers lead one to conclude that Abbot Parker visited 
it principally in winter. 4 

I have not found in the Begister a single official letter, or 
grant, dated from Prinknash. 

I should give as the date of the building or enlargement of the 
Abbot's house at Prinknash, 1520-1525. The south-west wing, 
the drawing room, kitchen, and pantries, belong to this period. 
The oriel window in the dining room, with its fan tracery, is a 
charming example of Malverne's work. 

1 Abbot Parker's Register, Vol. L, No. 103. 

2 Perhaps the plague was raging at Gloucester at this time. 

3 Abbot Parker's Register, Vol. I., No. 328. 

4 The temperature is much milder at Prinknash than in the plain below 
during the winter. 



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It may be well now to mention the other remains which have 
served as a clue in recovering the lost records of this interesting 
residence. In the hall, as a centre-piece for the ceiling, is a double, 
or Tudor, rose, surmounted by the badge of the house of York, 
before Edward IV. ascended the throne, a falcon and fetterlock. 
This ornament has been often adduced as a proof that the hall 
was built in the 1 5th century : but the Tudor rose proves it to be 
later than the reign of Richard III. 1 The falcon and the fetterlock 
may be seen on the gate of Henry VII. 's chapel in Westminster 
Abbey as the badge of Elizabeth of York, his Queen. But why 
should her badge be at Prinknash ; for it would seem to be hers 1 
It may be accounted for by the close connection between Prinknash 
and Brimpsfield. Soon after the execution of John Giffard, 
Brimpsfield passed from the Berkeleys into the hands of Lionel 
Duke of Clarence and successively to Edmund Earl of March, 
Roger de Mortimer, Richard Earl of Cambridge, and Richard 
Duke of York, father of Edward IV. 

In 1460 the Constableship of Brimpsfield was conferred on 
Ciceley, Duchess of York ; and on her death, in 1492, it was 
assigned to Elizabeth, the Queen of Henry VII., as part of her 
jointure. 

Early in August, 1502, Elizabeth, who was recovering from a 
serious illness, made a progress through Gloucestershire to Raglan 
Castle, accompanied by Lady Bray, widow of Sir Reginald Bray. 
On the 4th of August she journeyed from Langley through North- 
leach to Cubberley, where she was the guest of Sir Giles Brydges. 
On the following day she probably visited Brimpsfield, and was 
met at Prinknash by the Abbot of Gloucester, who conducted her 
through Gloucester to his mansion on Vineyard Hill, where she 
spent the night. On the 6th she continued her progress to Elaxley 
Abbey. Her privy purse expenses show that she gave twenty 
pence to an anchoress at Gloucester, 2 and offered twelve pence to 

1 See plate XXVI., fig. 1. 

2 In 1531 Abbot Parker leased to Humphrey Wilkyns the chapel, or 
hermitage, of S. Mary, of Senbridge, or Saintbridge, together with oblations, 
tithes, &c. (Abbot Parker's Register, Vol. II., No. 85.) 



Prtnknash Park. 



275 



the Roode beyond Gloucester. 1 It is probable that her badge 
in the old hall at Prinknash is commemorative of this visit. 

Elizabeth died in February, 1503-4 at the early age of 38, and 
the constableship of Brimpsfield. was granted to Katherine of 
Arragon, wife of the young Prince Arthur, and afterwards of 
Henry VIII. 

In the right hand window of the drawing room, on the side 
looking towards the south-east, are the paternal arms of Abbot 
Parker, alias Malverne — a buck trippantbetiv. three pheons, within 
a bordure engrailed, ensigned loitlt an c.bbofs mitre & pastoral 
staff: his device — a boiv in /esse, surmounted by two arrows in 
saltire ; and the royal cognizance of Queen Catherine of Arragon — 
a pomegranate, ensigned with an imperial crown! 1 The heraldic 
tinctures are not given. In the other window, on the S.E., are, 
in the middle light, the arms of Henry VIII. : quarterly France 
and England, impaling the arms of his consort Catherine of 
Arragon : quarterly quartered : 1st & J^th grand quarters, gules, a 
castle triple-towered or , for Castile, quartering argent, a lion rampant 
gules, for Leon ; 2nd & 3rd grand quarters or, four pallets gules, 
for Arragon ; impaling Sicily : per saltire 1st & Jfih Arragon, 2nd, 
and 3rd argent, an eagle disp)layed sable, beaked and member ed 
gides, for Suabia. In the base point, argent, a pomegranate slipped 
proper, the badge of Grenada. 3 In the two side lights of this 
window are. the attributive arms of Osric, founder of S. Peter's 
Abbey, a.d. 681 : gules, a cross between four lions rampant or.^ 
There is, moreover, built into the S.W. angle of the external wall 
for the sake of preservation, the spandrel of a square-headed Tudor 
doorway containing the initials W.M., a pastoral staff, a tassel 
and a fleur-de-lis. 5 We may attribute the same date (1520-1525) 
to all these remains as to the building or improvement of the 
mansion by Abbot Parker. 

1 The abbey records mention the Rood on the Westgate Bridge, and also 
on the Bridge at Over, near the Vineyard. 

2 See Plate XXVII., figs. 1, 2, & 3 See Plate XXVII., fig. 4. 
4 See Plate XXVII. , figs. 5 and 6. 

The crowns which ensign the shields of Osric are different. This 
probably arises from the fact that he was sub-King of Mercia and afterwards 
King of Northumbria. s See Plate XXVI., fig. 8, 



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The arms of the Abbot and King and the cognizance of Queen 
Catherine at Prinknash should be compared with those on the 
tombs of Parker and Osric in Gloucester Cathedral. The presence 
of Queen Catherine's cognizance is a proof that the Abbot built his 
memorial chapel and carved his effigy before 1530, for in that year 
we find him joining with the lords, temporal and spiritual, in pray- 
ing the Pope Clement VII. to consent to the divorce. 

The Abbot placed the arms of Henry VIII. and his consort in 
his new mansion at Prinknash as a token of his loyalty. He may 
have placed Queen Catherine's cognizance there in recognition of 
the special allegiance due to her as Constable of Brimpsfield. 

In the courtyard at Prinknash, sculptured in relief, on the 
south-east wall, there is a figure of Henry VIII., which is said, by 
tradition, to be commemorative of his visit to this mansion. 1 

Fosbrooke in his History of Gloucestershire, says that the 
Corporation of Gloucester have in their possession a circumstantial 
account of the progress of Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn to 
Prinknash. 2 The Town Clerk, Mr. K. H. Fryer, has assured me 
that no such document is now amongst the city muniments. 

Henry VIII. appears to have visited Gloucester once, and once 
only. He was in progress through Berkshire, Gloucestershire, 
Wiltshire, and Hampshire, together with Anne Boleyn, his Queen, 
in the months of July, August, and September, 1535. The ex- 
chequer accounts in the Public Record Office, show that an official, 
travelling some four days in advance, prepared for the reception 
of the King and his court. This official reached Sudely Castle on 
Saturday, July 17th, Tewkesbury Abbey on Friday the 23rd, and 
Gloucester Abbey on Tuesday the 27th. The Royal party reached 
Winchcombe on Wednesday the 21st, Tewkesbury on Monday the 
26th, and Gloucester on Saturday the 31st. They remained at 
Gloucester till the following Friday, when they travelled as far 
as Leonard Stanley, where the Abbey of Gloucester had a depen- 
dent priory. This progress does not seem to have been known to 

1 See Plate XXVI., fig. 2. 

There is also a tradition amongst the labourers that this figure repre- 
sents Sir John Biidgeman, who died in 1638; but the costume is a hundred 
years older than his time. - Vol. I. Emendations to p. 266. 



t 



Prinknash Park. 



277 



the county historians ; but it is briefly referred to by Seyer in his 
History of Bristol. 1 

Henry VIII. probably made a progress in these parts that he 
and his court might consume the provisions awaiting him at his 
royal Manors of Sudeley, Berkeley and Thornbury ; but he may 
have wished at this particular time to be away from the scene of 
Sir Thomas More's execution ; and his lengthened stay at the great 
monasteries of Winchcombe, Tewkesbury, and Gloucester, suggest 
the idea that he wished to examine the possessions of the church 
which he had already marked for his prey. The visitation of the 
lesser monasteries was being proceeded with ; and wise men saw 
what would quickly follow. The Priory of S. Peter's Abbey, now 
the Deanery, was prepared for the King's reception, and a room 
there is still known by tradition as Henry VIII. 's bed chamber. 

It was probably early in the first week of August, 1535, that 
Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn visited Prinknash. The park was 
well stocked with deer, and probably the King and his courtiers 
spent the clay in hunting and feasting. Tradition says that the 
abbot made a present of the mansion and park to his royal guest ; 
but it is certain that this was not the case on this occasion ; and 
Henry VIII. did not visit Gloucester again. 

On February 28th, 1538, the abbot granted to Sir Anthony 
Kingston 2 a lease of the Manor of Upton S. Leonard for 81 years 
at a rental of 66s. 8d., with the right of cutting down six loads of 
beechwood annually in Buckholt ; and on the 2nd of Oct. follow- 
ing he granted Sir Anthony a renewal of the lease for 90 years, with 
15 loads of beechwood annually. He also granted to him the tithes 
of Upton, reserving the tithes of all lands in the park of the Abbot 
there called Brinkmarsh. 

Abbot Parker vanishes from the scene with the expulsion of 
the mitred abbots from the House of Lords in June, 1539. 3 The 
Abbey of Gloucester, with all its possessions, Prinknash included, 
was surrendered into the hands of the King's commissioners on 
the 4th of January, 1539-40. 

1 Rudder speaks of a visit of Hen. VIII. and Anne Boleyn to Thornbury 
in 1539; three years after this unfortunate queen's execution ; Vol. II., p. 214. 

2 For a memoir and pedigree of the Kingston family see monograph on 
Flaxley Grange. (Bristol & Glouc. Archseol. Society, Vol. VI., p. -284). 

u For further particulars see ante p. 33. 
Vol, VII., part 2. u 



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On the surrender of S. Peter's Abbey, the capital messuage 
and Park of Prinknash were let to Sir Anthony Kingston from 
year to year at an annual rent of £5, on condition that he should 
find and preserve annually for the King's use forty deer at least 
within the said park. 1 The following memorandum is taken from 
the account of John Arnold, gentleman, the King's Receiver of 
all possessions lately belonging to the Abbey of S. Peter, Glouces- 
ter, from Michaelmas, 33 Henry VIII. (1541), to Michaelmas, 
34 Henry VIII., 1542 :— 

" Due from Sir Anthony Kingston, Knight, farmer or occupier 
of the herbage of the park of Prinknash within the Lordship of 
Upton S. Leonard in the years 31. 32. 33 of Henry viij. £22 3s. 4d,, 
and in this year, the 34th of the said King, with <£5 of arrearage 
not paid. Total £27 3s. 4d." 2 

Sir Anthony Kingston can hardly be called a ' ' worthy " of 
Gloucestershire, but he was a notorious character during the 
reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., and Mary. He was associated 
with his father Sir William Kingston, as Steward of S. Peter's 
Abbey, in 1537-8 ; and at the Dissolution obtained a pension 
of £6 12s. 4d. In 1539, he was one of the esquires who were 
Grooms of the Privy Chamber in attendance on Henry VIII., when 
he went to receive Anne of Cleves. 3 He and his father shared 
largely in the spoils of the Gloucestershire Abbeys and Priories. 
He was sheriff of the county in 1532 and 1549. In 1549 he was 
employed by Protector Somerset in crushing a rebellion in 
Cornwall, and his merciless treatment of the rebels has never been 
forgotten by the people of the west. In 1555, he was one of the 
Commissioners to see the sentence of death on Bishop Hooper 
carried into execution, and Foxe, in his Book of Martyrs, gives an 
account of his visit to Hooper at the house of Robert Ingram. 
The Gloucester corporation accounts show that certain moneys were 
paid on this occasion to Agnes Ingram for wine, by order of 
Master Kingston. 4 In 1556 Sir Anthony was apprehended on the 

1 See Particulars of Grants, 36th Henry VIII., P.R.O. Grant to Edmund 
Bridges. 

2 See Ministers' Accounts of Abbey Lands, 34th Hen. VIII. (p.r.o.) 

3 The Chronicle of Calais, p. 177. (Camben Soc. 1846). 

4 See monograph by Mr. John Bellows, of Gloucester, on the burning of 
Bishop Hooper, read before the Cotteswold Field Club, 1878. 



Prink n ash Park. 



279 



charge of robbing the exchequer, and is said to have committed 
suicide on his way to London. 1 He is said to have left a sum of 
money to keep in repair a gallows which he had erected at Sheeps- 
combe for the execution of criminals. 

In the two north windows of the drawing room at Prinknash 
are the following coats of arms : — 
(See Plate XXVIII., figs. 1-6). 
(Fig. 1). Quarterly 1 k 4 — France. 

2 & 3— England : 
For Henry VIII. 
(Fig. 2). 1 & 4 : Az., 3 fleurs-de-lis or — France. 

2 & 3 : Gu., 3 leopards passant guardant cr — England. 
Over all a label of 3 points arg. 

For Prince Edward. 
(Fig. 3). Quarterly of six : 

1 : Or, on a pile gu. betw. 6 fleurs-de-lis az., three lions of 

England — an Augmentation. 2 

2 : Gu., 2 wings conjoined in lure or — Seymour, ancient. 

3 : Vaire — Beauchamp of Hacche. 

4 : Arg. 3 demi lions rampant couped gu. — Esturmi. 

5 : Party per bend arg. and gu., 3 roses in bend counter- 

changed— -Mac Williams. 

6 : Arg., on a bend gu., 3 leopards' faces or — Coker. 

For Jane Seymour. 

(Fig. 4). Quarterly : 

1 & 4 : Arg., on a cross sa., a leopards face or — Brydges. 

2 : Or, a pile gu. — Chandos. 

3 : Arg., a fesse between 3 martlets sa. — Berkeley, of Cub- 

berley. 

Over all a label of 3 points, az. 

For Sir Edmund Brydges. 
Impaling quarterly : 

1 & 4 : Arg., a chevron between 3 eagles' legs erased a la cuisse 
sa. — Bray. 

1 Trans. Bristol & Glouc. Archseol. Society, Vol. VI., p. 286 

2 The tincture of the fleurs-de-lis is really argent in the glass, but it should 
be azure. This augmentation was conferred on the Seymours by Hen. VIII. 

u 2 



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2 & 3 : Vair, 3 bendlets, gu. — Bray ancient. 
Bearing an escutcheon of pretence of 4 quarterings, viz : — ■ 

1 : Or, on a bend sa., 3 goats passant arg. armed of the 

field. — Hallighwell. 

2 : Sa., a chevron, engr. between 3 bulls' heads cabossedarg. 

NORBURY. 

3: Gu., a f esse cheque arg. and sa., between 6 crosses pattee 

fitchee or — Boteler. 
4 : Gu., 2 bendlets or — De Sudeley. 

For Dorothy Bray. 

(Fig. 5). For Sir Edmund Brydges, as above. 
(Fig. 6). For Dorothy Bray, as above. 

These six shields of arms are the indices of a new era in the 
history of Prinknash. 1 

The following entry is taken from the Patent Boll of 36th 
Henry YIII, part 27, n. 8. 14th May, 1544.— 

Grant by the King to his beloved servant Edmund Brigys, Esq. , son and 
heir apparent of Sir John Brigys, Knight, in consideration of his good 
and acceptable service, and for £100 paid to the Treasurer of the Court of 
Augmentations, and also in consideration of the marriage to be contracted 
and solemnized between the said Edmund Brigys, Esq., and Dorothy 
Braye, Gentlewoman, of the Manor of Myntye in the county of Glou- 
cester, parcel of the possessions of the Monastery of Cirencester, with 
the pasture called the Sterte, &c. Also all that capital messuage, or 
mansion, called Prynkenasshe in the County of the City or Toun of 
Gloucester, lately belonging to the late Monastery of St. Peter, in the 
County of the City or Toun of Gloucester, with the gardens, orchards, 
ponds, and gardens adjacent to the same messuage, situate, lying, and 
being within the Park of Prynkenasshe. And all the Park called 
Prynkenasshe Park, and the mill, land, and soil within the said Park. 
And all messuages, mills, gardens, fishponds, woods, rents, wardships, 
courts, chattels of felons, free warrens, &c, &c, within the said Park, 
in the said County of the City or Toun of Gloucester, and lately 
belonging to the said Monastery of St. Peter's, Gloucester. Also other 
possessions in Wiltshire. To hold as freely as the late abbots and 
convents held, to the said Edmund and Dorothy and to the heirs male 
of their two bodies, of the King in chief by the service of the twentieth 
part of one Knight's fee, rendering, per annum, for Myntye £2 18s. l£d. 
for Prynkenasshe 10s., and other sums for the possessions in Wilts. 
Dated at Westminster, 14th May. 

By writ of Privy Seal. 
1 I am much indebted to Mr. J. D. T. Niblett for the use of his heraldic notes on the 

Prinknash windows. 



Prinknash Park. 281 

Edmund Brydges was the eldest son of Sir J ohn Brydges, of 
Cubberley, a Knight who had distinguished himself in the French 
wars, and gained the special favour of Henry VIII. for his 
bravery at the siege of Boulogne. 

It was no doubt partly on account of Kis father's services that 
Edmund Brydges obtained the grant of Prinknash, but not 
altogether so. He was at this time betrothed to Dorothy, daugh- 
ter of Sir Edmund Bray, Baron Bray ; and Henry VIII. wished 
to. give a dower to the bride elect. The Tudor Kings, father 
and son, owed much to the family of Bray. Sir Reginald Bray, 
great uncle of Dorothy, found the crown of Richard III. on the 
field of Bosworth and carried it to Stanley, who placed it on 
the head of Henry Tudor. He had previously been a trusty 
servant to Margaret Countess of Richmond and Derby ; and the 
success of Henry's rebellion was not a little owing to his negotia- 
tions with Henry Duke of Buckingham, Morton Bishop of Ely, 
and other nobles. 1 

The widow of Sir Reginald Bray was the faithful attendant 
and friend of Elizabeth of York, Queen of Henry VII. 

Sir Edmund Bray, the father of Dorothy, is frequently men- 
tioned in the chronicles of the time as actively engaged in the 
French wars of Henry VIII. He resided at Stoke d'Abernon, in 
Surrey, and at. Eaton Bray, in Bedfordshire; and there are monu- 
mental brasses to his wife and children in the churches of these 
two parishes. 2 Dorothy was one of eleven children, one son and 
ten daughters. 

The six shields of arms which I have described are all, appar- 
ently, of the same date. The label on the shield of Edmund Brydges 
shows that his father, Sir J ohn, was still alive. Sir John died in 
1557. But the shield of Edward VI. has also the label. Henry 
VIII. died 28th January, 1547. The date of the glass must, I 
think, be assigned to the period between May 24th, 1544, and 
January, 28th 1547. Edmund Brydges and. his wife were probably 
residing at Prinknash during the earlier part of this period. 
1 See Stow's Annals 1483, and Dugdale's Baronage, Vol. II, p. 311, 
8 See Haines' Monumental Brasses, Vol, II., pp. 6, 78, and 204, 



282 



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Edmund Brydges was in foreign parts in 1547, and was made 
a Knight banneret at Roxburgh, after the battle of Musle- 
borough. 1 He was Lieutenant of the Tower in 1553-4. 2 

In 1555 Sir John Brydges, then Lord Chandos of Sudeley, was 
on a visit to his son at Prinknash. The occasion of his visit was a 
painful one. Father and son had been appointed Commissioners, 
together with Sir Anthony Kingston, to see Bishop Hooper burned 
in S. Mary's Square, Gloucester. 

In 1557 Sir Edmund Bridges succeeded his father as Lord 
Chandos, and Sudeley Castle became his home. In June, 1572, he 
was elected and installed Knight of the Garter at Windsor, and he 
died on the 11th of Sept. following. In his will he bequeathed 
" to his most faithful and loving wife Dorothy, daughter of Lord 
Bray, for her obedience, truth, and faithful love towards him (as 
he had aliened and sold some of her inheritance), his manors and 
lordships of Blunsdon Ansdrowe, Blunsdon Gayebroke, Blunsdon 
Wyddel, West Wyddel," &c. He also left annuities to his retainers 
on condition that they did not refuse to serve the Lady Dorothy 
and Gyles his son. Lord and Lady Chandos had issue Gyles 3rd 
Lord Chandos, William 4th Lord Chandos, Katharine wife of Lord 
Sandys, and Eleanour wife of George Giffard, Esq., of Chillington. 

In 1574 Queen Elizabeth visited Sudeley on her way to 

Longleat and Bristol, and " the old Lady Shandowes " presented a 
jewel with a gold chain to Her Majesty. It was a " falcon, or 
parrot, the body crystal, the head, tail, legs, and breast of gold, 
fully garnished with sparks of rubies and emeralds, hanging by a 
very short small chain of gold." 3 

There is an inscription on the bell of S. Mary's chapel, Sudeley 
Manor, which proves that the Lady Dorothy clung, as did her son 
Gyles, to the old religion : 

" Sancte Georgi, ora pro nobis. 
Ladie Doratie Chandos widdowe made this 1577«" 4 

1 Mrs. Dent's Annals of Sudeley, p. 215. 2 Dugdale's Baronage, 

Vol, II., p, 395, a Nicholls' Progresses of Queen Elizabeth. 

4 I am indebted for this information to Mrs. Dent's charming work on 
Sudeley and Wincheombe. The bell was recast in 1856 by C. & G. Mears, 
London, and the old inscription preserved, (See Ellacombe's ChurGh Bells of 
Gloucestershire, p. 66), 



Prinknash Park. 



283 



Lady Chanclos, in her old age, became the wife of Lord Knolles. 
She died October 31st, 1605. 

The three shields of arms in the north-east window have led 
tradition to substitute Jane Seymour for Anne Boleyn, as the 
companion of Henry VIII. on the occasion of his visit to Prink- 
nash. It is almost certain that Henry VIII. made only one 
progress in Gloucestershire, i.e. in 1535, with Anne Boleyn, his 
Queen. It is well known where he held his court on each day 
during the brief married life of Jane Seymour. It is impossible 
that Prince Edward can have visited Prinknash with his parents, 
for his mother died within 16 days of his birth. 

I attribute the insertion of these royal coats of arms to a wish 
on the part of Edmund and Dorothy Brydges to commemorate 
some office of trust, which one or both of them held about the 
person of the young prince. 

Mi'. B. St. John Ackers, the present proprietor of Prinknash 
Park, has in his possession an indenture dated the first day of 
May, 16th Elizabeth, 1574, wherein Gyles, 3rd Lord Chanclos, 
covenants with Edward Earl of Lincoln, K.G., High Admiral of 
England, that he, his heirs, and assigns, shall, before the 10th day 
of July next ensuing, convey unto John Tracie, Esquire, and 
Richard Barton, gentleman, the Manors of Coberly, Brymffeilde, 
and Cranham, with the Park of Brymlfeilcle, and the late Chauntry 
of Coberly, &c, &c.,to the use of the said Gyles and Lady Frances 
(the daughter of the said Earl of Lincoln) his wife. He also 
covenants, that he and his heirs, and the Lady Dorothy his mother, 
will, before the 10th day of July, convey the Manor of Hinchwick 
and other estates to the use of the said Lady Dorothy for her life 
and after her death, as above. He also covenants that he and the 
Lady Dorothy will convey the mannor (sic) and parke of Prynck- 
nashe with their appurtenances to the use of the said Lorde 
Chandos and Lady Frances, and the longer liver of them for and 
duringe the life of the said Lady Dorothy, &c, &c. 

Gyles, 3rd Lord Chandos, died in 1594, having no male issue, 
and was succeeded by his brother William who married Mary 
daughter of Sir Owen Hopton. William, 4th Lord Chandos, died 
in 1620, and left his son Grey heir to the title and family estates. 



Transactions at Bristol. 



Amongst the State Papers is a letter from Grey, 5th Lord 
Chandos, to the Lo*rds of the Privy Council, dated from Prink- 
nash, August 12th, 1602. Prinknash would have been held in 
dower by Frances Dowager Lady Chandos from 1594 to 1605 ; but 
Lord Chandos, seems to have used it as a residence when he paid 
occasional visits to Gloucester. 1 On the death of Dorothy 
Dowager Lady Chandos in 1605 Prinknash descended to her 
grandson and heir, Grey 5th Lord Chandos, at that time of age. 
Fosbrooke says that on the 13th April in the same year, 2 the King, 
at the petition of Sir George Brydges, granted the reversion of 
Prinknash to Sir William Sandys and William Spenser ; but it 
must have been Sir Grey Brydges who petitioned the King. 

Fosbrooke also asserts that on May 18th, 11th James I. (1613), 
Bicharcl Scudamor, gent., of London, in confirmation of another 
feofinent, 9th Jas. I. (1611), sold all his right in the manor, park, 
mansion, and freewarren to Sir Thomas Chalonor, Sir Henry 
Bowyer, and Edward Salter, who were seized of the premises. 3 

I regret to say, I have not been able to verify these statements. 
It would seem, however, that Grey, Lord Chandos who was heir 
male of Edmund Brydges and Dorothy his wife, obtained the 
reversion of Prinknash from the King, and sold the freehold. 
Nor can I give any information as to the possession and occu- 
pation of Prinknash from 1613 to 1628. 

The heraldic bearings above the fire-place in the drawing room 
at Prinknash mark a third era in the history of the mansion and 
park. The coats of arms have lost their tinctures, but I am 
able to describe them as they originally appeared by reference to 
a monument of Sir John and Lady Bridgeman at Ludlow, and to 
other monuments of the family at Nympsfield and Upton S. 
Leonard (See Plate XXIX). 
L Within an oval shield quarterly : — 

1 ife 4, Sable, 10 plates J/., 3, 2 & 1, on a chief argent, a lion 
2jassant guardant of the first ; a crescent for a cadet of 
the 2nd house. — Bridgeman. 

1 Frances Lady Chandos lived during her widowhood at Woburn, and 
she died there in 1623. (Mrs, Dent's Annals of Sudeley, p. 241). 

- Additions to Hist, of Gloucestershire, Vol, I., p. 266. 

3 Ibid., Vol. L, p. 267, 



Prinknash Park. 



285 



2 & 3, Barry of S gules and argent, 3 stags 1 heads cabossed or ; 
on a chief of the 3rd, a wolf passant of the first, between 
% pheons sa. — Woodward. 

For Sir John Bridgeman. 

II. On a sh 'eld of five quarterings : — f . , 
1 & 5, Bridgeman, as above. 

2, Woodward, as above. 

3, Arg., a chevron sable, betiv. three Cornish choughs 1 heads 
erased proper. — Daunt. 

4, sable, a chev. betw. 3 owls 1 heads erased argent. — Owlpen. 

For John Bridgeman. 
II. On a widow's lozenge, quarterly : — ■ 

1 & 4, Daunt, as .above. 

2 & 3, Owlpen, as above. 

For Frances Lady Bridgeman. 
John Bridgeman, who was born in 1667-8, was the son of John 
Bridgeman, of Dene Magna, Gloucestershire, by Ann, daughter of 
William Gernon, of Hereford. His grandfather, William Bridge- 
man, of the Wilderness, married Ann, daughter and heiress of 
John Woodward, of Dean Magna. He was educated for the legal 
profession and entered the Inner Temple. About the commence- 
ment of the 17th century he married Frances sister and heiress 
of Giles Daunt, of Owlpen, in the County of Gloucester, daughter 
of Henry Daunt by Dorothy his wife, daughter of Giles Hussey, 
and grand-daughter of Thomas Daunt and Alice daughter of 
William Throckmorton, of Tortworth. Judith Bridgeman, the 
sister of John Bridgeman, had married a member of the Hussey 
family, so there was probably already some connection between 
the families of Daunt and Bridgeman. 

I give the story of the marriage of John Bridgeman in the 
words of Smythe, the Berkeley Historian : — 

"Gyles Daunt died in 39 Elizabeth (1597-8), six years after his father 
without issue, & Frances his sister pretended to be heire to her brother, 
the said Gyles, and about that time was marryed to John Bridgeman, 
then a young barrister of the Inner Temple, after a sergeant at lawe 
and Knighted and Chief J ustice of Chester lately dead, shee yet livinge, 
who pretended title to this land in right of his wife ; but was opposed 
by Thomas Daunt brother of Henry, her uncle, by virtue of a former 



286 



Transaction's at Bristol. 



entayle to the heires male whereby he carried the land maugre the 
opposition of her husband and of that powerful and plotting gent, Sir 
Thomas Throckmorton, then of Tort worth, Knight, who had made the 
marriage & abetted the title, against whom the said Thomas Daunt 
exhibited such a bill in the star chamber discovering such plots and 
practices as forthwith for a some of money by way of composition paid 
to Mr. Bridgeman and his wife drave peace." 1 

This composition appears to have been made in 1605. 2 

In 1613 (Nov. 24) John Bridgeman and Luke Garnon pur- 
chased of Sir Richard Verney and Greville Verney his son and 
heir, the Manor of Nympsfield, and from this time, it would seem, 
John Bridgeman and Frances his wife made Nympsfield Manor 
House their home. The parish registers record, the baptism and 
burial of their infant son, Henry in 161 9. 3 

On the 6 th of September, 1614, Mr. John Bridgeman was 
" retayned of Counsel to the Citie of Gloucester " in the time of 
John Taylor, Mayor. 4 

On the 7th of December, 1623, John Bridgeman was Knighted 
by Charles I. at Whitehall. 5 After this event Sir John Bridge- 
man took a conspicuous part in the affairs of Wales, the Marches 
and Gloucestershire, and his name is frequently mentioned in 
the Calendars of State papers, 1624-1638. I have learned the 
following facts, principally from that source. 

In January, 1624-5, Sir Richard Egerton, of Shocklady, co. 
Chester, assigned to Sir John Bridgeman, Knt., Sergeant-at-Law, 
and Anthony Lewis, the residue of a lease of lands in Hewlin, co. 
Denbigh. 6 

In 1624 Lord Zouch in writing to Secretary Nicholas expresses 
a wish that Sergeant Bridgeman may be retained as counsel in 
some business connected with the Cinque Ports. 

In 1625 a false report was spread abroad of his death. In this 
same year he appears to have been made Chief J ustice of Chester 

1 Smythe's MS. History of the Hundred of Berkeley, fol. 204. 

2 Daunt Deeds late in the possession of Mr. W. George, Bristol. 

:5 I found on a recent visit to Nympsfield Court a panelled room with 
the date 1614 above the fireplace ; and a gateway leading from the church- 
yard into the garden of the Court House with the date 1615. 

4 Corporation Records of the City of Gloucester. 

5 Harl. MS. 6062, p. 79. List of Knights made tern. Jas. L and Chas. I. 

6 Add. Charters, Brit. Mus., No. 5827. 



Pkinknash Park. 



287 



in the room of Sir Thomas Chamberlain, and in February, 1626, 
orders were given to the Receiver of North Wales to pay him .£200 
for his services during two circuits in North Wales. On the same 
day the King writes to William, Earl of Northampton, Lord 
President, and to the Council of Wales commanding them, to 
admit Sir John Bridgeman to be one of the four counsellors in 
ordinary, in place of Sir Thomas Chamberlaine deceased. 

Smythe records that among the persons charged in 1626 to 
find horses for the trained band under Sir Gabriel Lowe, Knight, 
was Sir John Bridgeman of Nympsfield, Knight, 1 as Captain of 
the Dragoons. During the autumn of that year he was employed, 
as Chief Justice, in preventing the resort of Roman Catholic 
pilgrims to S. Winifred's well, in Montgomeryshire. In 1627 he 
was appointed, in conjunction with the Earl of Northampton, 
a Commissioner for The Loan in Gloucestershire, Salop, Here- 
fordshire, and Worcestershire. In the same year he was made 
one of the Commissioners to survey and divide the Forest of 
Bray don, in Wilts. In 1628 another report arose that he 
was dead, and Sir Paul Harris wrote to Secretary Nicholas 
asking for the post of Chief Justice of Chester for his father. In 
the same year Sir John was appointed Recorder of Gloucester. 
This appointment probably led to his joint purchase, with George 
Bridgeman his son, of the Mansion and Park of Prinknash. 2 
Rudder^ states that the chapel at Prinknash was consecrated in the 
year 1629, and dedicated to S. Peter. 3 It is said to have been 
consecrated by the Bishop of Bath and Wells. In 1629 and 
1630 Sir John was much engaged at Chester and Ludlow in the 
duties of his offices as Chief Justice and Counsellor. 

In 1631 the Lord Presidentship of the Marches became vacant 
through the death of the Earl of, Northampton, and it is asserted 
by Clive and others 4 that Sir J ohn Bridgeman acted as Lord 
President until the appointment of J ohn, Earl of Bridgewater, in 
1663. It appears, however, from the State Papers, that during the 

1 Hundred of Berkeley, MS. fol. 421. 

2 George Bridgeman was only of age in 1627-8. This is the earliest date 
therefore of the purchase of Prinknash by the Bridgemans. 

3 Rudder's History of Gloucestershire, p. 609. 

4 History of Ludlow, p. 182, 



288 



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interval the duties of the president were performed by the council, 
of which Sir John Bridgeman, as Chief Justice of Chester, was 
probably chairman. 

In 1631 a marriage was arranged betwen George Bridgeman, 
son and heir of Sir John and Lady Bridgeman, then in his 25th 
year, and Heavingham, daughter of Sir James Pitts, of Kyre, co. 
"Worcester, by his wife Mary, second daughter of Sir Arthur 
Heavingham, of Heavingham, co. Suffolk. By indenture signed 
27th July, 1631 (which said indenture is referred to in the 
Iriquisitio post mortem of Sir John Bridgeman), Sir John Bridge- 
man, George Bridgeman, William Carpenter, and Frances wife 
of Sir John Bridgeman, assigned to Sir James Pitts, and to 
Scudamore Pitts and James Pitts his sons, as trustees, the 
Pectory of Arlingham and the Manor of Nympsfield, to hold until 
after the marriage of George Bridgeman and Heavingham Pitts, 
for the heirs of the said George Bridgeman and Heavingham Pitts. 
From this time the manor house at Nympsneld became the 
residence of the newly married couple. Sir John Bridgeman Avas 
residing at Prinknash in November, 1631, and was engaged as one 
of the Commissioners of Oyer and Terminer in trying certain 
rioters in the Forest of Dean. The sale and enclosure of parts of 
the Forest of Dean, as in other similar cases, had excited great 
dissatisfaction amongst the inhabitants of the forest, and riots 
at Bicknor and Newland were a natural result. On Lady Day 
1631, 500 miners, armed with guns and other weapons, marched 
under the leadership of one John Williams, nicknamed Skim- 
mington, with drums, colours, and a fife, to the homestead of 
Robert Bridges, of Hillere ] land, in Mailes Croft, in the parish 
of Bicknor, threw down 100 perches of newly-made fencing, and 
threatened to pull down his house too if he ventured to say a 
word. All this was done with certain forms and ceremonies, 
and the rioters ended their declaration with " O yes ! O yes ! " 
Peter Simon, the curate 1 ( sic.) of Newland, appointed by the 

1 This doubtless should be " Hillers land " in the parish of English Bicknor 
to which Mailscot Wood adjoins. There was a fellage of magnificent oaks 
in this wood eight years ago and it still contains some very fine timber. 
Mailscroft was probably enclosed and planted about the date mentioned in 
the text. A large extent of other lands adjoining were planted about 60 
years since (See ante p. 230 note). — Ed. 



Prinknash Park. 



289 



Haberdashers' Company, 1 ventured to express some sympathy with 
the rioters, whereupon he was arrested and examined by the Bishop 
of Winchester. At the trial, held in Gloucester, before Sir John 
Bridgeman, indictments were found against 86 persons for rioting, 
and against men called Virtue, Knight, and Ambrose, for abetting. 
A man called William Gibbons was fined 40 roubles, and sentenced 
to a year's imprisonment. Sir Balph Dutton, the Sheriff of 
Gloucestershire, was commanded to arrest John Williams, the ring- 
leader, but a sympathizing population, and the numerous hiding 
places with which the forest abounded, frustrated all his attempts. 

In 1632 there was a proposal to renew the commission of Oyer 
and Terminer, and Sir John Bridgeman wrote from Prinknash 
recommending the appointment of his neighbour, Jasper Selwyn, of 
Matson, a county magistrate, as one of the new Commissioners. 

In 1633 the churchwardens of Stroud paid £1 for a sugar loaf 
to present to the Lady Bridgeman because Sir John would take 
no fee for the advice he had given them. 2 

In 1634 Sir John Bridgeman, together with Henry Earl of 
Holland, Mr. J ustice J ones and Baron Trevor, held " Justice seat V 
in the Castle of Gloucester, and dealt with the perambulation of 
the Forest of Dean, and with the destruction of forest trees by a 
man called Gibbons and others. Complaints were made by the 
admiralty that the finest oaks, which should have been used only 
for the ships of His Majesty's navy, were burned by the lessees 
of the royal mines, for smelting iron ore ; not only so, but Thomas 
Deane, William J ones, John Purnell, and others had built, or were 
building, vessels of them for their own private use. The King 
wrote to Sir John desiring him, as Deputy Constable of the Forest, 
to yield his help to the sheriff in correcting these abuses. 

Tn 1635 Sir John Bridgeman was made one of the Commis- 
sioners for the New Forest, and was commanded to hold a " Justice 
seat " there, as also at Northampton. 

In 1636-7 Sir John Bridgeman was frequently engaged, whilst 
holding his assizes in Wales and the Marshes, in dealing with the 

1 He was "Lecturer" of the almshouse of Haberdashers' Company 
there. 1630, July I. Baptizata fuit Maria hlia Petri Simon concionatoris 
de Newland. (p.r.) — Ed. 

2 Fisher's Notes and Recollections of Stroud, p. 341. 



290 



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troubles that arose in connection with the collection of Ship Money, 
and frequent instances are recorded in the State Papers of his 
protecting the overtaxed inhabitants against the extortions of Sir 
Paul Harris and other sheriffs. 

On February 6th, 1637-8, a report was delivered to the King's 
council, signed by Sir John Bridgeman and the other counsellors, 
pointing out the injustice and harshness of Sir Paul Harris' 
behaviour ; but the previous day Sir John Bridgeman had ended 
his career at Ludlow Castle. He was buried a few days later in 
the chapel on the north side of the chancel of Ludlow Church — 
and a monument was erected to his memory by his sorrowing 
widow. 

The histories of Ludlow speak of Sir John Bridgeman as a 
very severe man, and as frequently committing persons to the 
porter's lodge (i.e. the castle prison) for trifling offences ; and they 
relate that one Ralph Gibbons composed the following rhyme 
as an epitaph for the deceased judge : 

" Here lies Sir John Bridgeman clad in his clay 
God said to the devil, Sirrah, take him away." 

The extract which I have given from the Churchwardens' 
Accounts of Stroud, and the frequent efforts of Sir John to reduce 
the Sheriff of Chester's claims for ship money would lead one to 
think very differently of his character. 

I imagine that the horrible distich of Gibbons has led these 
local historians to form their opinion of the Chief Justice. 
Gibbons was probably the same or a near relative of the person, 
who had felt the weight of Sir John's authority as judge for his 
misdemeanours in the Forest of Dean. 

An inquisition was held at Painswick, on the 23rd of March, 
16th Charles I., before John Pool, Esq. ; and the jurors swore that 
Sir John Bridgeman, William Carpenter, and Frances Bridgeman, 
held the Manor of Nympsfield and various messuages in that parish, 
the capital messuage called Prinknash, purchased by Sir John and 
his son George Bridgeman, the site of the Manor of Pitchcombe, 
two messuages in Upton S. Leonards, another messuage situated 
partly in Upton, Saintbridge, Matson, Barnwood, Brockworth, 
and Cranham, and the Rectory of Arlingham, together with a 



Prinknash Park. 



291 



messuage called the Parsonage Barn. The jurors also swore that 
the said Sir John Briclgeman and others had executed a marriage 
settlement in 1631, as mentioned above, that Sir John Bridgeman 
had died at Ludlow on the 5th of Feb., 1537-8, and that George 
was his son and heir, and was more than Rl years old at the time 
of his father's death. 1 

Sir John Bridgeman had issue by his wife Frances (beside 
his son and heir, George), John, buried at Upton, May 22nd, 
1 646, Henry, Thomas, William, and three daughters, Elizabeth 
wife of Sir Richard Hussey, Anne, and Mary. On the death of 
Sir John Bridgeman his widow continued to reside at Prinknash, 
and remained there until her death. 

As early as 1641 a" strong feeling against the Church of 
England, an earnest of approaching rebellion against the King, 
was shown at Gloucester as elsewhere. No doubt there were 
grave scandals in the Cure of the City Churches. On February 
12th, 1641, the citizens represented to Parliament that in eight 
parishes in the city there was only one regular preacher. 

On March 10th, 1641, the following persons were named as 
commissioners for " publishing scandalous clergymen " and others 
in the city and neighbourhood of Gloucester — William Lenthall, 
the speaker, William Capel, Thomas Pury, John Nelmes, Anthony 
Edwards, William Guise, George Bridgeman, Silvanus Wood, John 
Brewster, James Powell, and Thomas Hill. 2 Thus we find the 
owner of Prinknash and Nympsfield actively engaged with the 
Puritan leaders in the " reformation" of the church in Gloucester. 
The citizens of Gloucester were at this time preparing for the 
outbreak of war which seemed inevitable. The appointment of 
Lord Chandos, by Charles I. as Lord Lieutenant of Glouces- 
tershire was most objectionable to the parliament ; and in August, 
1642, no less than twenty-five Deputy Lieutenants were nominated 
for the County and seven for the City of Gloucester. The latter 
were the Mayor for the time being, George Bridgeman, Silvanus 
Wood, Thomas Pury, William Capel, and William Knighton. 3 

1 Inq. p.m. 16th Charles I., No. 125, par. 3. 

2 Fosbrooke's Hist, of Gloucester, fol. eel. , p. 27. 

3 Bibliotheca Gloucestrensis, p. cxxxviii. 



292 



Transactions at Bristol. 



The duties of these Deputy Lieutenants were to draw together 
the trained bands, to suppress all who should levy soldiers by any 
commission from His Majesty, to seize upon all horses, arms, and 
ammunition, money, plate, or other provisions whatever, raised or 
provided for His Majesty's service, to be ready to assist the Earl 
of Essex with horse and foot, and to fight with, kill and slay all 
who should by force oppose them. They were ordered to disarm all 
papists and ill-affected clergy, and to raise what fortifications 
should be necessary for the preservation of the city or any other 
place in the county. If George Bridgeman accepted this office, 
he was in fact making war upon his sovereign : but there is no 
proof that he did accept it. Two of the Deputy Lieutenants, 
Sir Robert Pointz and Thomas Veale refused to serve and were 
sent for by the parliament as delinquents in November, 1642, 
complaints having been made that they were acting for the King. 

On the arrival of Lord Chandos at Cirencester, in August, 
1642, the townspeople, regarding him as a traitor to his country, 
rose upon him, threatened his person and destroyed his carriage. 
It was with difficulty he escaped with his life. 1 Perhaps it was 
this treatment of the Lord Lieutenant that caused George Bridge- 
man to separate himself from the Puritan party. He had learned, 
like Falkland, that whilst he had been struggling for the reform 
of the Church and the cause of liberty, he had been unconsciously 
aiding in destroying the Church and dethroning the Sovereign. 

On February 2nd, 1642-3, the town of Cirencester fell into the 
hands of Prince Rupert and was garrisoned for the King. George 
Bridgeman, having suffered persecution at the hands of his for- 
mer associates, fiecl from Nympsfield to Cirencester, on the com- 
mand of Charles I. He died there in the following month, and 
was buried in the abbey church on the 20th of March. 

George Bridgeman had issue, by Heavingham his wife, John 
his heir, James, Thomas, William, and Frances wife of Henry 
Toy, of Kidderminster. 

On the commencement of the siege of Gloucester it was 
rumoured in the city that the King would take up his quarters at 
1 Bibliotheca Gloucestrensis, p. yxiij. 



Peinknash Park. 



293 



Prinknash, the residence of the Dowager Lady Bridgeman, and it 
is very probable that he intended to do so ; but he found it more 
convenient at the last moment to occupy Matson House, the 
residence of William Selwyn, as being a mile-and-a-half nearer 
the besieged city, and within his own lines,,. In the tract entitled 
" A briefe and exact Diurnall of the siege before Gloucester," 
we read: "Wednesday, August 8th. We had intelligence that 
provision was made for the entertainment of his majesty at 
Prinknedge in the Lady Bridgeman's house about 3 miles off from 
the city and that the foote and carriage would be there that 
night," but the Iter Carolinum shows that he was at Matson from 
the 10th of August to the 5th of Sept. 1 We have proof, however, 
that some of the King's officers resided at Prinknash during the 
siege ; for on removing a bedstead, which is now in one of the 
bedrooms at Prinknash, but which was formerly at Bond End 
Farm, Upton S. Leonard's, a form of military order was found in 
handwriting of a 1 7th century character to the following effect : 
"By virtue of the authority and power given to me from our Souveraign 
Lord Kinge Charles under the great seale of England, to you all under 
his majy of all his Majesty's forces whatsoever I doe hereby straitly 
charge & command you, and (each) of you whom it may or shall concern, 
that immediately after sight or knowledge hereof you doe noe manner 
of violence, injury, harme or detriment by unlawful plunderinge to 
Robert Tayloe of Upton S Leonard in the County of the City of Glou- 
cestershire ( sic. ) . . . directly or indirectly by your selves or others as 
you will answer the contrary at your utmost perill, given at Prinknedge 
under my hand & seale att armes this 20 th day of August 1643." 
" To all commanders, officers & soldiers whatsoever of or any way belong - 
inge to his majesty's army." 

This paper is not signed or sealed. It bears internal evidence 
of having been written by Robert Tayloe himself with a view to 
getting it signed by the king's officer in command at Upton.. The 
following inscription still appears on the tomb of this clever 
villager, close to the parish church : 

" Via sapientis est meditatio immortalis. 
To the memory of Robert Tayloe who deceased 
the 2 nd day of September 1656 aged 70 years." 
Amongst "the names of the persons who were charged with 
and did provide the horses, furniture, and armes thereunto 
1 See "Some account of Matson and the Selwyns," Bristol & Glou. 
Arch. Trans., Vol. II., p. 241. 

Vol. VII., part 2. w 



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belonging, according to the instructions sent from the council of 
state on the 20th April, 1651," we find mentioned first of all 
"the Lady Bridgeman with her grandchild, the sonne and heire of 
George Bridgeman deceased, & Mr." (it should be Mrs.) " Heaving- 
ham Bridgeman, guardian of John Bridgeman — one horse. 1 " 

It would seem from the above extract that George Bridgeman's 
widow and her children removed from Nympsfield on the death 
of George Bridgeman, and took shelter in the home of Lady 
Bridgeman. In Bigiand's time there was a gravestone in Upton 
S. Leonard Church to the memory of Vincent Hussey, of Crygion, 
co. Montgomery, son and heir of Sir Richard Hussey and 
Elizabeth Bridgeman his wife, who was buried 20th April, 1638 : 
also to the memory of Dorothy wife of Henry Daunt, gent., and 
mother to the Lady Frances Bridgeman, who deceased the 9th of 
March, 1656. Another gravestone recorded the deaths of John 
Bridgeman on the 20th day of May, 1646, and of Anne, on the 
24th of September, 1647, both children of Sir John and Lady 
Bridgeman. 2 

There is no mention of Lady Bridgeman's death, and although 
she is referred to in her mother's epitaph, she may or may not, 
have been living in 1656. She died probably about this time 
and was buried at Ludlow, in her husband's tomb, and beneath 
the monument she had erected to his memory. " A New Guide 
to Ludlow," by W. Felton, says, that in the chapel, on the north 
side of the chancel, called S. J ohn's Chapel, is a monument with 
two effigies on the top, as large as life, the one of Sir John 
Bridgeman, who is represented in his robes and cap, agreeable 
to the character preserved of him, with a sensible and morose 
countenance ; the other, a female with a book in her right hand. 
A tablet of black marble, ornamented with festoons of fruit and 
foliage and three coats of arms, 3 together with a cornice, all of 

1 Bibliotheca Gloucestrensis, p. 393. 

- These gravestones are described by Bigland in his History of Glouces- 
tershire, and they are probably beneath the seats in the chancel of the 
church. 

;i The Hon. H. R. Give, in his account of Ludlow Castle, p» 240, says 
there are the following amis at Ludlow ; — 



PlateXXX. 




i 

Ft. C- EARHFIELD. i£?dM BROAD ST. 8RIST0L_ 



Prinknash Park, 



295 



white marble, is placed on the tomb against the wainscote, and 
is thus inscribed in gilt letters : " Sacrum memorise D'ni Johannis 
Bridgeman militis servientis ad legem et capitalis justicarii Ces- 
trioa qui maximo omnium bonorum mserore cum 70 annos vixisset 
5 Febr. anno 1537 pie placideque animanvDeo reddidit Francisca 
uxor msestissima posuit." 

Wright, in his History of Ludlow, says it is supposed that 
these effigies were sculptured by Francisco Faiielli. The head of the 
tomb was opened in 1805, to make a grave for a Mrs. Turner, 
and the hair of Sir John and his lady was found perfectly 
entire ; but the coffin moulded on exposure to the air. There is 
no record of Lady Briclgeman's burial in the Ludlow register. 

The chimney piece, containing the three coats of arms was 
probably erected 1653, on the coming of age of John, son and heir 
of George Bridgeman. The fact of the arms of Lady Bridgeman 
being borne on a lozenge suggests that she was still alive. See 
Plate XXIX. 

A drawing is given of a J acobean chimney-piece in one of the 
bedrooms at Prinknash Park. I cannot undertake to explain the 
group of figures. It may possibly refer to Sir John Bridgeman's 
offices as Chief Justice of Chester ; or to Lady Bridgeman's claim 
to the Owlpen estates. [See Plate XXX). 

Mrs. Heavingham Bridgeman, the widow of George Bridgeman, 
probably removed with her younger children to Nympsfield on 
the coming of age of her eldest son. 

A monument in Nympsfield Church, now placed high up in 
tower, bears the following arms without tinctures : — Ten plates 
J., 3, 2, and 1, on a chief a lion passant guarclant, impaling harry 
of eight, three estoiles, on a chief a ivolf passant between two 
pheons 1 

1. Sa. 10 plates 4> 3, $, and 1, on a chief ar. a lion pass. guar, of the field ; 
quartered with harry of 8 gu. and arg. 3 stags' heads cahossed, and attired 
or — on a chief of the 2nd a lion passant, yuardant, hetween 2 pJieons sable; 
these impaled with quarterly, 1 JL- 4- arg. a chevron hetween 3 Cornish choughs' 
heads erased pyr. 2 & 3. a chevron hetween 3 owls' heads erased argent. 

1 Bigland gives the arms wrongly : but I fail to understand them as 
they are. I should have expected to find : — quarterly, Bridgeman and 
Woodward ; impaling harry of eight, three estoiles for Pitts, of Kyre. 
w 2 



Transactions at Bristol. 



The inscription is as follows : — 

" This monument was erected to the memory of Mrs. Heavingham, the wife 
of George Briclgeman, Esq. , who was a man commendable for his wis- 
dom, learning, and loyalty in the time of the late civil war. He, in 
obedience to the King's command to secure himself from the insolencies 
of rebels, retired himself to Cirencester, and was there taken sick and 
died, and was there interred. She survived in chaste widowhood 33 
years, was to her last end very liberal in relieving the poor, whose loss 
they much lament. She died the 16th and was buried the 20th March, 
1673, aged 65 years, and doth here underneath rest in hopes of a glorious 
resurection." 

Amongst some interesting deeds which have been lent to me 
by Mr. Herbert Jenner Fust, of Hill, is an exemplication of a 
fine levied in the Court of the Common Bench of Westminster, 
Michaelmas term, 1653, between Sir Charles Berkeley and 
Matthew Davis, plaintiffs, and J ohn Briclgeman, deforciant, where- 
by the said John Bridgeman acknowledged that the Manor of 
JSympsfield and Pitchcombe, certain messuages in Nympsfield, 
Pitchcombe, Harescombe, Kingley, Michel Deane, and Little 
Deane, the advowson of Arlingham, the tithes of Pitchcombe, 
the Park of Prinknash with its appurtenances in Prinknash, 
Upton S. Leonard, S. Mary cle Lode, Saintbridge, Matson, Bar- 
nard's Woods, Brock worth, Cranham, Sneedham, and Hardwicke, 
were the right of the said Sir Charles Berkeley ; and that Matthew 
Davis had given to the said John Bridgeman a certain sum 
of money. This fine must, I think, have been intended to lead to a 
settlement to be made on the occasion of the marriage of John 
Bridgeman, son and heir of George and Heavingham Briclgeman, 
with Margaret, the daughter of Sir Charles Berkeley and Penelope 
his wife, daughter of Sir William Godolphin, of Godolphin, Corn- 
wall. 

Sir Charles Berkeley and his sons were distinguished for 
their loyalty to Charles I. and Charles II. Sir Charles was 
knighted at Bewdley in 1623, and on the restoration of Charles II. 
was made Comptroller of his household and a member of Privy 
Council. On the death of his second son, Charles Earl of Pal- 
mouth, in 1665, he became Lord Berkeley of Rathdown, and 
Viscount Fitz Harding. He died at Whitehall, 12th June, 1665. 
The brothers of Margaret Berkeley were even more distinguished 



Prinknash Park. 



297 



than her father. The eldest, Sir Maurice, was created a baronet in 
1666, and succeeded to his father's titles in 1668. The second, 
Sir Charles, was a personal attendant of Charles IT. during his 
exile. He was created Earl of Falmouth in 1660, and was slain 
in the naval battle with the Dutch off .the North Foreland, on 
the 3rd of June, 1665. The third, Sir William, Governor of 
Portsmouth and Yice Admiral of the White, was slain in another 
naval battle with the Dutch, after the great fire, in 1666. The 
fourth, John, became Viscount Fitzharding on his brother 
Sir Maurice's death, and was Treasurer of the Chamber in the 
reign of Queen Anne. He died in 1712. 1 There is a picture of 
Margaret the wife of John Bridgeman, at Berkeley Castle, said 
to have been painted by- Sir Peter Lely, in which she is depicted 
with a profusion of curls, and a fringe of thin light ringlets across 
the forehead, a mode of wearing the hair, which is characteristic of 
the early part of the reign of Charles II. A pedigree on the back 
of the picture is incorrect. The writer has mistaken her for her 
aunt Margaret, the daughter of Sir Maurice Berkeley. The 
married life of John and Margaret Bridgeman was very brief, for 
I find amongst the entries in the registers of Westminster Abbey : 

1663. " The lady Bridgeman, a widow, daughter of Sir Charles 
Barkley was buried in the Church near ye vestry March 2 nd ." 2 

They had issue two sons, John and Charles, both infants at the 
time of their widowed mother's death. These children seem to 
have been committed to the care of their maternal aunt, Jane 
Berkeley, and to have been wards of their paternal uncle, James 
Bridgeman, Barister-at-Law, of the Inner Temple. From the 
fact that a bell, bearing the following inscription : " James 
Bridgeman Esq. 1690 R D" hangs in a small bell turret at 
Prinknash, it would appear that James Bridgeman retained some 
power over the mansion for many years after his brother's death. 
His will, made 6th April, 1691, and proved 25th May, 1694, 3 
wherein he describes himself as of S. Margaret's, Westminster, 
shows that such was the case. He discharges a mortgage of 

1 Collins's Peerage, ed. 1756, Vol. V., p. 190, &c. 
Col. Chester's Registers of Westminster Abbey. 

3 James Bridgeman was buried at Westminster Abbey, 18th June, 1691. 



298 



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£5800 due to him from his nephew, John Bridgeman, Esq., of 
Prinknash, in order that he, the said J ohn Bridgeman, may hold 
all his estates in Gloucestershire by deed of a settlement made 
3rd Jas. II. After reciting a number of legacies to other relations, 
he leaves all the rest of his real and personal estate to his nephew, 
John Bridgeman, on condition that he keeps firm and confirms the 
settlement made 1st December, 1687. In a codicil to this will he 
desires his executors, Samuel Sandys, of Ombeisley, co. Worcester, 
and Martin ffoulkes, of Wrayes, co. Middlesex, to deliver all the , 
plate belonging to his deceased sister Margaret Bridgeman, being 
one bason, one tankerd, two porringers, &c, to Mrs. Jane Berkeley, 
to be disposed of by her to her nephews as she shall think fit. 
Finding, by sad experience, that John Bridgeman, his nephew, is 
not fit to have estates, he desires his executors to keep everything 
in their hands till he is ; and to allow him £400 a year over and 
above the £200 reserved to him. 

In 1690 John Bridgeman appears to have raised £750 by a 
mortgage of Pope's Wood and other properties- to Sir Thomas 
ffowle. This debt he repayed to Robert ffowle in 1703. 

In 12th William III., 1700, John Bridgeman was elected 
Member of Parliament for Gloucester, together with General 
William Selwyn, of Matson, at that time Governor of Jamaica ; 
but he lost his seat in the following year. Probably he was 
a supporter of John Howe and shared his unpopularity. 1 A 
reaction took place in 1702 : but it does not appear that John 
Bridgeman was then a candidate for election. 

In 1710 T. Matthews and B. Hyett appeared as plaintiffs, and 
John Bridgeman, Esq., Catherine Ockold, and others, appeared 
as defendants, in a suit relating to the sale of two messuages of 70 
acres in Upton S. Leonard and Westbury. 2 This suit was probably 
connected with a marriage which John Bridgeman contracted 
about this time with Catherine Ockold, sister of Richard Ockold, 
of Upton S. Leonard, and daughter of Richard Ockold and 
Judith his wife. 

1 See Macaulay's History of England, Vol V., p. 304. 

2 See contin. of Bigland's Glonc., Upton S. Leonard. 



PRINKNASH PAHK. 



299 



The Ockolds, of Upton, are mentioned in the Chartulary of 
S. Peter's Abbey, Gloucester, as early as 1263-8. 1 There are 
several altar tombs in Upton churchyard with inscriptions com- 
memorative of the Ockold family. 

Amongst the papers so kindly lent to'me by Mr. J enner Fust, 
are five deeds relating to a post nuptial settlement, executed by 
John Bridgeman in favour of Catherine, his wife, dated January 
18th, 21st and 23rd of July, 1718, and 24th Sept., 1723, wherein 
he settled upon her, during her widowhood, Nympsfield Court 
House, other messuages in Nympsfield and Pitchcombe Farm, and 
Coppice. .In these deeds reference is made to a settlement dated 
23rd Dec, 1686, between John Bridgeman, James Bridgeman, 
late of S. Martin's, and others, in which power is reserved to J ohn 
Bridgeman to grant certain parts of his estates, not exceeding 
the annual value of .£300, by way of dower to any woman he 
should marry. 

In August, 1721, letters of administration were granted to 
John Bridgeman of the estates of his only brother, Charles Bridge- 
man, who was buried at Upton church, June 1 6th, in that year. 
John Bridgeman was buried at Upton S. Leonard, on June 3rd, 
1729. On the 1 6th of October following, Charles Hyett attended at 
the Court of the Manor of Painswick, and did homage on behalf of 
Mrs. Bridgeman, widow, for a messuage and half a virgate of land 
and a water mill, situated in the tithing of Spoonbed, for some 
land near Haselhanger, or Bushley Close, in the tithing of Sheeps- 
combe, and other lands and messuages lately belonging to Mr. John 
Bridgeman, deceased. 2 Mrs. Bridgeman continued to reside at 
Prinknash until her death. She was buried at Upton, Oct. 13th, 
1744. By her will signed 25th September in that year, and proved 
at Gloucester, 17th January, 1744-5, she makes Sir Francis Fust, 
of Hill, her executor, and leaves his children the bulk of what she 
has the power to dispose of. She leaves her brother Richard <£40 
a year for life ; and other sums to various friends and relations. 
She gives her surgeon, William Fendall, of Gloucester, £50, and 

1 See pedigree of Ockold, in Bigland, under Upton S. Leonard. 

2 Papers penes Mr. Jenner Fust. 



300 



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Mr. George Gwinnett, her private chaplain, ten guineas. To 
Henry Toy Bridgeman, of Kidderminster, she gives her coach 
lined with crimson velvet, her large silver shaving bason, and large 
silver powder box with the Bridgeman arms engraved thereon, 
also the pictures of Sir John Bridgeman, Lady Bridgeman, James 
Bridgeman, Thomas Bridgeman and William Bridgeman, and the 
furniture of the communion table and pulpit of the chapel at 
Prinknash, with the cup and cover silver gilt, commonly used at 
the administration of the Holy Sacrament. She also gives him 
£5 for the expense he was at in gilding the frame of the looking 
glass in the dining room. She gives legacies to all her servants 
and tenants, and makes Francis Fust her residuary legatee. 

By John Bridgeman's will, Henry Toy Bridgeman succeeded, 
on Mrs. Bridgeman's death, to the Prinknash, Nympsfield, and 
other Bridgeman estates. The county historians speak of him as 
being Mr. Bridgeman's solicitor, and as succeeding to the property 
as residuary legatee ; but, probably, he was the nearest of kin. 
The Upton registers record the burial of Mrs. Letitia Toy 
Bridgeman wife of Henry Toy Bridgeman, on June 1st, 1744, 
and of Elizabeth wife of Henry Toy Bridgeman, August 26th, 
1749. 

Fosbrooke 1 says that H. Toye Bridgeman sold Prinknash to 
John Howell in 1770, but the editor of The Continuation of 
BiglanoVs Gloucestershire speaks of a sale to Poole in that year. 
John Howell was seized of it in 1776, and voted in that year at 
the county election. He died November 2nd, 1802, and was 
buried in Gloucester Cathedral. He had issue by his wife Elizabeth 
Charlotte, daughter and heiress of John Demetres, one of the assis- 
tant Judges of Jamaica, Thomas Bayly Howell, born Sept., 1767, 
at Kingston, Jamaica. Thomas Bayly married May 24th, 1790, 
Lucy Anne, daughter and coheir of Robert Long, Esq., of Chiches- 
ter, by whom he had issue Thomas Jones, born December 24th, 
1793, and four daughters. 2 He died in 1815, and was buried 
at Upton S. Leonard. Thomas Jones Howell married, first, 
Susannah Maria, daughter of Alexander Hume Macleod, of Harris, 
1 Emendations on Vol. I., p. 266. 



Prinknash Park. 



301 



by whom he had issue seven sons, William Charles, Frederick 
Donald, Edward Henry Hyett, Willoughby Wintle, J ohn Davis, 
Francis Weston Macleod, and three daughters. He married, 
secondly, Ellen, daughter of Thomas ffookes, by whom he had 
issue one son and one daughter. He died in 1858. "His eldest 
son the Rev. William Charles Howell is vicar of Holy Trinity, 
Tottenham. He was born in 1818, and married in 1847, Mary 
Augusta, daughter of Richard Willan, by whom he has had issue 
Frederick Francis, who died in 1874, s.p., and Mary Emmeline 
Cordelia. 

Thomas Jones Howell sold Prinknash in 1847 to James 
Ackers. 

In a letter from Horace Walpole to the Rev. Wm. Cole, of 
Milton, dated Matson, near Gloucester, August 15th, 1774, that 
distinguished letter-writer gives an account of a visit to Prinknash, 
which is interesting : 

" Yesterday," he says, <e I made a jaunt four miles hence that pleased 
me exceedingly, to Prinknash the individual villa of the abbots of Gloucester. 
I wished you there with their mitre on. It stands on a glorious but im- 
practicable hill, in the midst of a little forest of beech, and commanding 
Elysium. The house is small but has good rooms and though modernized 
here and there not extravagantly." 

" On the ceiling of the hall is Edward the fourth's jovial device ' a faucon 
serruse.' The chapel is low and small, but antique, and with painted glass, 
with many angels in their coronation robes i.e. wings and crowns. 

"Henry VIII. and Jane Seymour lay here. In the dining room are 
their arms in glass and of Catharine of Arragon and of Bray and Bridges. 
Under a window a barbarous has relief, of Harry, young, as it is still on the 
sign Of an alehouse on the descent of the hill." 

' ' Think of my amazement when they showed me the chapel plate, and I 
found on it, on four pieces, my own arms quartering my mother in law, 
Skerret's and on a shield of pretence those of Fortescue ; Certainly by 
mistake for those of my sister in law ; as the barony of Clinton was in 
abeyance between her and Fortescue, Lord Clinton — the whole is modern 
and blundered, for Skerret should be impaled, not quartered ; and instead 
of our crest are two spears, tied together in a ducal coronet, and no coronet 
for my brother, in whose time this plate must have been made, and at 
whose sale it was privately bought, as he finished the repairs of the Church 
at Houghton for which I suppose this decoration was intended. But the 
silver smith was no herald you see." 1 

1 Emendations on Vol. I., 266. 

2 This Communicants was sold by the late Mr. Howell on his leaving- Prinknash I 
should be very glad if this quotation from Horace Walpole's letters were to lead to its 
restoration to the chapel. 



302 



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" As I descended the hill I found, in a wretched cottage, a child in an 
antient broken cradle exactly in the form of that lately published from the 
cradle of Edward II. I purchased it for five shillings, but dont know 
whether I shall have fortitude enough to transport it to Strawberry Hill. 
People would conclude me in my second childhood. " 

James Ackers, who purchased Prinknash Park in 1847, was 
son of James Ackers, of Larkhill, near Manchester, Sheriff of 
Lancashire in 1800, and Colonel of the Manchester and Salford 
Volunteers. 2 He was born in 1811, and was educated at Marl- 
borough, and Trinity College, Cambridge. He took his degree of 
L.L.B. in 1836, and of LL.M. in 1861. He married in 1833 
Mary youngest daughter of Benjamin "Williams, of Bowden Lodge, 
co. Chester. She died in 1848, and was buried at Upton S. 
Leonard. A window of stained glass has been placed to her 
memory in the parish church. Mr. Ackers was M.P. for Ludlow, 
1841-7, and was in commission of the Peace for the County of 
Hereford. He died in 1865, and was buried at Upton. He had 
two sons : James, who died on Christmas day, 1859, aged 23 years, 
and Benjamin St. John, who has succeeded to his father's estates. 

Mr. Benjamin St. John Ackers was born in 1839, and was 
educated at 'Rugby and St. John's College, Cambridge. He was 
a student at Lincoln's Inn and was called to the Bar in 1865. He 
married, in 1861, Louisa Maria Jane eldest daughter of Charles 
Brooke Hunt, Esq., J. P. and D.L., late of Bowden Hall, co. Glou- 
cester, and has two sons : James Arthur, born 1873, and Charles 
Penrhyn, born 1882, and five daughters. Mr. J ames Ackers restored 
and beautified the chapel at Prinknash ; and the present owner 
has improved the more ancient parts of the mansion, and added 
a new wing on the south-west side. Mr. and Mrs. Ackers have 
devoted themselves especially to the establishment of schools and 
the training of teachers for the instruction of the deaf on what 
is known as the German (Pure Oral) system. Mr. Ackers was a 
candidate for the City of Gloucester at the general election in 
1880. 

1 would take this opportunity of thanking Mr. and Mrs. 
Ackers for the kind assistance and encouragement they have 
given me in preparing these notes. 

2 A portrait of this gentleman in his uniform as colonel hangs in the 
dining room at Prinknash Park. 

t 



Prinknash Park. 



303 



Pedigree of Sir Edmund Brydges. 



Showing the acquisition of the quarterings in his shield. 



Sir Thomas Berkeley, of Cubberley. 
Died 1404. (Inq. p.m. 6th Hen IV., 
No. 5). 



=Joan, sifter and coheir of Sir John 
Chandos, & daughter of Thomas Lord 
Chandos. 



Thomas Brydges. Died ] 407. 
(Inq. p.m. 9th Hen. IV., No. 
22.) 



=Alice, coheir. Died Nicholas de=Margaret, 
1414. (Inq. p.m. 2nd Mattesdon. coheir. 
Hen. V., No. 7.) 



Sir Gyles Bridges. Died 1467. (Inq. ^Catherine, daughter of James Clifford, 
p.m. 7th Edw. IV., No. 15.) | and relict of Anselme Guise. 



Florence, daughter^Thomas Bridges, M.P 
of William Darell, of 
Littlecote, co. Som. 



Glou-=Margaret, relict of 
cestershire, 38th Henry VI. Banaster. 
and for Herefordshire 12th 
12th Edw. IV. Living 1489. 
H Dead 1501. 

Sir Gyles Bridges. Will=T=Isabel, dau. of Thomas Baynham, 
dated Nov., 1511. j of Clowerwall,(See ante Vol. VI., 

I 1 P- 185) 

Sir John Bridges, lst=j=Elizabeth, daughter of Edmund 
Lord Chandos. Dd. 1557. | Lord Grey. Died 1559. 



Sir Edmund Bridges, 2nd=f=Dorothy, dau. of Sir=pLord 



Lord Chandos. Died 1573. 



Edmund Lord Bray. 
Died 1605. 



Knolles 



Giles, 3rd Lord- 
Chandos. Died 
1594. Aged 25 
in 1572. 



: Frances, da. 
of Earl of 
Lincoln. 
Died 1623. 



William, 
4th Lord 
Chandos. 
Died 1602. 



Elizabeth, Katherine 

wife of Sir wife of 

John Lord 

Kennedy. Russell, of 
Thorn- 
haugh. 



Gyles, 
s.p. 



Grey, 5th= 
Lord Chan- 
dos. Died 
1621, 21 
yrs. of age 
1605. 



Mary, dau. Catherine, Eleanour, 
of Sir 0. wife of wife of 
Hopton. William George 

Lord Gifford, of 
Sands. Chilling- 

J 1 — p-| ton.- 

^Anne, d. I. Frances, wife of Sir 
of E. of Thomas Smith, and 
Derby. Sir Thomas Cecil, Earl 
Dd.1647. of Exeter. 

II. , wife of Sir 

Thomas Turville. 

III. Beatrice, wife of 
Sir H. Poole, of Saper- 
ton. 



Susan, da. of E. 
of Manchester. 
Died 1652. 



3 daughters. 



: George, 6th = 
Lord Chandos, 
1^ years of age 
1621. Died 
1655. 



=Jane, da. 
of Earl 
Rivers. 



William, 
7 th Lord 
Chandos. 
Diecll676. 



Susan 2 daughters. 
Keere. 



2 daughters. 



William. Died s.p. 
before 1676. 



3 daughters 



See Mrs. Dent's Annals of Sudeley, p. 209, &c. 



304 



Transactions at Bristol. 



Pedigree of Dorothy Bray. 



Showing the acquisition of her Heraldic quarterings. 



John, Lord de Sudley, son and heir of Bar- 
tholomew de S., 30 years of age 10th Edw. 
III. Died 1340. (Inq. p.m., 10th Edw. III., 
No. 32.) 



Eleanour, daughter of Robert 
Lord Scales. 



John Lorde de Sudley. 
Died 1367, s.p. (Inq. 
p.m., 41 Edward III., 
No. 54.) 



Will, de Botiler. =j=Joane, 
coh. 



Thomas le Botiler. Died 1398. (Inq. p.m. 
22 Rich. II., No. 10.) 



Sir Robert : 
Massey. 



^Margery, 
coh. 



John. Ralph Lord 
Died s.p. Sudley. Died 
2nd May, 13th 
Edw. IV., s.p. 



Sir John^pElizabeth 



Hamon=f=Joane. 



Norbury, 



Botiler. Ob. Belhap. 
in vita patris. 



Sir Henry Norbury. =pAnne, dau. and heir of SirWm. 
| Croyser. 



Sir John Norbury, coh. of=f=Alice. 
Ralph, Lord Sudley, of 
Stoke d' Abernon. 

Sir Richard Halighwell=j=Anne Norbury, heir 

Sir Edmund Bray. Cr d . Baron Bray,=j=Jane Halighwell. 
1530 Will dated 18th October, 1539.- I 



John. Died Nov.,=Anne, daughter Sir Edmund Bridges, =Dorothy Bray. 
1557, s.p. of Francis E. of 2nd Lord Chandos. one of seven 

Shrewsbury. daughters, and 

coh of br. John 



1 See Dug-dale's Barony, Vol. I., p. 597. 2 Ibid., Vol. II., p. 311. 



Prinknash Park. 



305 



Pedigree of Jane Seymour 



Showing the acquisition of her Heraldic quarterings. 



Sir Roger de St. Mauro=f=Cecilia, daughter and coheir of John de Beau- 
j champ, Baron of Hache, co. Somerset. Died 
• 1393. (Rot. Fin., 36th Ed. III., m. 27. Claus., 
42nd Ed. III., m. 12.) 



Sir" William Seymour. Died 1391. ^Margaret, daughter & heir of Simon de 
(Inq. p.m.', 15 Rich. II. No. 58.) I Brockburn, of Brockburn, co. Herts. 

) i 

Roger Seymour, heir of his grandmofcher=pMaud, daughter and heir of Sir 
Cecilia. Died 1422. (Inq. p.m. 10 Henry, William Esturmi, of Chadham, 
No. 1.) co. Wilts. 



John Seymour, aged 21 in 1422. Died=plsabel, dau. and heir of William Mc 
1464. (Inq. p.m., 4 Edw. IV., No. 38. I Williams, of Gloucestershire. 



John Seymour. Died 1464.=pElizabeth, dau. & heir of Sir Robert Coker, 

I of Lawrence Lydiard, co. Somerset. 



John Seymour, aged 14 on death of=j=Elizabeth, daughter of Sir W. Darell, 
grandfather, 1465. Died 1492. I of Littlecote, co. Wilts. 



i 

John Seymour=f=Margery, daughter of Sir Henry Wentworth, of Nettlestead, 
Died 1536. I co. Suffolk. 



i 1 1 1 1 

John, Edward, Duke Thomas, =Kath. Parr, SirH. Hen. VIII. =j=Jane. 
s.p of Somerset. Lord widow of Seymour. | Sey- 

Seymour. Hen. VIII. ( 1 mour. 

Edward VI. 



(See Collins's Peerage — edition 1812, Vol. I., p. 144, &c.) 



306 



Transactions at Bristol. 



Bridgeman, of Nympsfield and Prinknash. 



John Bridgeman received grant of land from=j= 
Thomas Baynham, in Dene Magna, 1499. 



Alice, dau. of William 
Theodore, or Thuer 



ohn Bridgeman, of Dene= 
Magna. 



=Joan, dau. of William 
Clarke, of Dene Magna. 



Ann, dau. and coh. : 
of John Woodward, 
of Dene Magna. 



: William Bridgeman,= 
of the Wilderness. (See 
ante Vol. VI., p. 161. 
Died 28th Aug., 1581. 
(Inq. p.m. 24th Eliz.) 



Thomas, eldest son. 
(See Harl. MSS., 
1543, fol. 146, & 1041. 
fol. 22. 



"i l l IT 
George, 
William, 
Richard, 
Henry, 
William. 



John= 



-Mary, dau. of Richard Brayne, 
(See Vol. VI., p. 297), and Joan, 
dau. of John Digges, of the Lea 
(See Harl. MS., 6174, ' Brayne ' 
Pedigree. 

1 — i — rn — i rn 

=Ann, dau. of 5 sons. 2 daus. 
William (See Harl. 
Gernon, of MSS. 1543, fol. 
Hereford. 146 ; 1041, fol. 32. 



Sir John Bridgeman, of Brimpsfield= 
and Prinknash, Serjnt. -at-Law, Chief 
Justice of Chester. Died 1638. (Inq. 
p.m., 16th Car. I/, par, 3, No. 125. 
Kntd. at Whitehall, 7th Dec, 1623. 



OFrances, dau. of Henry 
and Dorothy Daunt, of 
Owlpen, & sister of Gyles 
Daunt. 



Judith, 
wife of 
Hussey. 



— rn 
Anne 

(4) 
Mary. 



John. Henry. Thomas. William. George- 
Buried Bur. at Bridge- 
at Upton, Nymps- man, more than 30 years 
1646. field, of age, 1638. Buried at 

(2) (4). 1619. Cirencester, 20th March 

(I) 1643. 



: Heaving- Elizabeth, 

ham, dau. wife of Sir 

of Sir Jas. Richard 

Pitts, of Hussey. 

Kyre, (2) (4) 
Worces- 
tershire. 



(3) H (3) Bridge- 
Buried 
1691. 



dau. of Sir (3) 
Charles alive 
Berkeley. 1691,s.p. 



(3) 



James, William=p Alice. John=pMargaret. Thomas, Hy. Toy. ^Frances. 
Bar. -at- 
Law. Br. 
Westr. 
Abbey, 
June 18, 
1691. 
Willprd. 
1694. 



John Bridgeman. ^Catherine, dau. of 
Buried June 3rd, Richard Ockold. Bur. 
1729, s.p. (2) (3). at Upton, Oct. 13th, 
1744. (2) 



Charles. Bur. at 
Upton, 16 June, 
1721, s.p. 
(4) (3) 



George. 
(3) 



James. Mary. 

Buried Buried 

1676. 1676 

(1) (1) 



Mary. 
(3) 



Elizabeth. 
Bap. 1680. 
(1)(3) 



Heavingham,wife 
of John Rouse. 
(3) 



Henry Toy 

(3) 

(1) Nympsiield Register. 
(3) Mentioned in James Bridyeman's will. 



Edward Toy. 
(3) 

References. 



William Toy. 

(3) 

(2) Upton Registers. 
(4) Upton Monuments,, 



The old Hostelries of Bristol. 



307 



THE OLD HOSTELRIES OF BRISTOL. 
By J. F. NICHOLLS, F.S.A. 
The first notice that I have been able to discover of an hostel in 
Great Britain is contained in that most remarkable charter which 
John Earl of Mortaigne, and Lord of the Honour of Gloucester, 
gave to his burgesses of Bristol, during the lifetime of his father 
King Henry II. One .of the paragraphs reads thus: " et quod 
nemo capias hospitium infra micros per assignationem vel per 
liberationem Mariscalli contra voluntatem burgensium" That is, 
no one shall take an hostel within the walls, by assignment, or by 
license of the Marshall [the Lord's castellan] against the will of 
the Burgesses. 

The principle of local option (Sir Wilfred Lawson may hence 
learn) is not a novelty, but was in full force in Bristol 700 years 
ago. 

Seyer thinks that the word hospitium meant an aggregation 
of men, after the manner of, and copied from, the " Inns of 
Court," but this could scarcely be, since the first of these inns, 
those of the outer and middle Temple, were only established in 
the year next following the date of this charter : viz., 1185-6. 

From the context, and indeed from the whole substance of this 
remarkable and unique charter, it is evident that Earl John was 
not conferring new privileges upon the burgesses, but was merely 
confirming their long established usages. 

By the ancient custom of View of Frank pledge, every resident 
established in the town was necessarily a freeman, and was held 
answerable for the good behaviour of his neighbours. Strangers 
were only allowed within the walls under severe restrictions. 
John's son, King Henry III., and his grandson Edward I., enacted 
and confirmed-^ 



308 



Transactions at Bristol. 



That no person was to harbour another beyond one night, unless 
he was in frank pledge, i.e. unless he was willing to answer 
for him. 

That no Broker could act as Host for a stranger. 
That Hostelers were to warn their guests not to carry arms. 
That the Hostelers were to take the strangers' arms into their own 
care. 

That the Hostelers were to warn them not to be out after curfew. 
That the Hostelers were not to receive them, unless of good repute. 
That the Hostelers were not to make bread for them, but were to 
buy it of the Bakers. 

Neither were they to sell them ale, or to take more than 2|d. for 
hay for a day and a night, or more than 8d. for a bushel of 
oats. 

The Constables and Bedels were authorized to search Hostelries, 
to see that no victuals, &C.;, were sold to the guests. 

The Hostelers were all to be sworn before the Mayor, and if anyone 
acted as Host without the necessary license, if he was a Free- 
man, to be imprisoned, if he was not free of the burgh, he 
was to be for ever excluded. 

From all this we gather that the Host, Hosteler, Harbourer, 
or Hostman, as the men are indiscriminately termed, was in reality 
a Lodging-house keeper, and entirely distinct from a Brewster, or 
Taverner. Special enactments were made for these brewers and 
sellers of ale and beer, who were mostly females, and the trade of a 
brewster was not in good repute; their measures were sealed by the 
aldermen, they had to shut up at curfew under a penalty, any 
person being found in a tavern after curfew, the taverner had to be 
put on his surety by the Jianaj) of the tavern, i.e. his two-handled 
cup, often of silver, was taken and held as a security to be forfeited 
on conviction of a second offence. Their ale stakes, the pole that 
projected over the road with a bunch of leaves tied to the end, 
origin of the proverb : " Good ale needs no bush " were so much 
in the way of riders on horseback, that in the time Rich. II., they 
were limited to the length of seven feet. 



The Old Hostelries of Bristol. 



309 



Bristol, it must be remembered, was a place of large commercial 
importance in the 12th, 13th, and 14th centuries. Strangers 
came to it not for pleasure, but for business purposes, many of 
them from foreign lands. It is clear that the merchants of the 
town, however hospitably disposed, could,,not, dare not, entertain 
in their own homes men of whom they knew nothing, and for 
whose behaviour they would be held liable. Hence the Trades' 
Guilds, or the Merchants' Guild, would establish, under the surveil- 
lance of one of their body, an inn, a place much like the caravan- 
saries of the East, a quadrangle wherein man, beasts, and goods 
could be accommodated — where the brokers could transact business 
between seller and buyer, and the Sheriff could claim the scavage 
(a toll for opening and inspecting the goods, of which one half 
went to the King, one-fourth to the Sheriff, and the other fourth 
to the Hosteler for harbouring or warehousing the property, which 
was bound to be disposed of within forty days) [Rich. II.] 

By the beginning of the 1 4th century the Hosteler had become 
a recognised trader on his own account, and, in addition to lodging, 
he then was allowed to furnish board to his guest ; strangers, it 
was enacted, were " to lodge at the tables of their hosts." (Rich. II.) 
And Sir John Mandeville, in his travels, which commenced in 
1322, describes a caravansary at Mancy, in India, in terms which 
he evidently knew would be well understood by his countrymen 
at home. " For whoso wille make a feste to ony of his frendes, 
there ben certeynne Innes in every gode towne ; and he that wil 
mak the feste wil seye to the Hostellere, arraye for me to morowe, 
a godedyner, for so many folk, &c, &c." With the growth of the 
feudal system in Britain there had sprung up another class of 
travellers. The Conqueror had disposed of the manors of the 
English amongst his Barons, these were scattered about in dif- 
ferent parts of the kingdom ; for instance, Bishop Geoffrey, of 
Coutances, had 240 manors, and these lay in twelve different 
counties. The desire of these Lords to visit their property was 
natural, and as customs, pontage, passage, &c, was demanded and 
enforced by the Lord of each large town, these imposts were as far 
as possible avoided ; or in process of time the nuisance was abated 
Vol, VII. , part 1, x 



310 



Transactions at Bristol. 



by the Baron who, having frequently to pass through, would cause 
one of his own retainers, to become a freeman of their town, or 
if ii» belonged to themselves would install one of his favourite 
servants in an Hostel which he caused to be erected for his own 
use. The name, and to some extent, the practice, is still retained 
by some of the princely mansions of Paris. 

These buildings were constructed around an open quadrangle, 
which had galleries running round the square on the first floor, 
open in front, into which the sitting and bedrooms opened, and 
accessible by flights of steps from the yard, such as the Tabard— 
the inn whence Chaucer's Pilgrims started for Canterbury, and 
where the immortal Pickwick met the vivacious Samivel Veller. 

Thus we read that, in 1450, P. Nevill Earl of Warwick, came 
to the hotel, in Warwick Lane, London, with 600 men, all in red 
jackets embroidered with ragged staves, they were all lodged 
there, they ate six oxen for breakfast, and any man that had an 
acquaintance in that house might have there as much of sodden 
and roast meat as he could prick and carry away on a long dagger. 

The march of improvement, and the value of ground in the 
centre of Bristol, has left us but an indifferent sample in the 
White Lion, of Thomas Street, of what these Hostelries were 
originally. Yet within a brief period one can remember at least 
three other quadrangular, galleried inns : the " Bed Lion," Bedcliff 
Street, and the " Three Kings," and " The Bell," both in Thomas 
Street. 

In the old deeds of All Saints I found mention of an inn given 
as an obit, "The Grene Lates," the property of that church, as early 
as 1241, it was, in 1378, called by a Norman name, " Le Bopeseld," 
then again it became "The Green Lattice," but in 1437 it resumed 
its foreign appellation, until, in 1579, it was disposed of with 
other obiits, and was assigned to Tomlinson & Page; in 1580 they 
assigned it to Thomas Langley, who shortly afterwards assigned 
it to Thomas Colston, and thus the church became for ever 
identified with the family of our great Philanthropist. This inn 
as far as I can fix the locality appears to have been approached 



i 



The Old Hostelries of Bristol. 



311 



from High Street, and, I think, Wynch, or Wine Street, it was 
probably quadrangular. 

In 1350 " Stevyn Gnowsale 3ave to the chvrch (All Saints) 
xij d goyng owte of 1 Tenement next Abyndon ys Inne now called 
ye Almsyhowse." This inn was situated in Yenny Lane, now 
known as All Saints Lane. Inasmuch as this inn stood on a 
portion of the site now occupied by the Exchange, and had a way 
of access from High Street, Corn Street, and Nicholas Street, 
it must have been of considerable extent. It was rebuilt before 
1565, when it was known as " The New Inn. In that year a 
number of soldiers on their way to Ireland to quell the rebellion of 
O'Neil, were detained in Bristol by contrary winds for six weeks. 
They grew saucy and quarrelled with the citizens, making a great 
commotion at the High Cross, whereupon Captain Gilbert, one of 
their officers, who lodged at " The New Inn," behind All Saints 
Church, rushed out with sword and target and quelled the tumult. 
For this mutinous conduct four of the ringleaders were sentenced 
by court-martial to be hanged before the door of the Mayor, Mr. 
Northall, a pewterer, in High Street, at the corner of Mary-le- 
port Street, but his worship not desirous of such a swinging 
sign interceded and saved their lives. Subsequently this inn was 
known as " The Jonas," alias " The New Inn," by which desig- 
nation it appears amongst the six inns that were allowed in Bristol 
between 1552 and 1606. When in 1743 the Exchange was built, 
this inn, which had then acquired another name, " The Bummer," 
was pulled down, and the far smaller house that still bears the 
designation, was erected on a portion of the ancient site. In 1606, 
on March 1st, the number of inns was greatly enlarged, and instead 
of six, the following were authorized: "The Elack Bear, The 
White Horse, and The Bed Lion, in Bedcliff Street ; The Lamb, 
Antelope (alias The Black Horse) White Lion, Three Kings, and 
The Bell, in Thomas Street ; The Saracen's Head, outside Temple 
Gate ; The Crown (alias The Guilders), High Street ; The Swan, 
St. Mary-le-port Street; The Lamb, Dolphin, Horse Shoe, Elephant, 
(alias The Spur), in, or with access from, Wine Street ; The White 
Hart and White Lion, in Broad Street • and The Abyndon (alias 

H 2 



312 



Transactions at Bristol. 



The New Inn, Jonas, and Rummer) Venny Lane and High Street." 

It is difficult to understand why, with two exceptions, The 
" Swan " and " Abyndon," the following, which are known to have 
been in existence, and to have been of far more ancient date, are not 
mentioned in the above list, unless it be that they had acquired 
prescriptive rights under the first charter of the Brewers' Company, 
which bears date 1449. The " Swan " is known in 1434 as an 
inn with access from Mary-le-port Street and the Shambles (the 
top end of Bridge Street), it has an exquisite barge-board, pendant, 
and finial of the early 15th century on one of its gables in Mary- 
le-port Street. The hotel had probably, from its badge, some 
connection with the unfortunate Duke of Buckingham of Thorn- 
bury Castle. " The Virgin Tavern" was well-known in 1445, it 
gave its name to the lane in which it stood. The men of the 
Commonwealth, in their abhorrence of Popery, changed it to 
Maiden Lane, its site was on the spot where Baldwin Street now 
crosses Marsh Street. In 1569 John Willis, the Chamberlain, 
built a tavern in Broad Street, known as the " Bell," it stood until 
March 4th, 1671, when it was burned down, and was not rebuilt 
as an inn. 

"The Pelican" (alias the Talbot) was a noted house, which had 
entrances in Thomas and Tucker Streets. On August 13th, 1573-4, 
when Queen Elizabeth visited Bristol, ten men were in this inn 
most unhappily killed by an explosion of gunpowder. It was 
first called " The Talbot " in 1665. 

" The Fourteen Stars," Counterslip, now destroyed, and " The 
Catherine Wheel," Castle Green, both so well known to Bristolians 
for their picturesque beauty, and " The Queen Bess," in Nicholas 
Street, which stood on the site now occupied by the Athenaeum, 
were also most certainly standing prior to 1606. So also was 
" The Guillows," or " Guilders," now known as " The Crown Inn," 
in the Market, for. in 1473, John Shipward, the donor of the 
exquisite tower of St. Stephen's, gave to that church, for two 
chaplains to celebrate his obit, " The Guillows' Inn," which stood 
on an irregularly shaped piece of land now covered by the Exchange 
and the Market. It had two entrances, one from Corn Street, the 



The Old Hostelmes of Beistol. 



313 



other from St. Nicholas, the present building in the Market stands 
upon one portion of the site. In 1608 Henry Hobson, the Host, 
was compelled to shut up this inn, and for a fortnight it was 
guarded by Watchmen, and isolated on account of a report that 
the plague had broken out there. In '1625 the merchants of 
Bristol entertained the Turkish Ambassador at this inn, and in 
1634 three officers from Norwich travelling for pleasure visited 
the " noble city of Bristow and at Guillards Inne there wee tooke 
up our 5th weekes sabbath dayes rest, with Mr. Hobson a grave, 
proper, honest and discreet Host, lately a bounteous, gentile, free, 
and liberall Mayor of that sweet and rich city. Indeed a man 
more fit for such a place, than for such a house. There were wee 
well and happily billetted, and noe way molested, but by one of 
his hungry, domestick servants, who no sooner saw vs every 
meale, but scared vs into an eatinge ffeauer." This worthy man 
was the son of that Thomas Hobson who gave, in 1625, the third 
of the brass pillars in front of the Exchange, which bears his name 
and the above date. 

Both the " White Hart" and the "White Lion" were also 
in existence in 1606, how long previous to that date they were 
erected we know not. The former is the cognizance of Richard 
II., and as he, on at least two occasions, made Bristol his head- 
quarters for a somewhat lengthened period, it is probable that this 
inn dates from the last quarter of the 14th century. Both it and 
" The White Lion " were incorporated in the " Grand Hotel," in 
1865. 

In 1610 the Duke of Brunswick, in 1621 the Earl of Essex, 
and in modern days the Grand Duke Constantine of Russia 
lodged there, but the circumstance of greatest repute in its history 
is the following : — It was always the " Blue House of Bristol," 
and the inn patronized by the Beaufort family ; and when Mon- 
mouth landed in rebellion, in the west, the Duke of Beaufort 
hastened to Bristol to defend it for the King, at which time the 
stables were set on fire by some of the opposite party, with a view, 
apparently in the confusion, to cause a successful rising of the 
malcontents in the city. Some say in revenge, because Beaufort 



314 



Transactions at Bristol. 



had threatened to fire the city about their ears if Monmouth 
attacked it. 

The father of Sir Thomas Lawrence was host of " The White 
Lion " for a while before he removed to " The Bear Inn," Devizes. 
The celebrated painter was however born in Redcross Street, 
Bristol, and not, as some suppose, at this hotel. 

There was another "White Hart" which stood in College 
Green, immediately opposite the north gate of St. Augustine's 
Churchyard. This inn acquired great notoriety in 1740, when Sir 
John Dinely Goodere was murdered by his brother on board the 
man of war, The Ruby, which Captain Goodere commanded. The 
men whom the Captain had ordered on the nefarious duty of seizing 
his unfortunate brother, sat watching in the bay window of the 
large room of the " White Hart," over which was a balcony, 
whence they issued, seized, and carried off their victim to their 
boat and to his unhappy end in Kingroad. This house was very 
ancient, as was evidenced by a remarkably strong arch upon which 
its front was built. It stood on three distinct properties, one 
of which belonged to the monastery, and formed part of the 
monks' private road into the city before the trench for the Frome 
was cut in 1249. 

"The Angel," formerly "The Bull Inn," in High Street, 
stood on the corner of Nicholas Street, it dated from 1450, and 
was pulled down to widen Nicholas Street in 1863. 

" The King David " stands on the site of the Nunnery of St. 
Mary Magdalene, at the foot of St. Michael's Hill. The oldest 
remains traceable are J acobean, but the old font of the nunnery 
may still be seen standing on the horse-block in the yard. The 
house has a newel stair and a fairly decorated ceiling of the 
period named. 

" The Plume of Feathers " was an Hostelry in 1629. In 1636 
it was, in compliment to the Prince of Whales, termed the " Prince's 
Arms," but during the Commonwealth its title was changed to 
that of the " City of Bristol Arms," and a shield bearing those arms 
still appears over the mantle-piece in the dining-room. However, 
it still retained a part of its old appellation, as we find that, in 

t 



The Old Hostelries of Bristol. 



315 



1654, a man named Charles Evans was arrested at the Feathers, 
it being supposed that he was Charles II., for whose apprehension 
a large reward had been offered. 

" The Nag's Head " Tavern has acquired notoriety as being 
the house opposite to which those unfortunate loyalists, Yeomans 
and Boucher, were hanged in 1643 for attempting a rising in the 
city in favour of Charles I. The site generally quoted by our late 
historians is No. 5, Wine Street, which is, I think, a mistake. 
" The Nag's Head " being, from a MS. in my possession, in Adam 
and Eve passage. Indeed the description in Seyer corroborates 
this view. It is said to " be the fifth house from the corner of 
Wine and High Streets," and that the opposite house, "Mr. 
Yeoman's, was on the northern side of the street." (Seyer, Vol. II., 
p. 351). At "The Nag's Head" were first made the famous 
cakes which, to this day, bear its name. 

At " The Three Tuns," in Wine Street, lived Alderman Olive, 
who was Mayor in 1674, and who acquired notoriety as a cruel 
persecutor of Nonconformists. Here, in September 11th, 1674, 
the Countess of Castlemaine was entertained with great pomp 
by Sir John Churchill. There is a picturesque old house at the 
top of the Pithay, which bears on its front a shield with three tuns 
on a chevron. Two others in Mary-le-port Street bear the same 
arms ; and there was also, in 1687, another inn known as " The 
Three Tuns," on the site of the Exchange. These Tuns were the 
arms of the Brewers' Company, which probably caused cursory 
observers to give that title to the houses to which the arms were 
affixed. There was also, in Wine Street, in 1666, a barber, whose 
sign was " The Horse Shoe," at which that charming gossip, 
Samuel Pepys, on his visit to Bristol, was set down and was 
1 ' trimmed by a handsome fellow, 2s., walked with my wife and 
people through the city which is in every respect another 
London, that one can hardly know it to stand in the country, no 
more than that. No carts, it standing generally on vaults, only 
dog carts (carts drawn by dogs). So to the Three Crowns Tavern 
I was directed ; but when I came in the master told me he had 
newly given over the selling of wine ; it seems grown rich ; and 



316 



Transactions at Bristol. 



so went to the Sun." (Vol. III., p. 463). In another place he says : 
" Sir ¥m. Batten told us of the Mayor of Bristoll's reading a pass 
with the bottom upwards." (Vol. I., p. 320). 

" The Dolphin " survives only in the name which it conferred 
upon the street in which it once stood. In the large room of this 
inn the ordinance of the Lord's Supper was for the first time 
observed in Bristol by Dissenters. 

"The Lamb Inn" stood in Broadmead, in 1643, another in 
Thomas Street, another, later on, in Wine Street, also one in Mary- 
le-port Street. Perchance these two latter were only one house with 
an entrance from each street. This was patronized by the Church- 
wardens of St. Mary-le-port Church, who spent, at divers times, 
from 1580 to 1704, considerable sums at "The Lamb, The Haven, 
The Starr, and The King's Head," in carousing. But, "The Lamb," 
which has acquired the greatest share of notoriety, is the old 
house yet standing in West Street, in which the unfortunate 
James Naylor slept on the first night of his coming to Bristol, in 
1656 ; it bears the date of 1651. This was the house also in which 
the children of its occupant, Mr. Giles, in 1761, simulated, with 
great success, the actions that were supposed to pertain to those 
who were bewitched, and for several weeks succeeded in deceiving 
the cognoscenti and in setting the whole city in a ferment with 
their pranks. 

" The Rose " Tavern, in Temple Street, which has within the 
past few years been destroyed, was one of the places in which the 
disaffected loyalists met to plot in 1643, it afterwards became 
celebrated as the habitat of the beefsteak club, in whose time it was 
patronized by the famous winebibbing Duke of Norfolk. There 
was a large embossed rose in the centre of the ceiling in the room 
in which the initiated met, which is said to have given rise to the 
proverb, " under the rose." 1 This house was in the possession of 
one family for more than three hundred years. 

" The Llandoger," in King Street, was built in 1664. 

1 The epigramatic saying "Under the Rose," existed long before the 
17th century. It is found in a letter from Dymocke to Vaughan, written 
at Dort, in May, 1546. (State Papers, Henry VIII., Vol. II., p. 200), cited 
in Notes and Queries, 3rd Series, Vol. VI., p. 29.— Ed, 



The Old Hostelries of Bristol. 



317 



" The Gout," another ancient inn, stood on the site adjoining 
the Commercial Rooms, now a carpet warehouse. We presume 
the name was a sort of pun, meaning a drain. 

" The Fountain " was in High Street. 

" The Star," in Cock and Bottle Lan<3, in the Castle, was the 
house favoured by Daniel Defoe, in which he obtained from 
Alexander Selkirk the materials for his immortal prose epic, 
Robinson Crusoe. 

At " The Seven Stars," in Thomas Street, Clarkson obtained 
his strongest evidence against the iniquitous slave trade. 

" The Fourteen Stars," Counterslip, was one of the most pic- 
turesque of the many gabled, overhung houses in Bristol, it was 
considerably out of the perpendicular, and was a chosen resort of 
the captains of West Indiamen and slavers. It was destroyed in 
1857 in order to clear the site for Finzel's sugar house. 

" The Montague," on Kingsdown, of world-wide fame for the 
excellence of its turtle soup, 1 can boast of no greater antiquity than 
the 18th century. 

"The Prodigal Son," a celebrated house in Shakespeare's time 
has left no sign of its locality, nothing has survived but its name. 

" The Ostrich," a house also celebrated for its turtle dinners, 
and the tea gardens, in the 18th century stood on the site now 
occupied by Down House. The " St. Stephen's Ringers " sing at 
each anniversary a renowned song, one of whose quaint verses 
begins thus : " Walk to Mother Day's to feast on cakes and ale 
Sir." From a rental of deeds, 31st Charles II., this is shown to 
have been a public house a little beyond the Ropewalk, near the 
river Frome, and opposite to Earl's Mead House. 

" The Compasses," of which no record is known to us, save a 
picturesque sketch by Miiller, stood on the south bank of the 
river Frome, between the Pithay and what is now Union Street. 

1 Bristol was famous for its turtle and milk punch, the products of its 
extensive trade with the West Indies. So Byron writes in the first edition 
of his English Bards and Scotch Reviewers : — 

" Too much in turtle Bristol's sons delight, 
Too much o'er bowls of rack prolong the night." 

These lines will not be found in the modern editions ; but the following 
are substituted : — 

" Your turtle feeders verse must needs be flat, 
Though Bristol bloat him with the verdant fat.".— Ed. 



31S 



TRANSACTIONS AT BRISTOL. 



DISCOVERY AT ST. BEJAVELS CASTLE. 
Communicated by the Rev. W. TAPRELL ALLEN, M.A. 

Certain repairs are now being executed at St. Briavels Castle, in 
the course of which a discovery has been made of what appears to 
have been a dungeon. On removing the flooring in the basement 
of the eastern tower of the gateway a large circular opening was 
found, measuring 9 feet 6 inches in diameter. On clearing out a 
small portion of loose soil, amongst which were mixed quaint 
bottles, apparently Dutch, remains of old crockery, and a large 
worked stone, which may have been a part of some groined work, 
a chamber of some size was partially disclosed. This chamber is 
circular in plan, the diameter being 10 feet 6 inches, and the 
depth 13 feet, the floor being rather roughly pitched. The walls 
are of excellent ashlar work, the upper part being slightly coved. 
Probably the opening was formerly covered with timber, and had 
a trap door as a means of access. It must have been a gruesome 
place, as the only light which could have reached it was from 
arrow-slits in the basement. 

It was probably a store-room. — Ed. 



Kotices or Recent Archaeological Publications. 319 



£iotxa& oi %ztzx& Jlrrhfcxrlxrjjkal fubltntticm*. 



LEIGH IN THE 18th CENTURY, 1689-1813 (A Series of Papers re-printed 
from The Leigh Journal tC- Times). By Josiah Rose. Leigh : W. D. Pink. 
Manchester : Henry Gray. 

This little volume is an example of the very interesting matter which may 
be found upon a careful investigation of the disjecta membra in Old Parish 
Chests. Mr. Rose obtained permission to make a thorough examination of 
the Township Chest of Leigh, the contents of which, as he doubtless 
anticipated, he found in a state of dirt and disorder. Having classified the 
documents, he communicated a series of articles thereon to the Leigh 
Journal and Times, of which the little volume before us is a re-print. The 
documents were of a most heterogeneous character, which it is not necessary 
here to particularise, for it will become sufficiently apparent as we go on. 

Before proceeding to illustrate the contents of the chest, Mr. Rose draws 
a picture of Leigh itself as it would appear at the opening of the 18th century. 
The roads there, as in most other country places at that date, were in the 
worst possible condition, and scarcely deserving of the name, and he describes 
the dress of the inhabitants of different grades. The poor, he says, wore 
suits of hodden grey ; the middle class women dressed in good home-spun 
cloth, and the men wore bottle-green or brown coats, cord breeches decorated 
with large brass buttons, woollen hose and stout shoes. The gentry were 
dressed more a la mode — the gentlemen in the long coats and embroidered 
waistcoats of the period and the ladies in gay flaring gowns, distended by 
great hoops, and tightly pinched in at the waist. It strikes us that the 
ladies' waists could scarcely have been more outrageously pinched in in those 
days than they are in these, whilst the hodden grey of the poor and the good 
home-spun cloth of the middle-class folk, were infinitely more comfortable 
and becoming than the tawdry finery worn at the present time. 

Mr. Rose, in introducing his readers to the contents of the chest, 
commences by giving an account of the Parish Offices and their respective 
duties, Churchwardens, Overseers of the Poor, and the Parish Constable. 
The last officer, he says, was, during the 17th and 18th centuries, the 
secular great man of his township. "The office is one of great antiquity, 
and its full importance can scarcely be realized in these days. The Parish, 
or Petty Constable, united in his person most of the functions of a police 
force, public prosecutor, exciseman, custom house officer, collector, and 
assessor of taxes, sanitary and building inspector, overseer, and a fully 
armed 19th century local board. He was weighed down by responsibilities, 
a bare list of which gleaned from orders issued during the first half of the 



320 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



18th century is formidable." And he proceeds to describe them in detail, 
extending over a couple of pages, from which it appears that he was more 
ubiquitous than Caleb Quotum himself, and the very essence of " Bumble- 
don." 

The powers, at various times, vested by Statute in Constables, were 
very great, but we confess we were not prepared to find them invested with 
so much authority as is here described. 

One remarkable circumstance which meets us at the beginning is a 
declaration by the parishioners, dated 6th April, 1700, that from thence- 
forward the offices of churchwarden and overseer of the poor should be 
united in the same person. The resolution was acted upon for many years, 
and, with occasional exceptions, for more than a century, and appears to 
have worked satisfactorily. In connection with the overseer's duties, there 
are preserved in the chest hundreds of removal, settlement, and bastardy 
orders, certificates and submissions, and a large bundle of indentures of poor 
children apprenticed by the parish — literally too often, no doubt, adds Mr. 
Rose, " sold into slavery to save the rates." The writer is old enough to have 
had some experience of parish apprenticeship, and he differs in toto from the 
author's estimate of the cruelty and hardship of the practice. The parish 
officers had no legal power to assign poor children to other than parishioners. 
Their masters, or mistresses, were bound to provide them with proper and 
sufficient clothing and necessaries for a certain number of years, generally 
until the age of 21, and to instruct them in their craft or occupation, in 
return for which the masters or mistresses were entitled to their services for 
the term agreed upon. By these means the children were brought up to 
gain their own livelihood and to become useful members of society, instead 
of, as at present, being brought up in workhouses as paupers, which they, in 
most cases, continue for the whole of their lives. 

One of the most interesting records found in the chest was, what is 
called, the Township Book. The volume commences in 1725, and contains 
much curious information, but the most valuable, Mr. Rose considers, are 
the Constables' Accounts, which, he says, " throw a flood of light upon the 
secular life of several generations of Leigh Men." 

The earliest paper which we notice is the Assessment of an Aid of 2/- 
in the £1 to William and Mary, and a grant to their majesties of an 
additional shilling in the pound. This gives the name of every freeholder, 
the annual value of his real estate, and the amount assessed. A similar aid 
would seem to have been levied from time to time for several years. The 
most wealthy people were the Bradshaws, the Ratcliffes, and the Guillims. 
Of these and their connections, Mr. Rose gives many interesting biographical 
notes. In the 17th century Leigh became one of the missions of theLancas- 
shire " College," or district, of the English Province of the Society of Jesus, 
which would seem to have had much influence over the more considerable 
of the parishioners. 

The most frequent item in the Parish Account are charges for drinking. 
The officers seem to have been a thirsty set. Whether it were the dismissal 
of the parish clerk, a thanksgiving on one of Marlborough's victories, or 
other objects, there arc continual ehargcs of money spent at the public house. 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 321 



The re-casting of the Bells, 1705-1707, afforded many an opportunity for the 
parish officers to indulge in conviviality. They, however, sometimes admit- 
ted some of the parishioners to join them in the carousals, e.g. : — 

Spent the day of thanksgiving with some of the parishioners, my part 1-6 
Again spent with some of the parishioners to enquire about John Sales' 
gift to the poor of this parish my part - - - 1.7 

Spent at Mrs. Ward's request to know where to buy wine. 2 
Proclaiming a Town Meeting 6d., and spent at that meeting, my part 4.5 

There was, however, no occasion more remarkable than on the arrival of 
a new curate : — 

Spent with Mr. Bentley and several of the parish on his first coming to 



Leigh, my part - - - - - 5d 

These accounts contain* many curious items, e.g. — 

Paid to Sextones for Russhes - - - • - 2 

Paid for hedghogs - - - - - - 6.10 

p d to Sextones for dressing Communion table & for Rushes my part 3d 

Rushes laying in Ch. Wardens pew - - - - 1.2. 

Paid for 52 doz. and 10 Sparrows beaks .... 2.2^ 

The next year — 

Paid for 87 doz. and 10 Beaks ----- 3-8 

In 1764. Paid for 89 doz. & 4 beaks 3.9 

In 1765. Paid for Sparrow Beaks 256 doz. and 3 beaks - - 10.9 

In 1766 p d for Sparrows beaks 309 dozen & one - - - 12.10^ 



Notwithstanding the destruction they still seem to increase. 

We have alluded above to the re-casting of the bells. Application was 
first made to the famous Gloucester Bell Founder, Abel Rudhall, but the 
work was finally entrusted to Gabriel Smith, an eminent Bell Founder, at 
Congleton. The ring now consisted of five bells. In 1716 and two following 
years great repairs were effected in the church. 

In 1712 a very remarkable man is noticed, Mr. Lawrence Hardman, who 
was then constable. Mr. Rose says he was probably the same man whose 
burial is recorded in the parish register three years later, and that his 
office was performed by deputy. On 30th April, 1715, is recorded by the 
rector the burial of " Lawrence Hardman, of Pennington, the last of the 
old cavaliers that I know of in Leigh Parish." Mr. Rose states that "In 
Mr. Beamont's preface to A Discowse of the War re in Lancashire, he des- 
cribes Mr. Hardman as the Nestor of the party and says he was at the 
storming of Bolton in 1644, and would have been killed — having been struck 
down — but for the timely interference of a friend named Scholefield." He 
had attained at his death the age of 105 years. In this year the first 
Jacobite rising took place with reference to which numerous charges for 
soldiers, &c, occur in the Town Accounts. We find charges also for 
repairing and looking after the Shooting Buttes, shewing that archery was 
still practiced in 1725. An account is given of the Leigh Grammar School 
and the benefactions of Mr. Pilling, and of the building of Atherton Hall 
in 1743, at the cost of £65,000. The bells were again re-cast in 1738-9. On 
this occasion by Rudhall, of Gloucester, and the ring was extended to eight 



322 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



bells. These bells are still in use. In 1745 Leigh was again visited by the 
Stuart army, under the command of Prince Charles Edward, whose success- 
ful march to Derby, en route for London, had every prospect of success, but 
was defeated by the ill-timed jealousies and quarrels of the Scottish chieftains. 

Leigh is chiefly remarkable in connection with the invention of the 
Spinning Jenny, which is claimed for one Thomas Highes, or Hayes, a 
Leigh man. This question is discussed at some length by Mr. Rose, but we 
cannot enter upon it. 

We have given a somewhat lengthened notice of this little work on 
account of its interest and the light it reflects on village life in the last 
century. It is hoped that others will follow Mr. Rose's example. 

RECORDS OF THE ANGLO-NORMAN HOUSE OF GLANVILLE, 
from a.d. 1050 to 1880. Dedicated, by permission, to Lord A. C. Hervey, 
Bishop of Bath & Wells. By Wm. Urmston S. Glanville-Richards, Esq., 
etc. London : Mitchell & Hughes, 1 882. 

This work, though not all that could be desired, is an important and valuable 
contribution to our genealogical history. The great house of Glanville has 
made a considerable mark in our mediaeval national history, and Mr. 
Glanville-Richards probably says truly : there can be but little doubt that 
the name of Glanville was of considerable importance in Normandy long 
before the invasion of England by Duke William. He states that the family 
derived its name from Glanville, a place in the Arondissement of l'Eveque. 
Ranulph de Glanville was lord of Glanville cir. 1040, and he, clr. 1064, 
witnessed a charter in favour of Robert de Mowbray. His son Ranulph de 
Glanville, "Le Sire de Glanville" is said to have entered England in the 
train of William the Conqueror, and was a witness with William and 
Matilda his Queen, to the grant which Walter Giffard Earl of Buckenham 
made to the monks of Cerasie, in Normandy. As his name does not occur 
in the Great Survey he is supposed to have died before 1086. By Flandrina 
his wife, he is said, on the authority of the Dodsworth MSS., to have had 
issue Robert de Glanville, William de Glanville, Walter de Glanville, and 
Sir Hervey de Glanville. 

Mr. Pym Yeatman (author of the History of the House of Arundel), 
who has contributed a valuable Introduction to this work, draws attention 
to a passage in his own work in which there is an earlier notice of the Glan- 
ville family. The head of the family of Albini, Nigel the Vicomte of St. 
Sauveur, together with his brother Hamon Aux Dents, Lord of Thorigny, was 
the leader of a conspiracy with the object of driving William, the Bastard of 
Robert II. Duke of Normandy from the Ducal throne, and placing thereon 
the rightful heir, Guy Duke of Burgundy. The conspirators were defeated 
at the Battle of Val de Dunes, in 1047. Niel de St. Sauveur fled into exile, 
whilst his brother was taken prisoner. The lands of the conspirators were 
of course escheated, and Duke William granted certain churches in the Island 
of Guernsey to the Abbey of Marmoutier. Niel, or Nigel, de St. Sauveur, in 
his exile, made a grant to the monks of St. Martin, in the Island of Guernsey, 
among the witnesses to which is found the name of Niello de Granville, 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



323 



and after his restoration to his lands and honours, which shortly afterwards 
took place, he confirmed the grant of "William of the churches in Guernsey 
to the Abbey of Marmoutier, and among the witnesses to the charter for 
which is found the name of Nigelltts de Glanvilla. As the same witnesses 
attested all the charters granted by the Albini family while in exile, Mr. 
Yeatman reasonably concludes there' was a close connection between them, 
and he would seem to imply, from the christian name of Nigel, that in the 
case of Glanville it was one of consanguinity. 

Mr. Yeatman considers the name of Glanville to be synonymous with 
Mandeville, Morville, Grosville, Geroville, &c, and Mr. Glanville-Richards 
confirms this remark by the following note : — " Petitionem Wilti de Bode- 
ville Domino suo Galfrido de Glanville ut confirmavit canonicis St. Petri 
Gipwic donationem suam ecclesia St. Maria de Crew decimam de Lethering- 
ham et Thorp," etc. And he adds : At the time of Domesday Letheringham 
was held by Galfred de Magnaville, who was probably the co-founder with 
William de Glanville, of Bronholm, when he is called G. de Glanville." 

A certain Robert de Glanville, supposed to be the son and heir of the 
above-mentioned Ranulph by Flandrina his wife, is recorded in Domesday to 
hold divers lands, &c, in Suffolk, not in capite, but chiefly under Robert 
and William Malet. Among others, Benhal, in Plumesgat Hundred, which 
manor, Mr. Yeatman states, was afterwards vested in Ranulph de Glan- 
ville, the great Justiciary of Henry II. There is no evidence to identify 
this Robert with the eldest son of Ranulph. The difficulty of proof of 
paternity at this early and disturbed period is very great, and must be chiefly 
looked for from ancient charters. Even for some time subequent to the date of ' 
Domesday the same difficulty exists. Banks ignores this Robert (Baronage I., 
89), and states that Ranulph was succeeded by his son William, but our 
author states that William succeeded Robert in these lordships and held a 
high position among the Norfolk and Suffolk Barons in the reigns of Rufus 
and Henry I. He founded, in 1113, the Priory of Bronholm, co. Norfolk, 
and gave it to the Cluniac Monastery of Castle Acre, and Bartholomew his 
son, by his charter, undated, confirmed his father's grant. To this charter 
Hervey de Glanville and Ranulph his son, Roger de Glanville, William de 
Glanville, Osbert de Glanvilla, and Reginald de Glanvilla, were witnesses. 
William de Glanville, who is styled by our author, Earl Glanville, but we 
have no knowledge of that rank, married Beatrix daughter of Sir William 
Sackville, and had issue the above-mentioned Bartholomew and a daughter 
named Matilda. 

Bartholomew de Glanville succeeded his father in his estates, and is styled 
Feudal Baron of Bronholme, which, we conclude, simply means that he was 
Lord of the Manor, for we do not find them called Barons in any official 
record nor do we know of any such Barony. By Isabella his wife, he left 
issue two sons William and Godfrey. William succeeded his father in his 
possessions, and, dying in 1 234 without issue, was succeeded by his brother 
Sir Geoffry, who, by Margaret his wife, daughter of Sir Geoffry de-la-Haye, 
left a son Geoffry and several daughters of whom Margaret, said to be the 
eldest, is stated to have married Edmund Earl of Cornwall. In support of 
this alliance, it is said " the pedigree from the Plea Rolls makes Edmund 
Earl of Cornwall to have been the husband of Margaret de Glanville, and 



324 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



that on his death the Manor of Bacton was enjoyed by Margaret Countess 
of Cornwall, on whose decease it came to the crown." No reference is given 
to the Roll in which this plea is recorded, so that we have no means of 
verifying the statement, and moreover the plea might not have been allowed. 
All authorities, so far as we know, state that Earl Edmund married Margaret 
the daughter of Richard, and sister of Gilbert, de Clare, Earls of Gloucester, 
which Margaret survived him. Moreover it would seem to be doubtful if 
Geoffry de Glanville had a daughter named Margaret. Alianora, stated by 
Mr. Glanville-Richards to be his second daughter, married Almaric Pecche, 
and in the Inquisition taken after his death (Inq. p.m., 16th Edw. I., No. 
10) of which a portion is printed by Mr. Richards on page 15, shews that 
Alianora was the eldest daughter and coheir of Geoffry de Glanville, and on 
page 14 he states that " Alianore de Glanville, the first daughter and co- 
heiress, brought her portion of the Lordship of Bacton to her husband Lord 
(Sir ?) Almuric Peche. It is to be regretted that these discrepancies were 
not cleared up. 

By the death of Geoffry de Glanville the elder branch of the Glanville 
family became extinct in the direct male line, and the representation devolved 
upon Hervey de Glanville youngest son of Ranulph the propositus. He is 
said to have distinguished himself, in the time of Henry I., in many of the 
affairs of state, and afterwards to have become chamberlain to King Stephen. 
He took an active part in the second Crusade, joining the fleet, at the head 
of the contingent from Norfolk and Suffolk, which sailed from Dartmouth, 
on 23rd May, 1147. An attack upon the Moors at Lisbon, and a long latin 
speech is given, which Hervey, it is said, delivered upon the landing of the 
army. The Saracens surrendered the city, and in the midst of great insubor- 
dination and disorder the story ends. 

Hervey de Glanville was the father of Ranulph de Glanville, one of 
the greatest men England has ever produced. Lord Campbell says of him, 
that in 1174 he " conferred greater glory on his country than any Englishman 
before or since holding merely a civil office." This refers to his having, as 
Sheriff of Yorkshire, raised the posse comitatus on his own anthority, attacked 
the Scottish army before Alnwick, and made the King William the Lion 
prisoner. He was thereupon made the King's Justiciar and the Itinerary of 
Henry II. , shews that he was frequently with the court and sitting in the 
Aula Regis. Lord Campbell says further that "he is to be considered the 
father of the English jurisprudence," being the compiler of that great 
work, the Tractatus de Legibus et consuetudinibus regni Anglice. Mr. 
Glanville-Richards has enobled his hero by the title of the Earl of Suffolk. 
He does not, however, so style himself, nor is he so styled by the King in 
any of the charters which Mr. Richards has printed, and, moreover, no such 
dignity is recognised in him by any of the authorities. 

Gilbert de Glanville, grandson of the Justiciar, styled "third Earl of 
Suffolk," took part with Simon de Montford against Henry III., and when 
the rebellion was suppressed at the battle of Evesham, Mr. Glanville- 
Richards tells us de Glanville was deprived of all his estates and also lost 
his Earldom. He died in 1266, leaving Ralph his son and heir and other 
sons. Maud, the only daughter and sole heir of Ralph, married Sir William 
de Vesey of Ireland, "who," in the words of our author, "as most people 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



325 



do say was created Earl of Suffolk in right of his wife in 1326." We must 
confess that this creation is also unknown to us. Sarah the daughter and 
sole heir of Sir William Vesey, married .Robert de Ufford, who had been 
summoned to parliament as Baron Ufford in 1308. His son, the second 
Baron Ufford, was created Earl of Suffolk, on 16th March, 1337, and Was 
afterwards elected a Knight of the Garter as the "1st Earl of Suffolk," 
being the second election after the original foundation of the order. 

The representation of the family having again failed in the male line, 
the descents are carried on by Mr. Glanville-Richards from the younger 
sons of Sir Hervey de Glanville. The work is, however, very deficient 
in record evidence, and shews an absence of original research, which 
is much to be regretted. There is nothing of the kind, with the excep- 
tion of a few extracts from Parish Registers and from Wills, none of 
which are earlier than the 17th century. It is true that a few extracts 
are given from the Calendars printed by the "Commissioners on Public 
Records," but there is nothing to shew that the author has ever troubled 
himself to examine the originals, notwithstanding these valuable Indices, the 
absence of the like of which in the Public Record Office he so much laments. 
The later pedigrees are in many cases very defective, and in their present con- 
dition cannot be accepted as proven, and indeed, in some descents, as probable. 
We are sorry also to find that, like Mr. Pym Y"eatman, he, in his preface, 
indulges in unjustifiable reflections on the management of that great and 
valuable Public Department, the Record Office, the finest and best managed 
in Europe, and in the myth of " wholesale pulping" of valuable documents. 
There is no Royal Road to the use of the Public Records. With the exception 
of the Pipe Rolls, Curias Regis, the de Banco, the Assize Rolls and some few 
other legal records, there are Calendars to most of the Records. Such Indices 
as Mr. Glanville-Richards would seem to desire would take a century to pre- 
pare at an enormous cost. What is required for the student is to make himself 
thoroughly acquainted with the stores at his command, and to make a steady, 
persevering, and practicable use of them. Mr. Glanville-Richards has 
shewn that he is capable of better things ; and if he will do this, as we hope 
he will, he will find his difficulties disappear and will discover much material 
that will enrich, and, in many respects, correct and improve, his interesting 
and, with all its defects, very useful work. 

The publishers have executed their pari well. The chromo-lithographs 
of the portraits are very effective. 



THE REGISTERS OF WLNDLESHAM, SURREY, from 1677 to 1783, 
with biographical notices of some past and present families now residing in 
the Parish, &c. By William Urmston Searle Glanville-Richards. 
Privately printed, one hundred copies (for subscribers only). London : 
Mitchell & Hughes. 

This little volume has been edited, evidently with scrupulous care, verbatim 
et literatim, by Mr. Glanville-Richards, and a Preface is supplied by the Rev. 
John Freshfield, Rector of the Parish. Mr. Freshfield states that " The older 
Registers of the parish which are here printed are contained in three 

Vol. VII., part 2. y 



326 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



volumes. The first begins in 1677 and ends in 1689. The second begins 
in 1695 and ends in 1749, and the third extends from 1749 to 1783 ; " but 
notwithstanding this statement and the title, the first volume is not 
included. This would only contain the entries during a dozen years, and 
the omission is to be regretted, as is also the exclusion of the entries for 
the subsequent period from 1783 to 1812, when the new system of regis- 
tration, under the Act 52nd George III., cap. 146, came into operation. 
The second volume is described by the Rector as being in very bad condition, 
which was the chief reason for printing it, nevertheless we regret the 
omission of the others. 

The entries are of less interest than usual. During the period over 
which they extend there would seem to have been only one family of gentry 
resident in the parish, and that for only a short time. 

Mr. Freshfield has in his Preface fallen into several mistakes. He states 
that ' ' The order of government establishing the system [of Parish Registers] 
was issued in the year 1530, in the reign of Henry VIII., when Thomas 
Cromwell was Vicar- General, and followed on the suppression of the monas- 
teries. In the first place Government had no hand in it. It was done entirely 
by Cromwell, who, as Vicar-General, had supreme authority in the church. 
Cromwell was not appointed Vicar-General until 18th July, 1535, and his 
Injunctions, in which was included the order for keeping Registers of 
Christenings, Marriages, and Burials were not issued until 18th September, 
1538. The lesser monasteries were dissolved in 1536, and the greater two 
years afterwards. We should have supposed this erroneous date to have 
been a typographical error had not Mr. Freshfield in the next page reckoned 
up the time from the date of the earliest Windlesham Registers in 1677 as 
being 147 years after the introduction of the system. 

Mr. Freshfield is also mistaken in supposing that Registers of Baptisms, 
Marriages, and Burials were kept in the monasteries. In fact it is rarely 
even that their obituaries record the dates of the deaths of their special bene- 
factors, and moreover the monks never interfered with the duties of the 
secular clergy. 

ARCH^OLOGICAL HANDBOOK OF THE COUNTY OF GLOUCESTER. 
By G. B. Witts, C.E. ; being an explanatory description of the Archaeological 
Map of Gloucestershire, by the same author, on ivhich are shown 113 Ancient 
Camps, 26 Roman Villas, 40 Long Barrows, 126 Round Barrows, and a large 
number of Bi'itish and Roman Roads. Cheltenham : G. Norman. 

The above full title describes generally the contents of Mr. Witts' work, 
and on the large map which accompanies it is shewn the position of each of 
the early antiquities of the county, which he has briefly, but lucidly, noticed. 
Gloucestershire is very rich in pre-historic and Roman remains, as might be 
expected in this border, and hotly contested, district ; and though Mr. Witts 
has described a large number doubtless many yet remain undiscovered. He 
has himself brought several to light, and from his energy and perseverance 
in this field of labour we doubt not that in no long time a new edition of 
his Handbook, with additions, will be required. He has acted wisely, we 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



327 



think, in not attempting to define too closely the national character of the 
ancient camps. Some of them have been much altered from their original 
structure by later races by whom they were occupied to meet their own 
requirements. 

The map, as stated above, shews the geographical position of each 
camp, barrow, and villa, and around the margin are detail plans of the 
chambered tumuli, and some of the more important villas, whilst the Roman 
roads, by which Gloucestershire is intersected in every direction, especially 
in the Forest of Dean, are distinctly laid down, many of them, we believe, 
from personal inspection. 

This Handbook is an indispensable companion to every archaeologist 
who seeks to become acquainted with the early remains in the County of 
Gloucester. 



SCOTLAND IN PAGAN TIMES. The Iron Age.— The Rhind Lectures 
in Archaeology for 1881. By Joseph Anderson, LL.D., Keeper of the 
National Museum of the Antiquities of Scotland. Edinburgh : David 
Douglas, 1883. 

Dr, Anderson follows out in this work the principle upon which he com- 
menced the first series of his lectures for the reasons which he then stated, 
as noticed in our review of his first volume (ante Vol. V., p. 170) viz. : that 
of starting from the border land where the historic and un-historic meet, 
and ascending the stream of time, making such observations on the facts and 
phenomena already familiar, and deducing therefrom conclusions, which, so 
far as they are sound and relevant, will serve as materials for the construction 
of a logical history of the culture and civilization within the area investigated. 

Leaving entirely all that is distinctly Christian, he proceeds to treat of 
the phenomena which are entirely of a pagan character, and divides the 
whole area into the usual three divisions of the Ages of Iron, of Bronze, and 
of Stone, in each of which, he says, we shall meet with distinctive manifes- 
tation of culture disclosing their peculiar characteristics by their several 
products. 

He states, as the reason for his having divided the whole subject of 
Scottish Antiquities into those of Christian and of Pagan Times, is that 
there is a marked distinction in their characteristics, whether the products 
are of Christian or of Pagan forms, and he illustrates this by stating that 
the two customs — first, of cremation, and, secondly, the deposit with the 
dead, whether burnt or unburnt, of grave goods, such as weapons, implements, 
etc., etc., which characteristics ceased after the introduction of Christianity ; 
but he explains that, as in passing from the Stone age to the Bronze, and 
from the latter to the Iron Age there is no hard and fast line, so the distinct 
customs above mentioned gradually passed into each each other, consequently 
between the two there was a transitional period in which they were 
mingled, and he points out the survival of many pagan customs found in 
a modified form in the usuages of christian burial. The early Christians 
did not bury with their dead gold and silver and other precious objects, 
but they permitted the use of gold woven into cloth as well as finger ringa 



328 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

and other personal ornaments. Kings and the clergy also were buried 
in their robes and insignia of office, and the latter has continued to a com- 
paratively recent date, and indeed is sometimes still practiced. One of the 
remarkable customs of the Pagan Northmen was that of binding the 
" hell-shoes " on the feet of the dead, and this custom, Dr. Anderson 
says, is often found in christian as well as pre-christian graves. Durandus 
says : "the dead must have shoes on their feet by which they may shew 
that they are ready for judgment ; " and in some remote districts of Sweden 
up to a very recent period, the tobacco pipe, the pocket knife, and the 
filled brandy flask were placed with the dead in the grave as indicative 
that they were providing for a journey. Again, the custom in many places, 
until recently, of placing charcoal underneath the corpse, and which, it is 
believed, still exists, may be taken as the survival of the pagan pyre, and 
this also is illustrated by the christian burial service in consigning "ashes to 
ashes." Dr. Anderson says that "when we advance beyond the christian 
boundary in Scotland we enter on a region singularly destitute of materials 
by which the burial customs of the people may be correlated with those 
which offer indications of culture and civilization," and he proceeds to the 
examination of a group of phenomena disclosing the existence within the 
Celtic area of a system of Paganism which was not of Celtic origin. He 
illustrates this by the contents of two graves found in the island of Islay, 
in which the skeleton of the man was associated with his arms and imple- 
ments, and that of the woman with her personal ornaments and household 
gear, but with an obvious absence of all indications of Christianity, for 
although the bodies had been laid due east and west, the head was laid to 
the former and the feet to the latter, quite opposed to the proper position of 
the bodies in christian burial of all ages, in which, with the exception of the 
clergy, the feet are always placed to the east, so that in rising the bodies may 
face their Lord when he comes f 1 om the east to judgement. The arms and im- 
plements were entirely destitute of the ornamentation familiar to us as Celtic. 
The brooch found in the woman's grave is of an oval and bowl-shaped form, 
and posseses a special class of the ornamentation, for though the patterns are of 
zoomorphic character their zoomorphism is radically different from that of 
the Celtic school, and the form also differs from that of Celtic brooches, 
which are always of a penannular with flattened and expanded ends. Dr. 
Anderson clearly points out the special characteristics of the various objects, 
and comes to the conclusion " that these two burials with their associated 
groups of weapons, implements, and ornaments possessing such strongly 
marked and unusual characteristics, may be outlying examples of a form of 
burial and associated types of objects, whose special area is not Celtic, and 
therefore probably not in Scotland." These burials and the grave goods 
which they contain are of the typical character of the Viking time in 
Norway, and it is well known that Islay was possessed and colonized by 
the Norwegians. 

So far for the description of burials during the Viking period in Scot 
land. Dr. Anderson then advances a step and treats of other northern burials 
and hoards peculiar to the area proper of the Norwegian colony which 
founded the Earldom of Orkney in the time of Scandinavian Paganism. 
This area covers the Orkney Isles and Caithness. The burials in this district 
are characterized by types and phenomena prevailing in Norway, modified 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 329 



by Celtic influence, so that they partake of the characteristics which both 
possess and shew no indications of Christianity. The bodies were usually 
burnt, but sometimes unburnt. They were usually placed in cisted mounds, 
generally singly, but sometimes in groups, and without the deposit of any 
manufactured article save the urns in which, in case of cremation, the ashes 
of the dead were placed. These were essentially different from the urns vised 
by the pure Celtic races both in form and material. The latter were almost 
invariably made of clay, roughly circular and smaller at the mouth than at 
the middle, whilst the former were made of steatitic stone, and were irregu- 
larly four- sided in shape with large open mouths, generally quite plain, but 
in some instances ornamented with two or three parallel incised lines just 
below the rims. Urns of steatite are common in the burial grounds of the 
"Viking times in Norway, but they are usually accompanied with deposits of 
arms, Viking implements, and ornaments. 

Dr. Anderson next proceeds to investigate another class of antiquities 
under the same head, and refers to a remarkable discovery made in 1858 of 
a large horde of silver articles found in the sand in the links of Skaill, in 
the parish of Sandwick, Orkney. The aggregate weight of the silver was 161bs. 
avoirdupois, and consisted almost entirely of personal ornaments of three 
varieties : brooches, neck-rings, and arm-rings. The brooches were all of 
great size, very heavy, and of the pennanular form, terminating in bulbous 
knobs, of the common type of Celtic brooches, but they differed from the 
latter in their large size, the rings varying from 5 to 8 inches in diameter, and 
the pins were from 15 to 20 inches in length. The ornamentation, though 
zoomorphic, differed in design from that of Celtic ornaments. In the bulbous 
head of one of the pins the ornamentation consisted, instead of the con- 
ventional beast, so. typical of Celtic art, of a quasi-human figure worked 
up into a pattern of interlacements. It presents a bearded face, which is 
curiously elongated and triangular in outline, the nose is represented by a 
curved line from the eyes which are connected by double lines across the 
upper part of the nose. The neck and arm rings are composed of a thicker 
and finer strands of silver twisted spirally together and passing at the ends 
into flattened expansions terminating in hooks. The finger rings were of 
the same type. 

The general character of the ornamentation of the articles in this " find " 
was a mingling of Celtic and Scandinavian art, shewing an intermixture of 
races, and exhibiting systems of ornament peculiar to each of these races. 
Examples of many of the peculiarities may be found in Scandinavia. This 
remark is particularly applicable to some of the zoomorphic creatures, the 
convolutions of which are exactly represented in the Scandinavian region,, 
especially of the very singular goggle-eyed, flat-nosed anthropomorphic 
figure, of which an exact representation in the character of the design and 
of every of its convolutions have been found in Sweden and Jutland. The 
obvious deductions, Dr. Anderson says, is that the birth place of the type 
is to be looked for in an area in which the population were partly Celtic and 
partly Scandinavian in extraction. 

Turning to the consideration of Celtic art of the Pagan period, Dr. 
Anderson treats first of a group of relics which we have learned to recognise 
as distinctly Celtic, and he illustrates a bronze object found at Torrs, in 



330 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



Kirkcudbrightshire, about the year 1820. It has the appearance of an elon- 
gated mask, somewhat resembling the frontal of a horse. It has two curiously- 
curved cylyndrical tapering horns 
which spring close together between 
two circular eye-like holes. Its orna- 
mentation, Dr. Anderson considers, 
as peculiar as its form, but generally 
it is identical with the character of 
Celtic art. It consists of irregularly 
divergent spirals in respons6 work 
repeated symetrically on either side 
of the meridian line in front of the 
object with a zoomorthic termination 
at the ends. 

The object being incomplete its 
purpose is not obvious, but Dr Ander- 
son thinks it is suggestive of the 
probability of its having formed part 
of a helmet ; that Diodorus Siculus, 
writing only a few years after the 
conquest of Gaul by Julius Csesar, 
describes the military equipment of 
certain Gallic tribes as including 
"bronze helmets with lofty pro- 
jections i-ising out of them, which 
impart a gigantic appearance to the 
wearers ; for upon some are affixed 
plates of horns, upon others the 
shapes of birds and beasts wrought 
out of the same metal." Among 
other objects which Mr. Anderson 
brings under notice is a bridle bit 
found in a moss at Birrenswark, in 
Annandale, which he describes as 
exhibiting Celtic art in a very strik- 
ing manner. It is, he says, " no less 
peculiar in its design and construc- 
tion than in the character of its 
ornamentation. It is a single casting 
of bronze. The loops of the cheek- 
rings have been cast within the loops 
of the centre-piece, an operation 
implying technical skill and experi- 
ence of complicated processes of 
moulding and casting. The design, 
however, is the most remarkable 
feature of the object. It is designed 
as carefully as if were a piece of 
jewelry. " Both the design and the 
surface decorations are of a high Fig. 35. 

character, the latter being heightened by red and yellow enamel champUve." 
(Fig. 35.) « 




Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



331 



Dr. Anderson remarks that " it is a peculiar feature of an art so singularly 
decorative that it was applied so largely to the ornamentation of objects that 
were appropriated to the commonest uses. Enamelled horse-trappings of the 
most finished and beautiful workmanship have frequently been found in 
England, sometimes associated with the remains of chariots. Not only is the 
use of enamel in the decoration of such objects unknown beyond the area of the 
British Isles, but the special system of design which accompanies its use 
is confined within that area. And it is an interesting fact that there is 
historical evidence as to the nationality of these remains. The only classical 
author who mentions the art of enamelling is Philostratus, a Greek sophist 
in the household of Julia Domna, wife of the Emperor Severus. In a notice 
of the variegated trappings of the horses in a painting of a boar-hunt he 
accounts for their peculiar appearance as follows: — "They say that the 
barbarians who live in the ocean pour such colours on heated brass, and that 
they adhere to it, become as hard as stone and thus preserve the designs that 
are made in them." Horse trappings of bronze decorated with coloured 
enamels have hitherto been found in the British Islands alone. 

Among the many objects commented upon and illustrated are some very 
elegant Bronze Mirrors, the backs being ornamented with the peculiar 
patterns of spirals and converging and diverging curves characteristic of 
Celtic art. Among these is the magnificent specimen with which we are 
so familiar, which was found at Birdlip in 1879 (See ante Vol. V., p. 135), 
and is now deposited in the Gloucester Museum. This is described and 
illustrated in colours in Vol. V., p. 137, Plate XIV. of our Transactions. 

"It is to this characteristic treatment of the decoration of their metal 
work by this early school of Celtic art that Mr. Kemble refers in the follow- 
ing: " When, as is often the case in metal, this principle of the diverging spiral 
line as is carried out In respousse" — when you have those singularly beautiful 
curves, more beautiful perhaps in the parts that are not seen than in those 
that meet the eye, and whose beauty is revealed in shadow more than in 
form — you have a peculiar characteristic, a form of beauty which belongs to 
no nation but our own, and to no portion of our nation but the Celtic portion. 
It deals with curves which are not arcs of a circle, its figures are not of the 
class which we usually designate by the term of geometrical ; above all it 
calls in the aid of enamel to perfect its work— not cloisonne like the enamel 
of the east, not mosaic work of tesserae like the many so-called enamels of 
the Romans, but enamels champleve as Philostratus has described the island 
barbarians to have invented it. The engraved spiral line, with double wind- 
ing, is found from America to the Baltic, from Greece to Norway, but the 
divergent spiral repouse' in metal and ornamented with champUve enamel, is 
found in these British Islands alone." 

There is another class of objects of a peculiar form of which Dr. 
Anderson has treated, which, though of great interest, we must pass lightly 
over. They are balls of Bronze or Stone which take the form of a cylindrical 
axis, with flattened cylindrical projections, the surfaces of which are, in 
most cases, highly ornamented in the usual Celtic style of art. Their 
purpose is uncertain, but Dr. Anderson suggests that their form would 
admit of their being swung by thongs or bound to the end of a handle as 



332 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



mace-heads. They are very limited in area, not being found anywhere 
out of Scotland, except that one solitary specimen is said to have been 
found in Ireland. 

Dr. Anderson, in quitting this portion cf his subject, remarks that "the 
technical skill displayed in the fabrication and finish in these objects (the 
objects of which he has treated) is great, and the quality of the art displayed 
in their decoration is high. There is implied in their production a special 
dexterity in preparing models and compounding alloys, in casting, chasing, 
and engraving, in the polishing and setting of jewels in the composition and 
fixing of enamels. But there is further implied an artistic spirit controlling 
and combining the results of these various processes, giving elegance and 
beauty of a peculiar cast to the forms of the objects and increasing the 
intrinsic elegance and beauty of form by the harmonious blending of its 
special varieties of surface decoration, in which forms that are solidly 
modelled are intermingled with chased or engraved patterns and spaces 
filled with colour. A style of art characterised by such originality of design 
and excellence of execution, must count for something in the history of a 
nation's progress, must have its place to fill in the history of art itself, when 
once we have begun to realize the fact that art was not the exclusive privilege 
of classic antiquity." 

In his fourth lecture Dr. Anderson takes up a subject of a different 
class — The Architecture of the Brochs. A class of buildings of a peculiar type 
found only in Scotland, the affinities of the typical structure of which go 
far to shew, Dr. Anderson says, ' ' that in its character and origin it is dis- 
tinctly Celtic." These singular structures are circular towers, built of dry 
stone masonry, the stones well fitted together, without any external opening 
except a low narrow doorway. The walls are some 15 ft. thick and rise to 
an elevation of some 40 or 60 ft., and are considerably battered, which gives 
the building the appearance of a great solidity and strength {Fig. 36). From 




Fig. 3G. 

the external doorway a narrow passage leads through the thickness of the 
wall to an inner court, and leading from this passage are sometimes found, 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



333 



also in the thickness of the wall, one or more guard-chambers. The inner 
court is some 20 to 30 feet in diameter, and on the basement are passages to 
chambers, also in the thickness of the walls. The wall to the height of the 
chambers is carried up solid with the exception of the chambers themselves, 
but above there is a vacancy of about 3 feet wide between its exterior and 
interior portions. At every 5 or 6 feet of its height this vacancy is crossed 
by horizontal ranges of slabs inserted as ties Between the outer and inner 
shells of the wall, so that their upper surfaces form a floor to the space above, 
and their under surfaces become a roof to the spaces below. These spaces 
thus form horizontal galleries which run completely round the tower, except 




Fig. 37. 

that they are crossed successively by the stair which gives access to them. 
They are separated from each other vertically by the slabs of their floors and 
roofs. They are lighted by peculiarly-constructed windows, placed vertically 
over each other, and all looking into the internal area. The wall-chambers 
are of an elongated oval form, about 14 or 16 feet long, 5 or 6 feet wide, and 
9 or 10 feet high, and their roofs are formed by a vaulting of over-lapping 
masonry in the manner of the bee-hive huts {Fig. 37. ) 

Dr. Anderson, on consideration of his remarkable group of buildings, 
has come to the conclusion that they point more or less obviously, to a 
double intention in the minds of the constructors, of providing shelter and 
defence, to which purpose they were admirably adapted. Though some of 
them are situated in places of great strength, generally they are found in the 
most fertile straths, following the courses of rivers for many miles inland. 
They were therefore, he remarks, the defensive stronghold of a population 
located upon arable lands, continually exposed to the plundering forays of 
bands of marauders, affording secure places of refuge for non-combatants 
and cattle and for storage of the products of the soil. 

The relicts recovered from the ruins of the Brochs consist : (1) of 
articles used in the daily life of the inmates ; and (2) objects not manufac- 
tured, which were plainly the refuse of their food. The manufactured 
articles consisted of implements made of stone and bone, bronze, and iron. 
Of the first were found querns, pounders, whetstones, spindle whorls, &c. ; 
of bone, various articles were fabricated, such as combs, pins, needles, &c. 



334 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



In the Broch of Burrian, in the island of North Ronaldsay, was found a set 
of dice. Dr. Anderson remarks that dice have been discovered in Viking 
graves in Norway. Bronze pins and fragments of implements of iron have 
also been found. Dr. Anderson says " that the general character of the 
relics obtained is not that of a primitive group, but of a group which is the 
product of an advanced stage of culture, civilization, and social organization. 
The inference deducible from the character of the relics is the same as that 
which has been deduced from the type of the structure, and when the whole 
of the facts have been marshalled, and their significance is calmly considered, 
it becomes plain that there is even less ground for ascribing a low condition 
of culture, of civilization, or of social organization to the people who con- 
structed and occupied these massive towers, than there is for ascribing such a 
condition to the builders of the 'bee-hive huts and dry built churches of 
christian times." 

This very interesting book, which has tempted us already to exceed our 
space, should be attentively read by every one desirous of becoming acquain- 
ted with the social condition of the early inhabitants of our island. Dr. 
Anderson's thorough knowledge of the subject upon which he writes, his 
faculty of acute observation, lucidity of description, and power of deduc- 
tion, would render any further commendation of his work, on our part, an 
act of presumption. 



NEW FACTS RELATING TO THE CHATTERTON FAMILY, gathered 
from manuscript entries in a " History of the Bible," which once belonged 
to the parents of Thomas Chatterton the Poet, and from Parish Registers. 
Bristol : W. George & Son. 

The Chatterton controversy seems to be not yet ended. The Bristolians are 
naturally much interested in everthing relating to their "Marvellous boy," 
and a dispute has recently arisen between Mr. John Taylor, Librarian of the 
Bristol Museum and Library, and Mr. John Ingram, respecting the authen- 
city of certain entries on the fly-leafs of an imperfect copy of ' ' The History 
of the Bible," which had formerly belonged to the Chatterton family. The 
correspondence was conducted with somewhat unnecessary asperity on both 
sides, which seems, in this respect, to be in accordance with the character of 
the old Chatterton controversy. The result appears to be that Mr. Taylor, 
with the assistance of Mr. W. George, who, it is said, after reading Mr. 
Ingram's "fierce epistle," was induced to purchase the volume, has estab- 
lished the following new facts relating to the Chatterton family : — 

1 . That the Poet's parents were married at Chipping Sodbury, Gloucester- 
shire, and that the maiden name of the Poet's mother was Sarah Young. 

2. That the Poet had a brother who was christened "Giles Malpas," in 
Redcliff Church, on the day stated in the inscription in the Bible History. 

3. That Mary, the Poet's sister, was baptised at St. Mary Redcliff Church 
on the day recorded in the Bible History ; and that her age inscribed 
on the family tombstone in Redclitf* Churchyard is an error. 

The little pamphlet is worth perusal. 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



335 



LE PRINCE NOIR POEM du Heraut Chandos texte critique suive de 
Notes par Francisque-Michel Correspondant de 1' Institut de France, etc., 
etc.— The Life and Feats of Arms of Edward the Black Prince. By 
Chandos Herald. A Metrical Chronicle with an English translation and 
Notes by Francisque-Michel, F.S.A., Lond., Scotland Normanday, etc., 
etc. London and Paris : J. G. Fotheringham, 'ISSS. 

The manuscript of this metrical chronicle is now in the library of Worcester 
College, Oxford. It was formerly in the collection of Sir William Le Neve, 
Clarencieux, and after his death came into the possession of Sir Edward 
Walker, Knight of the Garter, from whom it passed to Sir John Clopton who 
had married his daughter. It afterwards came into the hands of Dr. George 
Clarke, Fellow of All Souls' College, by whom, with the greater portion of 
his valuable library, it was bequeathed to Worcester College. Affixed to it 
is the following letter relative to its contents from John Anstis,' Garter King 
of Arms : — " Many thanks for the loan of your MS. of the life and valiant 
actions of the Black Prince, written by Chandos Herald. It is very valuable 
in many respects, not only for being wrote by a contemporary author, who 
(though he mentions nothing of himself in this poem) was an eye witness, 
and employed in some of those actions, as far as related to his function, but 
likewise on many other accounts, as that Chandos Herald (for I suppose 
there was never more than one officer by that title, who was the herald of 
the famous Sir John Chandos) is frequently mentioned in the Froissart, 
and though his master was killed in 44th Edward III. , he, according to the 
doctrine of that age, that the character of an herald was indelible retained 
always the title of Chandos and was afterwards promoted to be Ireland 
King of Arms. The copy is also fairly written, the names of the English- 
men right spelled, the chronology exact, and the epitaph at the end is the 
very same the Prince ordered in his will &c." This letter is important as an 
account of the author and as a testimony to the value of his work. 

The Worcester College manuscript would appear, however, not to be 
the original copy of the author, but a transcript made by a scribe ignorant 
of the language in which the work is written, for the text is very corrupt. 
The late Rev. H. 0. Cox, Bodley Librarian, edited it for the Roxburgh 
Society, and M. Francisque-Michel states, ' ' that in doing so he produced 
the text in the form in which he found it, without having even attempted to 
punctuate or in any way elucidate it, . . . though, with a great deal of 
labour, he has tried to translate into English what was unintelligible in 
French, and, of course, untranslatable." 

The English public, therefore, owes a debt of gratitude to the accom- 
plished editor of this work for publishing an authentic text of the poem. 
It has been a work of vast labour, for the author says he has "gone over 
the manuscript line by line, scanning every syllable, and, he adds, "from 
my long familiarity and I think I may say without boasting my intimate 
acquaintance with the language of this period, I have re-instituted a critical 
text which I maintain to be exact in form to the original." To this text he 
has appended a literal translation, employing ' ' the corresponding English 
word when possible as an equivalent." 



336 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

Though the life of the Black Prince is well known any fresh light 
thrown on the glorious career of this martial hero and Prince of chivalry, 
feared by all men and honoured as much as feared, whose memory is still 
fresh in the hearts of the English nation, and his too early death lamented, 
cannot fail to be received with great gratification by all English-speaking 
people. 

Chandos Herald begins his poem with the expedition of King Edward III. 
into France in 1346, in which the Prince of Wales commenced his martial 
career, being then only 15 years years of age. He, however, lightly passes 
over the period until the Prince, being then Governor of Aquitain, with the 
approval of the King his father, espoused the cause of Don Pedro King of 
Castile, who had been driven from his throne by Henry his bastard brother ; 
though he gives a vivid description of the famous battle of Poitiers, probably 
derived from some one who was present. There is no reason for supposing 
that Chandos was himself there. With the Spanish expedition he was 
undoubtedly present, and he writes of that which he personally saw and 
heard from other eye-witnesses down to the time of the Prince's lamented 
death, the particulars of which he relates with much feeling. His relation 
of the events of the Spanish war very closely agrees with that of Froissart, so 
closely that it almost would appear to be an abstract of Froissart' s Chronicle, 
but there are differences in some of the details. Froissart is more full, but 
Chandos has preserved names which the former has omitted, and his text is 
very valuable to the English historian and genealogist for the accuracy with 
which the names of the English Knights are written, whilst the text of 
Froissart, in this respect, is so corrupt as to render the identification of the 
persons impracticable. Moreover the author has appended an extensive 
series of notes, critical and biographical, which add greatly to the value of 
the work, but we regret to say the value is much lessened by the total 
absence of an index. 

HANLEY CASTLE. An Episode of the Civil Wars and the Battle of 
Worcester. By W. S. Symonds, Rector of Pendock, author of "Malvern 
Chase." Tewkesbury : William North. London : Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 
1883. 

There is less originality in this book than in Mr. Symond's previous work, 
"Malvern Chase." This would naturally arise from its character being 
more strictly historical, for the author must necessarily follow his authorities 
for his facts. The result is a compendious and interesting history of the 
most striking events of the civil war in and about the County of Worcester ; 
and is made the more lively by the author's knowledge of the district. 
The hero of the tale is a certain Richard Plantagenet Forester. We may 
remark here, however, that double christian names were exceedingly rare at 
the date in which the tale is laid. It purports to have been written by Forester 
in the form of an autobiography, a form of a very slippery nature, requiring 
from the author an intimate acquaintance, not only with the manner of speech, 
but with the habits and degree of cultivation of the different ranks of society ; 
and the reader will doubtless notice that the author has not wholly escaped 
some of the numerous pitfalls which environed his path. Moreover we think he 
has somewhat failed in drawing the character of his hero. He has aimed at, 
and succeeded in, taking a line of impartiality between the contending parties. 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 337 



This would be satisfactory in an historian writing in his own person, but it is 
scarcely, we think, compatible with the feelings of a young Royalist gentle- 
man in constant confidential communication with the King and a trusted 
■ officer in his service. He should not betray any misgivings in the justice of 
the cause in which he had drawn his sword and gallantly fought. Though 
we might agree with the author in his calm philosophic views at this distance 
of time, a young Royalist in the heat of the strife would scarcely, we think, 
have looked with calmness on both sides of the question. 

There are, as in Malvern Chase, many little touches of nature in this 
little volume. The battle scenes are described in a vivid and spirited 
manner. The characters are generally well drawn, especially that of Capt. 
Bound, a Parliamentary Officer and an adroit and notorious Spy. Richard 
Forester had for his distinguished services been promoted to the rank of 
Lieut. -Colonel and appointed Governor of the District of Upton-upon-Severn. 
That part of Worcester was infested with spys, acting under the superin- 
tendence of Bound, and the governor had made arrangements to go to 
Welland, in which neighbourhood he had had intelligence that Bound was 
loitering about, to proceed thither with a score of horse to endeavour to 
capture him. Having, however, received orders from Prince Maurice to 
remain at Worcester on special duty, he entrusted the service to a Captain 
Morgan, a fiery and astute little Welshman. 

On receiving intimation that Bound had again been seen prowling about 
the neighbourhood, Morgan and his followers started for Welland and Little 
Malvern at midnight. For three days they lingered in separate detachments 
among the wild commons and woodlands below the Malverns, but they saw no 
one save a few peasants and the Welland parson, the Rev. Howard Hamilton 
Snoper. Mr. Snoper was very civil to Captain Morgan, and proved an 
agreeable companion. He loved the woodlands surrounding his lonely 
vicarage and the birds frequenting the Welland glades. He had an absorb- 
ing passion for military books, and saved all his money to buy them. He 
wore the most orthodox clerical garments and the broadest of bands ; but 
he avoided theological discussion, and said he ought to have been a soldier. 
He listened with interest to Morgan's account of the various battles he had 
fought and any military details. 

Mr. Snoper was no ascetic, he liked his sack and burnt posset, and a 
good deal of it, while he smoked as much tobacco as Von Prig. He had 
suffered from the depredations of Bound and his associates and had lost his 
few sheep upon the common and all his chickens. 

One morning the reverend gentleman communicated to Morgan that he 
had received certain information that Bound had joined Massey's corps at 
Ledbury, on which Morgan led his troopers back to Worcester. 

" Mr. Snoper addressed a letter to me, at which I was somewhat sur- 
prised, having no acquaintance with him. On opening the epistle I read as 
follows : — " 

" Dr. Dick,— Don't send again 20 asses to catch an old lyon. Let 
heralds now say, « he beareth verdant an ass's head rampant by the name of 
Forester."' 

"Iam Dr. Dick your admiring friend " 

"Rob Bound, alias Snoper.' 
" Poslscriptum.—- Captain Morgan is a well informed officer, and knows a deal 
about where your soldiers are ; best respects to him." 



338 



Notices of Recent Arch,eological Publications. 



John Kelly, the staunch loyalist and learned philosopher, is also a well 
drawn character, as is that of Aunt Tabitha, with her quaint medical nos- 
trums, derived from an old almanac, and interesting memoranda from the 
Feoffee Book of Tewkesbury, to which the author had access, and also that 
of gentle loving Mary Bromley, whom we may consider the heroine, and her 
brave, though fruitless, interview with the Queen. Sir John Bridges is 
described as ' ' neither flesh nor fowl, neither a King's man nor a Roundhead. " 
He is said to have been one of those who attempted to walk on both sides of 
the street at the same time, and so fell at last into the gutter. 

EARLY BRITAIN" — ROMAN BRITAIN. By the Rev. H. M. Scarth, M.' A. , 
Prebendary of Wells and Rector of Wrington, Somerset, &c, &c. London ; 
The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 

The Society eor Promoting Christian Knowledge could scarcely have 
entrusted the production of a popular sketch of the history of the Conquest 
and Colonization of Britain by the Romans to a writer more competent for 
the purpose than the able author of Aquce Solis, who for many years has made 
Roman Remains his study. The period of the occupation of this country 
by that great people is of the utmost interest. With their advent arose 
the dawn of British History. During their occupation was laid the germ 
of that Christianity, which, though blighted for awhile after their departure 
by the treacherous conquest by the Pagan Saxon and other barbarians, was 
destined again to break forth and bear abundant fruit ; whilst Mr. Coote, 
in his Romans in Britain, has convincingly shewn that to the Romans we 
are directly indebted for the principles of modern culture and civilization, 
and the foundation of our laws, our free municipal institutions, the intro- 
duction of letters, and many customs which are still extant. 

Mr. Scarth says little of British culture prior to the Roman invasion. 
It does not fall within the scope of his subject and has been treated of in 
another work of the Society's series on Early Britain. The subject is well 
deserving of elucidation in a popular form, for the time has arrived for 
bringing before the public the high position in culture and art held by the 
Britons as shewn by the remains found in various tumuli and elsewhere. 

Mr. Scarth gives a succinct but clear account of the several Roman 
invasions and the gradual extensions of their dominion from Kent to the 
Frith and Clyde. His relation is not confined however to military oper- 
ations and the varying successes of the Romans and Britons. He points 
out that the discoveries which have been made exhibit the luxurious habits 
and manner of life, and the elegance and refinement of taste displayed by the 
Roman officers and wealthy colonists ; and this had a lasting influence on 
the British people. Moreover, Roman soldiers frequently intermarried with 
British women, and when their term of service was completed lands were 
assigned to them. These alliances, Mr. Scarth points out, are attested by 
monumental inscriptions, and during a period of 300 years must have had a 
great effect in the amalgamation of races. 

The Roman power attained its greatest height in Britain under Constan- 
tine the Great, 350 years after the first invasion under Julius Caesar, but 
the spirit of the British tribes was never wholly subdued, and war still 

t 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



339 



continued, from time to time, on the northern frontier. Constantine had 
also frequent struggles with his competitors for the Imperial power, but 
after their deaths, in 323, he became sole Emperor. 

Having briefly sketched the history of the Roman occupation to the final 
withdrawal of the Roman army in 410, Mr. Scarth gives an account of the 
cities they founded in Britain, of the Roman landing places and roads, and 
of the Roman villas which have been discovered ; and he treats of their 
metaliferous mining, especially of tin, which abounded in Cornwall, for 
which he tells us there was a considerable traffic as early as 450 years before 
the Christian era. The final chapter on the Rise and Spread of Christianity 
in Roman Britain, and of the ancient Bishoprics, is of much interest. He 
adds four appendices, in which he treats of the Roman influences existing 
in Britain after the departure of the Roman armies. Recent continental 
discoveries tending to throw light upon the changes in Roman Britain — the 
method of the apportionment of land, and specimens of Roman Inscriptions 
found in Britain, &c. 

We have only one fault to find in this interesting little manual, and that 
is it is too brief, but for this probably the author is not responsible. 



JAMES EAWCKNER NICHOLLS, F.S.A. 



Mr. J. F. Nicholls died, after a very short illness, on 19th September, whilst 
absent from home on his summer vacation. In early life he was subject 
to many changes and vicissitudes, but throughout, under many difficulties, 
cultivated a taste for literature, and was a contributor to Country Newspapers 
and to some of the London Magazines. In 1868 he was appointed by the 
Town Council of Bristol to be City Librarian. The library was then a small 
institution founded as long ago as 1613, but Mr. Nicholls, by his energy 
and perseverance, obtained the Establishment of a Free Library, into which 
the old endowed library was merged. 

In 1869 he published the Life of Sebastian Cabot, a work which has become 
a text book. In the following year he started a serial of Bristol Biographies, 
which ceased after a few months. At intervals he contributed to the local 
newspapers a series of Papers entitled Pleasant Trips out of Bristol, which, 
in 1874, were collected and printed in a volume. This was followed, in 1877, 
by How to See Bristol. Mr. Nicholls was also a contributor to the Journal 
of the Royal Archaeological Institute and to the British Archaeological 
Society. In 1878 he was elected a Fellow of the Societj 7 of Antiquaries. 
His great work, however, was Bristol : Past ct- Present, which he undertook 
jointly with Mr. John Taylor. 

Mr. Nicholls assisted in 1876 in the formation of the Bristol and Glou- 
cestershire Archaeological Society, of which he has been one of the Council 
from the first, taking an active part in its management ; and he has contribu- 
ted several valuable Papers to its Transactions. He generally attended the 
meetings of the Society, taking part in the excursions, and his loss will be 
much felt by the members. 



WILLIAM JENEAS SEYS. 



Mr. Seys was the eldest son of the Rev. William Seys, M.A., "Vicar of 
Trellech and Penalt, co. Monmouth, by Ann his wife, daughter of the Rev. 
Edmund Rawlings, of Pophills House, co. Warwick. He was born 21st 
October, 1S22, and was sometime of Oriel College, Oxford. He resided at 
Tutshill Hill House, co. Gloucester, and died 16th Sept., 1883. For more 
than 30 years he was in the Commission of the Peace for the Counties of 
Monmouth and Gloucester, and Chairman both of Lydney and Chepstow 
Petty Sessions. On the occasion of the meeting of this Society at Chepstow 
in 1 881 , Mr. Seys rendered great service as Chairman of the Local Committee, 
which contributed much to the success of the meeting, and on the first 
vacancy that happened afterwards he was elected a member of the Council. 



INDEX/ 



Abbotswood, 50, 73, 150. 
Abenhall, 4. 

Abergavenny. Lord, 100 n.. 

Abresko, 111. 

Abson, 63, 66. 

Account, Annual, 44, 226. 

Ackers, B. St. John, and Mrs., 4, 283, 302. 

Ackers, James, 301, 302, 302n. 

Acre, de, 143. 

Adams, 41. 

Addington, 175, 176, I76n. 
Adeliza, Q., 268. 
Adlam, 213. 

Agincourt, battle of, 103, 177. 
Ailburton, 157, 171. 
Albini, de, 208, 209, 210, 322. 
Alcamsode, 268. 

Alchered, Bishop of Wore. , 17n. 

Aldbourne, 68. 

Alderley, 63. 

Aldesworth, 62, 63. 

Aldwick, 132, 150, 151, 153. 

Aldworth, 217. 

Alescote, 51. 

Alexander, 125. 

Allen, G., 170. 

Allen, Rev. W. T., 3, Comm. Discovery at 

Briavel's Castle, 318. 
Almondesham, 235, 235n., 256. 
Alnwick, battle of, 324. 
Altars, desecrated, 123n. 
Alured, Bishop, 141. 
Alveston, 62, 67. 
Alveston, de, 231, 254, 255n. 
Alvynton, 157. 
Alweston, John, 51. 
Alwyn, 154, 157. 
Amand, S., 177n. 
Ambery, 239, 240, 241. 
Ambrose, 289. 
Amherst-Tyssen, 57. 
AMorgan. 237. 

Ampney Crucis, Cross at, 14, 65, 228. 

Ancient Scottisb Lake Dwellings, or Cran- 
nogs, by Robert Munro, M.A , M.D., 
F.S.A., Scot., noticed, 195-199. 

Anderson, Dr., his "Scotland in Pagan 
Times," " noticed," 327-334. 

Anderton, 257. 

Andrews, 86. 

Anne of Denmark, Queen, 161. 
Antiquities, British, 36, 37, 38, 71, 75. 

Roman, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 

71, 72, 73, 74, 76, 131, 132. 

Saxon, 74. 

Apar, 111. 
Appowell, 239, 240. 
Archer, 11. 
Armes des, 232. 
Armour, remarks on, 120 

Arms — 

Arragon, 275, 276 

Vol. VII., part 1. x 



Bakers, The, 98. 
Beauchamp, 26, 122, 279. 
Berkeley, of Cubberly, 279. 
Blakenhall, 264. 
Blaket, 17, 42, 178, I78n. 
Boteler, 279. 
Bradshaw, 264. 
Bray, 279, 280. 
Bridgman, 235, 295. 
Brydges, 279, 280. 
Butler, 264. 

Castile, 275. 
Chandos, 277. 
Coker, 279. 
Coventry, 62. 

Daunt, 285, 295. 

Edward. Prince, 279. 
England, 275, 279. 
Esturmi, 279. 
Eynsford, I78n. 

Falconer, 265. 
France, 275, 279. 
Fust, 62. 

Gloucester Abbey, 62. 
Gourney, 264. 
Grenada, 275. 

Ha^luit, 17, 178, 178n. 
Hall, 264. 
Hallighwell, 280. 
Harrison, 253, 254. 
Henry VIII., 279. 
Hurst, 264. 
Hyett, 264. 

Keyt, 62. 

Mac Williams, 279. 
Marteval, 17, 178, 178n. 

Newland, 62. 
Norbury, 280. 

Osric, 275. 
Owlpen, 285, 295. 

Parker, 275. 
Pitts, 295. 

Seymour, 279. 
Sicily, 275. 
Skerret, 301. 
Suabia, 275. 
Sudeley, de, 280. 

Thynne, 62. 

Unknown, 295. 

Whitmore, 62. 
Woodward, 285. 
Woodward. 295. 
Wynter, 265. 

Arlino-ham Advow., 288, 290, 296. 
Arnoid, 278. 



342 



INDEX. 



Arragon Katherine, Q., 161, 275, 276, 201. 
Arthur, Prince, 275. 

Arundel, Early Genealogical History of 
the House of, by John Pym-Yeatman, 
" noticed," 208. 

Arundel, 209, 210, 322. 

Ashelworth, Village Cross at, 14. 

Ashfield, 109. 

Assheby, 180n. 

Asterley, 174n. 

Astley, 72. 

Aston Barnet, 175, 176, I76n. 
Athill, 271. 
Atkinson, 109, 111. 
Atkyns, 55, 68, 133, 222. 
Attecroft, 271. 
Athegate, 176. 
Atwell, 271. 
Audele de, 46n. 

Augustine's Abbey, Bristol, 215. 

Auste3 r n, 256. 

Avenel 210. 

Avranchin, 228. 

Avys, 53. 

Awoode, 111. 

Ayleburton, 118. 

Aylesbury, 22. 

Ayleway, 260. 

Bache, 53. 

Baddam, 238, 239, 240, 242. 
Badger, Mr., exhs. in Museum, 43. 
Badges, 274. 275. 
Badgworth, 101, 133. 
Badmington, 247, 264. 
Baine, 101. 
Baker, 213. 

Baker, G. LI., re-elected on Council, 8. 

Ball, 205. 

Balynden de, 51. 

Banaster, 272. 

Banister, 109. 

Banks, 323. 

Barhapple Loch, 198. 

Barnard, 109. 

Barnard's Woods, 296. 

Barnes, 258. 

Barnville, 138. 

Barnwood, 34, M., 272, 271, 290. 
Barre, 118, 119, 124. 
Barrette, 140. 
Barrington, 69, 169. 
Barthropp, Rev. N. S., 3. 
Bartleet, Rev. S. E., 4, his Hist, of the 
Manor an 1 Advow.of Brock\vorth,131. 
Barton, 25, 179n. 
Bascaville, 141. 

Baskerville, 175, 178, I79n, 180. 

Basset, 192. 

Batche, 239. 

Bateman, 104. 

Bathurst, 3, 170. 

Batten, 316. 

Battle Abbey, 135. 

Batteridges, 239. 

Batterus, 239. 

Baudland, 239. 

Baunton, 108n. 

Bayley, 68, 100, 101, 273. 

Baynhain, 116, 119, 122, 123, 124, 125, 194, 
234, 237, 303 306. 

Bazeley, Rev. W., (Hon. Sec ) at Stow, 
read Report, 2, 4, his remarks on the 
use of " \V." 23, his remarks on 
Efligies at Notgrove, 33, thanked for 
services, 225, his History of Prink- 
nash Park, printed, 26/. 



Beaconsfield, 22. 
Beamont, 321. 

Beauchamp, 12, 26, 28, 122, 305. 
Beaufort, 313. 
Beaumont, 136, 139, 171. 
Bee, Abbey of, 136. 
Beckwith, 204. 

Beddoe, Dr. and Mrs., at tt the Mayor's 

banquet, 224. 
Beggy Hill, 79. 

Belesme & Alencon, Count, 209. 
Belfries, Memoir on, 56. 
Belhap, 304. 

Bell, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 248. 

Bells, Epigraphs on, 11, 59-68, 108n. 

Bells, Founders of, 67, 68. 

Bells Old, in Gloucestershire, Inscriptions 

on, 262. 
Bellows, 278. 

Belvoir Castle, 208, 210, 211. 
Benhal, M., 323. 
Bentham de, 147, 148, 150, 153. 
Bentham's Wood, 148. 
Bentley. 321. 

Berkeley, 229, 272, 296, 297, 298, 303, 306. 

Berkeley Castle, 3, 4, 5, 22, 297. 

Berkeley, M., 277. 

Berkeley Hund., 286n. 

Berkeley, Lords, 5, 296. 

Betun, de, 138n. 

Beviham, 239. 

Bewdley, 296. 

Bicknell, 26. 

Bicknor, 243, 244, 246, 247, 250, 261, 263, 

265, 266, 288. 
Bicknor, Rectors of, 257n. 
Bigland, 133, 294n. 
Bignell, 103, 111. 
Billington, 206. 
Birdlip, 132, 149, 267. 
Birt, 258, 258n. 
Bishopston, 179. 
Bitton, par., 62. 

Blacker, Rev. B. H. , his Gloucestershire 

Notes and Queries, " noticed" 200. 
Blackman, Mr., Exhs. in Museum, 43. 
Blakenhall, 264. 

Blaket, 19, 42, 175, 175n, 176, 176n, 177, 
177n, 178, I78n, 179, 179n, 184, 185, 
185n, 187, 188. 

Blakvvyke, 140. 

Blanc, le, 228. 

Blashill, T., 3. 

Blathwaite, Rev. T. W., 213. 

Bledington, Church, 10, visited by Soc, 
20, Memoir on, by Mr. J. E. K. Cutts, 
81, illust. of, PI. XIII., Plan of, XIV., 
128n. 

Bliss. 54. 

Blockley, 52. 

Blondiel, Gilbert, Seal of, 42. 
Blowene, lOOn, 111. 
Blubberswell. 238. 
Blunsdon Ansdrowe, M., 282. 
Blunsdon Gayebroke, M., 282. 
Blunsdon Wyddel, M., 282. 
Boddington, 61, 64, 65, 193. 
Bodeville, de, 323. 
Bohun, de, 173n, I73n. 
Bodmin, 192. 

Bond, 240, 242, 245, 253, 254, 266. 
Bolde, 14, 74. 
Boleye, 231. 

Boleyn, Anne, Queen, 276, 277, 277n, 283. 
Bolter, 125. 
Bono, 174n. 
Bonechurch, de, 174n. 



INDEX. 



343 



Boneshill, 137, 133. 
Bonnor, 168. 
Bontell, 120. 
Books, 251. 
Books, presented, 7. 
Boothby, 252. 
Boothe, 206. 
Boroug-hbridg-e, 176. 
Borstall, 53. 
Boswell, 53. 
Boteler, 12, I79n, 304. 
Boulogne, 281. 

Bourne, Rev. G. D., at Stow, 1. 
Bourton Camp, 10, 16, 24- 
Bourton-on-the- Water, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 

101. 
Bowyer, 284. 
Boycroft, 140. 
Braeeland, 239. 
Bradley, 206. 
Bradshawe, 259, 264, 320. 
Brailsford, 178. 
Bramble, 213. 
Branteston, 178n. 
Brasses, Monumental, 26, 40. 
Braunche, Abbot, 272. 
Bray, 274, 280, 301, 303, 304. 
Braydon, Forest of, 281. 
Brayne, 101, 224, 237, 238, 241, 306. 
Breach, 110 
Brereton, 203, 206. 
Brewster, 291. 

Briavel's, St., Castle, 3, 230n, 231, 233, 236, 
318 

Bridgman, 200, 276n, 284, 285, 286, 287, 
288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 
296, 297, 299, 300, 306. 

Brierton, 109. 

Brimpsfield, 66, 267, 270, M, 272, 274, 276, 
283, 306. 

Bristol, 3, 21. 60, 62, 63, 66, 67, 68, 70, 
249, Municipal Records and Reg-alia 
Exhd., 214-218. Mayor's Chapel at, 
visited, 218, All Saint's Church visited, 
222, its Library, 223, St. Peter's 
Hospital visited, ib., the Mayor's ban- 
quet, 224 ; 296. 

Bristol, Burg-esses of, 307. 

Bristol, Old Hostelries of, Memoir on, by 
J. F. Nicholls, 307-317. 

Bristol, Mayors of, 311, 313, 316. 

"Bristol, Past and Present," by J. F. 
Nicholls and John Taylor,no££cec£,202. 

Bristol, Some Account of the Old Plans of, 
by W. George, "noticed," 202. 

Broadhurst, 95, 107, 111. 

Broadridge, 271. 

Broadway, 67. 

Brockburn, 305. 

Brocfurlong, 140. 

Brockworth, de, 139, 140, 142, 143, 150, 
151, 152, 158, 159, 160, 161. 

Brockworth, 4, History of the Manor and 
Advow. of, by Rev. S. E. Bartleet, 
131— definition of name, 132-133, 
details of church, Must. 166, 167, 269, 
290. 

Brockworth, Vicars of, 154. 

Broke, 200. 

Brokend, de, 41. 

Bromesgrove, 109, 111. 

Bronholm, 323. 

Brook, 29. 

Brookthorpe, 63. 

Brown, 54, 196. 

Browninge, 169. 

Bruerne, Abbot of, 179n, 187. 

z 2 



Brunsden, 111. 
Brunswick, Duke of, 313. 
Bryan, 20. 

Brydg-es, 58, 59, 67, 272, 274, 278n, 281, 

282, 283, 301, 303, 304. 
Bromals, 233. 

Buckholt, 136, 146, 147, 149, 150, 171, 267, 

268, 270, 271, 272, 273, 277. 
Bucklajad, 67. 
Buckstone, 227. 
Buckynhall, 168. 
Budde, 53. 
Bufford, 240. 
Buig-eops, 243. 
Bulkeley, 59. 
Bulky, 271. 
Bullisden, 41. 
Burch, 255. 
Burder, 213. 

Burford, 25, 28, 68, 98, 99. 
Burg-es, 213, 218. 
Burns, 196. 
Burton, 54. 
Buryfield, 24. 
Bury St. Edmunds, 245. 
Bush, 108, 232. 
Bushley Close, 299. 
Busteed, 54, 54n. 
Buston, 198. 

Butler, 36, 111, 116n, 247, 264. 
Butts, the, Staunton, 253. 
Byass, R. N., at Stow, 1. 
Bynkys, 101. 
Byron, 317n. 

Byschop, 86, 98, 102, 109, 111. 
Byrt, 108n. 
By-the-way, 271. 



Caerleon, 136. 
Caldicott, de, 174n. 

Caldicott, Rev. Dr., elected Hon. Sec, 8, 
Audits Acct., 44, at Bristol, explains 
alterations of programme, 213, at the 
Mayor's banquet, 224, thanked for 
services, 225 

Callow, 54, 54n, 55. 

Camoys, de, 190. 

Campbell, 324. 

Campden, 28, 60. 

Camplin, 204. 

Cantelupe, 17, 17n. 

Capel, 291. 

Carew, 120. 

Carpenter, 154, 158, 221, 222, 240, 241, 

242, 288, 290. 
Carter, 46n, 111. 
Carwardine, 269. 
Castle, 213. 

Castle Acre, Mon. , 323. 
Castlebar, 245, 266. 
Castle-ditch, Staunton, 253. 
Castle-hill, 145, 146. 
Castle Island, 245, 266. 
Castlemain, Countess, 315. 
Castello, de, 145, 146. 
Casy, 177n. 
Catesby, 10, 21. 
Cecil, 303. 
Cerasie Abbey, 322. 
Chacombe, 68. 
Chadborne, 101. 
Chadwell, 11, 174n. 
Chaloner, 204. 
Chalver, 53. 

Chamberlayne, 1, 11, 13, 14, 257, 257n, 
287. 



344 



INDEX. 



Chandos, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 141, 
142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149 
150, 151, 153, 154, 156, 157, 158, 159, 
161, 164, 166 ; ped. of, 171, 267, 268, 
269, 271, 283, 284, 291, 292, 303. 

Chandos Herald, his " Le Frince noir" 
Poem, " noticed" 335-336. 

Chantries, Stow, 11, 41, 117, 255n, 283. 

Charlecot, 181. 

Charles I, 293. 

Charles II., King-, 163, 164. 

Charleton Abbots, 63. 

Charters, Anc, Notes of, 36. 

Chastleton, 10. 

Chastleton House, visited by Soc, 21, 

Ch. ib. ; 178. 
Chatterton, 203, 334. 

Chatterton Family, New Facts relating to, 

noticed, 334. 
Chedworth, 69. 

Cheltenham, 3, 22, 70, 138, 140. 
Cheltenham de, 140. 
Chepstow, 3, 243. 
Chesham, 180n. 
" Chessels," 71, 72. 

Chester, 12, 12n, 13, 14, 14n, 41, 104, 111, 

169, 287. 
Chestroe, 109. 
Chichester, 300. 
Chilton, 213. 
Chilling-ton, 282, 303. 
Chipping- Norton, 22. 
Chiverton, 13. 

Cholmondeley, Rev. the Hon. H. P. at 

Stow, 1. 
Churchdown, 132, M., 269. 
Churche, 95. 
Churchend, 247, 248. 
Ohurch Goods, Inventory of, 19. 
Churchill, 174n, 315, 320. 
Churton, 222. 

Cirencester, 10, 22, 23, 60, 69, 98n, 131, 228, 
292, 296. 

Clare de, 46n, 138, 139, 140, 146, 147, 324. 

Clark, G T., 3. 

Clarke, 205, 306. 

Clarke, Rev. J.W., at Stow, 1. 

Clay, Mrs., 3. 

Clavton, 99, 111. 

Clearwell, 117, 118, 194, 236, 247, 303. 

Clement, I74n. 

Clement VII., Pope, 276. 

Clenche, 229. 

Clerk, I77ti. 

Cleves, Ai n of, Q., 278. 

Clifford, 118, 124, 169, 255, 255n, 256, 303. 

Clinton, 283, 303. 

Clive. 294n. 

Clowers, 239. 

Clowerwall, see Clearwell. 

Coberley, 61, 63, 66, 124, 256, 283. 

Coberley, Chantry at, 283. 

Cobham, 168. 

Co'dryngton, 52. 

Coker, 305. 

Cokerel, 173, 173n, 174n, 175. 
Cole, 301. 
Colecote, de, 52. 

Coleford, 4, 235, 236, 239, 240,'242,-243, 247 
Coles, W. C, at Stow, 1. 
Colesburn, 174n. 
Collier's land, 240. 
Collins, 107, 111. 
Colston, 203, 222. 310. 
Combe Baskerville, 180. 
Communion Plate, notes on at North- 
leach, 191-193 ; 301, 301n. 



Compton, 11, 148, 150, 153. 
Compton Abdale, 62, 63, 65. 
Conarton M., Cornwall, 210. 
Conches, de, 228. 
Condicote, 48. 
Congleton, 321. 
Constantine, Grand Duke, 313. 
Cooke, 4, 5, 140, 179n. 
Cooper's Hill, 131, 164, 166, 268. 
Cope, 181, 189. 
Coppenhall, 206. 
Copse Hill, 77, 80. 
Cor, 68. 

Corbet, 178n, 206. 
Cornewall, 36. 

Cornwall, Earl of, 73, 323, 324. 

Margaret, Countess of, 324. 

278 

Cornwell, 176, 178. 
Cosle, 150. 

Cosson, Baron de, 120. 
Cotentin, Viscount of, 209. 
Cotswold hills, 267. 
Courtenay, 210. 

Court Orchard, 241, 252, 253, 261. 
Coutances, Geoffrey, Bishop of, 309. 
Coventry, 62, 110. 
Cover, 252. 
Cox, 335. 

Cradle of Ed. II., 302. 
Crafters Crafte, 239. 

Cranham, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 283, 290, 

296. 
Cricklade, 23. 

Cripps, Wilfred, elected on Council, 8, his 
remarks on Communion Plate at Stow, 
13 ; 15, Icomb, 20, Chastleton, 21, his 
notes on Church Plate at Northleach, 
191. 

Crokemede, 150, 151, 153, 
Croftes, 108. 
Cromwell, 203. 
Cropet, 150. 
Cropedy, 174n. 
Cromhall, 65. 
Crowe, 52. 
Croyser, 304. 
Crygion, 294. 

Cuberley, 272, 274, 281, 303. 
Cuckbarrovv, 53. 
Culnecroft, 150. 
Curtes, 235. 
Cutel, 158. 

Cutts, J. E. K., Guide to Ch. of Upper 
Slaughter, 14, Guide to Bledington 
Ch., 20, thanked for services. 24, 
his remarks on Notgrove Ch., 31-32, 
his memoir on Bledington Ch., 81, on 
the Church of Upper Slaughter, 126. 



Dade Pool, 253. 
Dalston, 257, 257n. 
Damvscl, 154. 
Dansar, 106. 
Dan vers, 109. 
Darell, 305. 
1) innorc, 251. 
Daunt, 285, 294, 306. 
David's, St., Kishops of, 143. 
David's, St., Canons of, 143. 
Davics, 258, 262. 
Davis, 170, 242. 

Davis, C. T., 4 ; exhs. in Mu3eum, 40. 
Daylesford, 178. 
Deane, 289. 



t 



INDEX. 



345 



Lean, Forest of , 3, 4, 121, 131, 230, 230n, 
232, 239, 243, 244, 249, 252, 261, 288, 
289, 290, 327. 

Dean Forest, Deanery of, 251, 254. 

Dean Magna, see Micheldean. 

Dedbury, 247. 

Defoe, 317. 

Demetres, 300. 

Dene, le, 140, 144. 

Dent, Mrs. r 67. 

Denton, Rev. W., his Records of, St. 

Giles', Cripplegate, noticed, 200. 
Derham, 213. 
Derhurst, de, 150. 
Despenser, 228, 272. 
Devereux, 313. 
Devyn, 124. 
Dew, 253, 254. 
Deye, 41. 
D;cris, 255. 
Didcock, 109. 
Digges, 306. 

Dixon, 222, 233,246,250, 255n, 266. 
Doddington, 259. 
Doleford, 140. 
Doon Camp, 10. 

Dorington, J. E., at Stow, 2, 15. ■ 

Dome, 74. 

Dowdeswell, 66. 

Donne, 41. 

Downhame, 200. 

Drake, 244n. 

Drakenege, 178n. 

Draughe^werd, 176. 

Drewys, de, 140. 

Driffield, 63, 65. 

Droys, 138, 144, 145, 148, 149, 150, 153, 
154. 

Droyscourt, 145, 149, 150. 

Dudley, 162. 

Duna, 229. 

Dunkin, 120. 

Duns, or Dunne, 267. 

Duntsborne, Rous, 63. 

Durandus, 173, 174, 175. 

Durham, Bishop of, 169. 

Duttcn, 96, 99, 108, 108n, 109, 110, 111, 289. 

Dyer, 116n. 

Dyer, Mr., exhs. in Museum, 43. 
Dymoke, 168, 316n. 
Dyrrham, 61, 65, 244n. 



Eaton, Bray, 281. 
Eb worth, 111. 
Edingewall, 240, 242. 
Edgcombe, 194. 
Edward VI., K., 278. 
Edward the Confessor, 228. 
Edward, Prince, 283. 
Edwards, 291. 
Edye, 93, 95, 111, 112. 
Effigy in Icomb Church, 19, illust.of, Pl.II. 
Egerton, 286, 287. 
Eglege, 150. 
- Egynton, 52. 
Eliand, 172n. 
Elisaunt, I74n. 
Elizabeth, Princess, 58. 
Elizabeth, Queen, 162, 312. 
Ellacombe, Rev. Canon, re-elected on 

Council, 8. 
Ellacombe, Rev., H. J., 11, 25, 56, 56n, 59, 

282n. 

Ellell, 95, 96, 107, 109, 112, 113. 
Elliott, 224. 
Ellis, 134, 136, 170, 228. 
Elmore, 162, 166. 



Elmstone, 65. 
Ernes, 233. 
Enkbarrow, 168. 
Ernesrudynge, 140. 

Essex, Earl of, remarks on his March, by 

Mr. G. B. Witts, 21, 22, 23. 
Estcourt, Rev. E., presents books, 7. 
Esturmi, 305. 
Evans, 198, 315. 
Evesham, 222, 267, 324. 
Evesham Abbey, 14. 
Evesham, Abbots of, 41. 
Eyford, 76. 

Eynsford, 178, 178n, 180, 185. 
Eyre, 86. 

Eyton, 133, 134, 135. 



Fairfax, 105, 107, 202. 
Falconer, 265. 
Faffield, 206. 
Falilea, 137, 138. 
Falkland, Lord, 23, 292. 
Fanelli, 295. 
Farley, 272. 

Farmer, 95, 109, 259, 260. 

Farmington Church, 10,visited 24, Sir 
John Maclean's remarks thereon, 25, 
Inscriptions on Bells, ib, 62, Briefs at, 
26. 

Fawdony, 193. 
Fawn, 213. 
Fawnhope, 36. 
Faythes, 271. 
Feaser, 53. 
Fenuall, 299. 
Feild, 263. 
Felda, de, 147, 149. 
Fell. Dr., 54. 
Felton, 294. 
Fenwick, 138, 170. 
Ferraund, de, 36. 
Fifield, 104, 109, 112. 
Filler, 240. 

"Finds" at or near Stow, by Rev. David 

Royce, 69. 
Firle. 246. 
F.sher, 95, 112. 
Fittoxham, 41. 
Fitz Alan, 208, 210. 
Fitz Hamon, 45, 210. 
Fitz Harding 296, 297. 
Fitz Herbert, 174. 
Fitz John, 268, 269. 
Fitz Milo, Mahel, 142n. 
Fitz Osborne, 133, 134, 228. 
Fitz Pons, 45. 
Fitz Roger, 153. 
Fitz Rolf, 228, 229. 
Fitz Walter Milo, 142n. 
Flaxley Abbey, 4, 235, 236 ; Grange, 277n 
Flodyat, 140. 
Foliot, 229. 
Fookes, 301. 
Ford, 124, 125. 
Fortescue, 265. 301. 
Fortey, 27, 28, 90. 
Fostard, 102. 
Foster, 112. 
Foulkes, 298. 
Fowle, 298. 
Fowler, 102, 107, 112. 
Fownhope, 137. 
Fox, 11, 25, 243. 
F03 ser, 53. 
Francis, G. E., 213. 
Francis, E.G., at Stow, X, 



346 



INDEX. 



Francisque-Michel, his "Life and Feats 
of Arms of the Black Prince," noticed, 
335-336. 

Fraunceys, 147, 150, 154. 

Freeman, 11, 112, 174n, 221, 222. 

Freer, H.,at Stow, 1. 

Freshfield, 326. 

Friars' Carse, 198. 

Fridorne, 228. 

Frocester, Abbot, 268. 

Frome, river, 269, 317. 

Fryer, 8, 122, 125, 224, 276. 

Furman, 100. 

Fust, 62, 226, 299, 300. 



Gadesden, de, 190. 

Gage, 244, 245,4246, 250, 258 ; ped. 266. 

Ganarew, 248. 

Ganfrid, 142. 

Gardiner, 260. 

Garnon, 286. 

Gatefield, de, r 229. 

Gears. 181. 

George, 108n, 213, 241, 242, 286n ; 234. 
George, W., remarks at Hampnet Church, 

31, his account of the Old Plans of 

Bristol, noticed, 202. 
Gerad, 36. 
Gerard, 150, 243. 
Gernon, 3o6. 
Geroville, 323. 
Gibbon, 263. 
Gibbons, 289, 290. 
Gidgeon, 246, 266. 

Giffard, 51, 135, 136, 171, 228, 267, 268, 

280, 271, 272, 274, 282, 322. 
Gifford, 303. 
Giles, 316. 
Girding Knap, 270. 
Gisors, Castle, 136, 139. 
Gladden, 101. 
Glanville, 322, 323, 325. 
Glanville, History of the House of, by W. 

M.S. Glanville-Richards, noticed, 322. 
Glastonbury, Abbot of, 34. 
Gloucester, 3, 9, 21, 22, 60, 68, 70, 131, 1S2, 

163, 164, 241, 249, 250, 251, 252, 256n, 

267, 272, 276, 280, 282, 284, 286, 289, 

291, 292, 299. 
Gloucester Abbey, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 

67, 132, 136, 137, 144, 146, 147, 149, 

161, 268, 269, 270, 271, 276, 277, 278 

299, 321. 

Gloucester, Abbots of, 92, 102, 147, 148, 

161, 229, 231n, 267, 273, 274. 
Gloucester, Bishops of. 150, 165. 
Gloucester Cathedral, 300. 
Gloucester, de, 149, 150, 158. 
Gloucester, de, John, 67, his seal. ib. 
Gloucester, Honour of, 206. 307. 
Gloucester, St. Oswald's Priory, 269. 
Gloucestershire, Archaeological Handbook 

of, noticed, 326-327. 
Gloucestershire Belfries, Memoir on Old 

Bells in, 56. 
"Gloucestershire Notes and Queries," 

noticed, 199. 
Gnowsale, 311. 
Godman, E. T., at Stow, 1. 
Godolphin, 296. 
Godwyn, 257, 257n. 
Goldcliff, 135, 136, 139, 171. 
Goodere, 314. 
Goodrich Castle, 240, 
Gorges, 36. 
Gosling, 271. 



Gough, 146. 
Grangebrook, 241. 

Greyndour, 117, 121, 122, 123, 124 255n. 
Greenell, 112. 
Greeneway, 239. 
Greeninge, 101, 105, 112. 
Greenwell, 69. 

Greenstreet, J., presents books, 7. 
Gregory, 181. 
Grene, 100, 169. 
Grentmesnil, 209. 

Gretton, Rev. F. E., at Stow, 1, thanked, 

24 ; 63. 
Grey, 303. 

Grey, Lady Jane, 58. 
Grimboldeston, 228. 
Grimbley, M., 17. 
Grosville, 323. 
Groves, 106, 107, 112. 
Gryme, 167. 

Guise family, 150, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 
166, 169, 170, 291, 303. 

Guise, Sir Christopher, his monument, 
162, illus , PI. XIX, 164. 

Guise, Sir William, at Stow, 2, re-elected 
President of Council, 7, proposes vote 
of thanks to Sir John Maclean for his 
conduct as President of the Society, 
8 ; 9, propose toast, 15, at Bristol, 
214, proposes a vote of condolence to 
Sir P. Miles, ib., at the Mayor's ban- 
quet, 224, returns thanks for the 
Society, 225. 

Guyting, 69, 101. 

Gwilliam, 264, 320. 

Gwinnott, 300. 

Hadden. 222. 

Haberdashers' Company, 289. 
Hakluit, 178, 178n. 
Hale, 163. 
Halighwell, 304. 

Hall, 52, 98, 103, 104, 105, 109, 112, 231 
239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 247. 
248, 249, 250, 253, 254, 257, 258, 
259, 260, 261, 263, ped., 264-265 ; 273. 

Hallett, P., resignation of office as Hon. 
Sec. 8, elected Vice-President, ib ; 15, 
at Bristol, 213, at the Mayor's banquet, 
224, thanked tor services, 225. 

Harris, 168, 264, 287, 290. 

Hallow, M., 17. 

Halmys 112. 

Hambidge, 181. 

Hamilton, Mr. W. D., his volume of State 

Papers, noticed, 204. 
Hammeline, Abb., 270. 
Hammersham, see Almondexham. 
Hammond, 262. 
Hamon Aux Dents, 210, 322. 
Hampidge, Mr., thanked, 24. 
Hampnet, 99, 106. 

Hampnet Church, 10, visited 30, Rev. W. 
Wiggins, remarks on, ib. Parish Regis- 
ters, 31, Communion Plate, 31. 

Hampton, 257, 257n. 

Hanckes, 53. 

Handley, 238 242. 

Handlei, 68. 

" Hanley Castle," by W. S. Symons, 

noticed, 336- 338. 
Hannam Abbots, 67. 
Harding, 113, 120. 
Hardman, 321. 
Hardwick, 63, 65, 296. 
Hardy, 211, 212. 
Harescombe, 63, 296, 



i 



INDEX. 



347 



Harold, 223. 
Harper, 264. 

Harrison, 253, Arms, ib., 254, 257, 257n, 

258, 258n. 261. 
Hart, 165. 
Hartbury, 67. 

Harteshorn'', Rev. J. A., thanked, 24. 
Hartshead, 95, 109, 113. 
Harvye, 101, 265. 
Haselhanger, 299. 
Hasfield, 34. 

Hastings, 10, 136, 177, 178, 178n, 267. 

Hatherley, 133, 148, 151, 153, 155, 156, 168. 

Havepenne, 140, 144. 

Haveringe, de, 177. 

Hawkins 104, 239. 

Hawle, 240. 

Hay Ridinge, 239. 

Haycock, 106. 

Haye, de, 138. 

Haye, dp la, 323. 

Hayes, 322. 

Hayle Knap, 69. 

Hayles Abbey, 46n, 73. 

Hayles, Abbot of, 46n. 

Heath, 205. 

Heavenham, 288. 

Hemson, 113. 

Henbarrow, 234, 235. 

Henbury, 222. 

Henley, 203. 

Hennyfield, 239. 

Henrietta Maria, Q., 165. 

Henry, K., 268. 

Henry VIII., King, 276, 277, 278, 280, 281, 

301, 305. 
Henshaw, 68. 
Hentland, 249. 
Herbard, 41, 95, 109. 112. 
Herbert, 99, 248, 249. 
Hereford, Bishops of, 138, 140 141, 231, 

232, 254-257. 

Canons of, 141. 

City, 249, 256n, 306. 

de, 141. 

Diocese, 251. 

Honour of, 206. 

St. Peter's Church, 269. 

Herefordshire, 267. 
Heron, 177, 178. 
Hervey, 322. 
Hewelsfield, 63, 194. 
Hewlin, 286. 
Heymoore, 239. 
Heynsham, 101. 
Hichman, 106. 
Hiett, 235. 

Higgins, 252, 253, 254, 261. 
High Brondridge, 268, 269, 270. 
Highmeadow, 237, 239, 240 247, 248, 249, 

250, 252, 253, 259, 261, 264, 265, 266. 
Hildeslie, 228. 

Hill, 62, 98, 257, 258, 258n, 291, 299. 
Hillersland, 288. 
Hills, 104. 
Hinchwick M, 283. 
Hinton, 113. 

Hippisley, Rev. R. W., at Stow, 1, 2, 
proposes adoption of Report, 8. acted 
as Guide to the Church, 10. his 
remarks, thereon, ib ; 15, thanked, 23, 
and returns thanks. 24, exhs. in 
Museum, 43. 

Hispania, de, 135. 

Hobbes, 86. 

Hobson, 313. 

Hocham, 113. 



Hoefnagle, 202. 
Holbeach House, 21. 
Holcomb's Wood, 268. 
Holder, le, 145. 
Holdeys, 140. 
Holewsthyng. 233. 
Honnibu ne 261. 
Hook Norton, 22. 

Hooper, 1^68, 170, 242, 256n, 278, 278n, 282. 
Hopper, 101. 

Hopton, 181, 194, 283, 303. 
Hornby, Rev. C. E., at Stow, 1. 
Homys, 97, 113. 
Horsebere, 148, 149. 
Horton, 64, 66. 
How, 109, 140, 213. 

Howard, 176, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 316. 
Howe, 298. 

Howell, 239, 300, 301, 301n. 

Howse, 113. 

Hubbenix, 145. 

Huchins, 99. 

Hudden, 213. 

Hughes, 257, 257n. 

Hulme, Rev. S. J., at Stow, 1. 

Hunslees, 239. 

Hunt, 302. 

Hunter, 144, 145, 146, 150, 151, 153. 
Huntley, 66, 236. 
Hurst, 264. 

Hussey, 285, 291, 294, 306. 

Hyatt, 235, 239, 240, 241, 242, 248, 299. 

Hyett, 298. 

Hynehome, 145. 



Icomb, 10, visit of the Society to, 16, 
remarks on the Church, by Rev. A. 
Williams, ib, monument in, ^^inven- 
tory of church goods, ib, chantry, ib, 
inscriptions on bells, 20, church plate, 
ib, p 'pulation of parish, 19, 20 ; 177. 

Icomb, de, 172n, 175. 

Icomb M., 17, 17n, memoir on Icomb 

Place, by Rev. D. Koyce, 172. 
Icomb, Rectors of, 17, 19, 20, 185, 187. 
Idelsbridge, 268, *69. 
Idelsbury, 268, 270. 
Isles, Mr., thanked, 24; 75. 
Ilmere, 175, I76n. 
Ingram, 278, 334. 
Ingrath, 140. 
InMemoriam 340. 
Irchinfield, Deanery of, 233, 251. 
Ireland, 245. 
Ives, St., Cornwall, 192. 
Ivory Meade, 239. 



Jakes, 52. 
Jamaica, 298, 300. 
James, 15, 113, 1G9. 
James I , K., 166. 
Jamiegcs, Rob. de, 14. 
Janyns, 124, 174n. 
Jefferies, 213. 

Jennings, Rev. K., exhs. in Museum, 43. 
Jeyliff, 41. 

Joce, 117, 234, 235, 236. 
John, Earl of Mortaigne, 307. 
Jon« s, 23, 106, 148, 150, 165, 166, 169, 224, 
289. 

Jones, W. E., his address on the Mayor's 

Chapel, 218. 
Jones, Miss Wnitmore, 21, thanked 24. 

Kalendars, Gild of, 223. library of, ib, 
223. 



34S 



INDEX. 



Kay, Sir Brook, Bart., 26. 
Keen, 68. 
Keere, 303. 
Keller, Dr., 199. 
Kemble, 266. 
Kemsford, 62. 
Kempley, 63, 66. 
Kenche, 41. 

Kenchester, 137, 138, 141, 144. 
Kenemesbury, 268, 270. 
Kenemesbury, de, 269. 
Kenne, 237. 
Kennedy. 303. 
Kennet, 134. 
Kentych, le, I74n. 
Kerslake, 213. 
Keys, 150. 
Keyte, 62, 72. 

Kidderminster, 59, 292, 300. 
Kiddington, 174n. 
Kilkerran, 198. 
Kineton Quarry, 76, 77. 
King, 108. 
Kingham, 61. 
Kingley, 296. 
King's Barton, 269, 270. 
Kingston, 277, 277n, 278, 282. 
Kingswood, 62. 
Kinnersley, 194. 
Kirkham, 95, 113. 
Knight, 101, 187, 188, 217, 289. 
Knight, W. H. K., his " Western Anti- 
quary," noticed, 200. 
Knighton, 291. 
Knolles, 283, 303. 
Knox, 71. 

Kremlin, Moscow, 192. 
Kymsbury, 267. 
Kynemere, 269. 
Kyngton, 41. 
Kyrll, 249. 
Kythe, 101. 



Lake Meilen, 199. 

Lamb, M. M., Exhs. in Museum, 42. 
Lambard, 113. 
Lambert, 168. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Historical and 

Genealogical Notes, noticed, 200. 
Lancastre, 36, 113. 
Lanchberrye, 102. 
Lanchepray, 102. 
Landsend, 22. 
Lane, 213, 218. 
Langley, 274, 310. 
Lanherne, 210. 

Lanthony, Priory, 132, 137, 138, 139, 140, 
141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 
150, 151, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 154, 
159, 160. 161, 165, 171. 

Lanthony, Priors of, 154, 155, 156, 157, 
158, 159, 160, 161, 162. 165, 166. 

Larges, 41. 

L'Asne, 133, 131, 135, 267. 
Latimer, 213. 
Lavaker, 256n. 
Lavars, 202. 
Laveivstock, 265. 

Lawrence, 106, 107, 109, 169, 314. 

Lawson, 307. 

Leden, de, 150. 

Ledene, 229. 

Ledencome, 268. 

Lee, 140. 

Leigh, 65. 

Leigh, E. E„ at Stow, 1, 13. 



"Leigh in the 18th Century," by Josiah 

Rose, noticed, 319-322. 
Leighterton, 63, 67. 
Leley, 297. 
Lenthall, 291. 

"Le Prince Noir Poem, noticed, 335. 

Leslie, 204. 

Lewes, 267. 

Lewis, 213, 286. 

Lewston, 178. 

Ley champ ton, de, 153. 

Leyfield, 239. 

Linleybroc, 152, 153. 

Linton, 192. 

Lisbon, Moors of, 324. 

Little Dean, 4, 296. 

Littywood, 206. 

Lochlee, 196, 198. 

Lockspouts, 198. 

Lode, St. Mary de, 296. 

Lodes Grove, 239. 

London, 23, 36, 58, 279. 

Longdone, 140. 

Longe, 145, 231, 239, 241, 242, 300. 

Longleat, 282. 

Long Meadow, 253. 

Longstone, 239. 

Lovering, 113. 

Low, 213. 

Lowe, 287. 

Lowe, Major, A. E. L., 3. 
Lucy, 181. 

Lucy, W. C, at Stow, 2, Audits Acct., 
44. 

Ludlow, 287, 294, 295, 302. 
Ludlow Castle, 290, 294n. 
Ludlow Church, 290. 
Lukis, 68. 

Luxemburgh, de, 233. 

Lydney, 118, 123, 157n, 244, 248, 249, 265. 

Lylley, 150. 

Lyre, Abbey of, 134. 

Lysanne, 41. 

Lyttleton, 233n, 256. 



Machen, 250, 258, 258n, 259, 263. 
Machyn, 53. 

Maclean, Sir John, presides at Stow, 2, 
returns thanks for reception, ib., 3, 4, 
presents books, 7, retires from office 
as President of the Society, 8, is 
thanked for his conduct, ib., acknow- 
ledges the compliment, 9, introduces 
the new President, ib, 15 ; his remarks 
at Slaughter, 14, proposes thanks, 15, 
proposes vote of thanks to President, 
24, his remarks on Farmingham 
Church, 25, 26, his remarks at North- 
leach Church, 20, his remarks at 
Hampnet Church, 31, thanks Mr. 
Wiggin on behalf of the Soc, ib., 
remarks on Effigies at Notgrove, 33, 
dissolves the Meeting at Notgrove 
tumulus, S5 ; 69, his notes on the 
Greyndour Chapel and Chantry at 
Newland, 117-125, his remarks on 
Standing Cups or Hanaps, 192, 193, 
introduces tlio Society to the Mayor 
of Bristol, 213, at the Mayor's ban- 
quet, 224, thanked for services and 
acknowledges the same, 225, his 
history of the Manor and Advovvson 
of Staunton, 227-266. 

Mackeley, 113. 

Maclcod, 3U0. 

McKaye, Rev. J,, at Stow, 1, 



INDEX. 



349 



McWilllams, 305. 
Magnaville, 323. 
Mailscroft, 288. 
Malgaresbury, M., 41, 72, 97. 
Malle, 104, 113. 
Mallett, 258. 
Malmesbury Abbey, 59. 
Malmsbury, 273. 
Malverne, see Parker. 
Malyn, 86. 
Mancy, 309. 
Mandeville, 309, 323. 
Manners, 209. 
Marchant, 113. 
Mare, de la, 174n. 

Markeley, 158. % 

Marlborough, 26. 

Marlborough, Duke of, 320. 

Marling, Sir S., 3. 

Marmontier Abbey of, 322, 323. 

Marshe, 239, 241. 

Martyn, 41, 54, 261. 

Mary, Q., 278. 

Massey, 22, 249, 304. 

Master, T. W., Chester, retires as V. P., 8. 
Mathewe, 113. 

Matson, 63, 290, 293, 296, 298. 
Mattesden, de, 150, 151, 268, 270, 270n, 
303. 

Maltravers, 272. 
Maule, 109, 113. 
Maugersbury, 54n. 
Maydenewelle, 140. 

Medland, 13, read Paper on Stow Cross, 
15, thanked, 24, Exhs. in Museum, 
42. 

Mellent, Earl of, 140. 
Mellers, 113. 
Melor, 239. 
Melton, 168. 
Michaelwood, 138n. 
Micheldean, 4, 118, 285, 296, 306. 
Michen, 17. 
Middl held, 251. 
Middelfurlong, 140. 

Middleton, J. H., his remarks on Odding- 
ton Church, 21, the same printed, 
87-89. 

Midelwynter, 40, 102, 114. 
Milborne, 19, 41, 180. 
Miles, 213. 

Miles, P. W. S., retires as Vice-Pres., 5. 

Millar, 95, 96, 104, 109, 114. 

Millard, 238. 

Millington, 114. 

Mill lane, 238, 241. 

Millstone Close, 242. 

Milton Abbas, 26. 

Mitchell, 113, 114. 

Modekyn, 153, 158. 

Modewyke, 150. 

Mohun, 120. 

Molys, de, 176n. 

Monmouth, 241, 242, 249, 260, 264, 314. 

Monmouth, Prior of, 233, 254, 255n. 

Montagu, 303. 

Montford, de, 324. 

Montgomery, 200, 208, 209. 

Monumental Inscriptions, 162, 295, 296. 

Moore, H. P., Exhs. in Museum, 37, 93n. 

Moore, J., at Stow, 1, 10, 15, read Paper 
on Old Bourton and SaJmondesbury 
Camp, 16, Exhs. in Museum, 38, 72. 

More, 256, 277. 

More, de la, 230. 

Moreton, Bp., 53, 281. 

Moreton-in-the-Marsh, 23, 72, 



Morgan, 259, 260, 265. 
Morse, 114. 
Mortimer, 274. 
Morville, 323. 
Mount Edgcombe, 194. 
Mowbray, 210, 322. 
Muller, 317. 

Munroe, Dr. Robt., his " Ancient Scottish 
Lake Dwellings, orCrannogs," noticed 
19»<T99. 

Murralls, 239. 

Museum, Temporary, Catalogue of, 36. 
Musleborough, 282. 
Mynchin, 41 96. 
Myntye, M., 280. 

Naisb, 54n, 110. 

Naseby, battle of, 105. 

" Natives," Manumission of, 41. 

Naunton, 101. 

Naylor, 239, 240, 241, 316. 

Neale, 25, 68, 104, 114, 116n. 

Nelmes, 291. 

Nethercote, de, 174n. 

Nevel, 169. 

Nevill, 181, 309. 

Newburgh, 209. 

Newbury, 23. 

Newent, 62. 

Newenton, I74n. 

New Forest, 289. 

Newland Abbot, 62. 

Newland, 4, 144, 237, 242, 244, 247, 248, 259 

260, 264, 265, 288,. 
Newland Church, 245, 246. 
Newland, M., 237, 243. 
Newland, Notes on the Greyndour Chapel 

and Chantry, by Sir John Maclean, 

117-123. 
Newmarsh, de, 173n. 
Newnham, 206. 
New Romney, 193^ 
Newton, 205. 
Niblett, 280n. 

Niblett, J. D. T., at Stow, 2, re-elected on 
Council, 8, seconds vote of thanks to 
Sir John Maclean, 9, 15. 

Nicholas, 281. 

Nicholls, J. F., bis "Bristol, Past and 
Present," noticed, 202, at Bristol, 213, 
his address on the Municipal Records 
and Regalia, 214, acted as Guide to 
Church of All Saints, 222, to St. 
Peter's Hospital, 223, to St. James 
Church, 224, at the Mayor's banquet, 
224, his memoir on the Old Hostelries 
of Bristol, 307-317. In Memoriam, 
340. 

Nicholls, 121. 

Noke, 265. 

Norbury, 304, 

Norbury Camp, 10, 24. 

Northall, 311. 

Northampton, 204, 289. 

Northfield, 148, 251. 

Northforeland, 297. 

Northleach Church, 10, visited, 26, Rev. 
D. Royce's remarks on, 26-29 ; 35, 
60 ; Mr. Cripp's remarks on Church 
Plate, 191. 

Court Book, memoir on, by 

Rev. D. Royce, 23, the same printed, 
90-116. 

President entertains the 

Society at, 26, 34. 
Northleigh, 185, 185n. 
Northwood, 138, 139. 



350 



INDEX. 



Norton, 223, 242. 

Nortone, 36, 68. 

Norwich, 313. 

Noseley, Church, 177. 

"Notes and Queries," noticed, 199. 

Notgrove, 69, 70, 174n. 

Notgrove Church, 10, visited under the 
guidance of Mr. J. E. K. Cutts, 31, 
inscr ptions on bells, 33, effigies in 
churchx ard, discussion on, 33, 64, 67. 

Notgrove Tumulus, visited, 35. 

Nowers 174n. 

Nurse, 247, 264. 

Nutleigh Abbey, 46, 46n, 51, 51n, 52, 53. 
Nympsfield, 284, M., 286, 287, 288, 290, 

291, 292, 294, 295, 296, 299, 300. 
Nympsfield Church, 295. 

Oakeley, 228. 

Oakeley, Rev. W. Bagnall, re-elected on 

council, 8. 
Ockold, 298, 299, 299n, 306. 
Ocle, 256. 
Odcombe, 192. 
Oddington, 22. 

Odd ngton Church, 10, visited bv Society, 
21, Rev. W. Wiggin's remarks thereon, 
21, Mr. J. H. Middleton's remarks 
thereon, ib., 68, the same printed, 87- 
89. plan of the church, plate XV. 

Offa, King of Mercia, 17, 17n, 173. 

Offa's Dyke, 3. 

Oldbury-on-the-Hill, 65. 

Oldfield, 206. 

Oldseworth, 109, 119, 169. 
Olyffe, 109. 
Ombersley, 298. 
Ow, de, William, 45. 
O'Neil, 311. 
Osric, 275, 276. 
Owen, St., 142. 
Owlpen, 285, 295, 306. 
Owlpen, de, 285. 
Oxenhall, 62. 
Oxford, 22, 23. 

Page, 114, 116n. 

Pageham, de, 141. 

Paine, Dr., re-elected on council, 8. 

Painswick, 22, 269, 290, M., 299. 

Painswick Beacon, 267, 269. 

•' Palantine Note Book," noticed, 200. 

Palg ave, 176. 

Pantrye, 52, 53. 

Paper-marks, 91. 

Pardue, 68. 

Parish Accounts, curious entries in, 321. 
Parish Registers, introduction of, 326. 
Parker, 99, 107, 109, 114, 193. 
Parker, Abbot, 33, 34, 35, 150, 272, 273, 

274n, 275, 277. 
Pane, 93. 

Parsons, 33, 101, 169, 181, 252. 
Partridge, 58, 95. 
Passalewe, 230. 
Patrick, lOOn, 196. 
Pauncefot, 230, 230n. 
Payne, 20, HOn, 114. 
Paynel, 190, 

Peach, Rev. C, at Stow, 1. 
Pearce, 26. 
Pea son, 11. 
Pecche, 324. 

Pedigrees — 

Chandos, 171. 
Botiler, 304. 
Bray, 304. 



Pedigrees— Continued. 

Bridgman, 306. 

Brydges, 303. 

Hall, 264, 265. 

N^rbury, 304. 

Seymour, 305. 

Sudley, 304. 
Fencomb, 158. 
Pencoyd, 260. 
Pennington, 169. 
Pepys, 315. 
Perceval, 210. 
Percy, 265. 
Peret, 41. 
Perkins, 54, 55. 
Pershore, 222. 
Peterborough, Bp. of, 205. 
Phg, 124. 

Phillips, 99, 138, 144, 158. 
Piercefield Park, 3. 
Pikerel, de, 51. 
Pitchcombe, 63, 299. 
Pilling, 321. 
Pinline Castle, 265. 
Pinnekote, 147. 
Pistres, de, 173, 174n. 
Pitchcombe, M., 290, 296, 299. 
Pithay, 315, 317. 
Pitts, 288, 295, 306, 

Plan agenet, 176, 177, 177n, 205, 206, 233. 

274, 281. 
Plockett, 107, 114. 
Plymouth, 200. 
Pole, 206. 
Pollys, 107 
Poole, 290, 303 
Pope's Wood, 298. 
Pontefract, 176. 
i ortsmouth, 297. 
Portway, 269. 
Poumfrey, 125. 
Powell, 114, 291. 
Povvle, 114. 
Poynton, 213. 

Poynton, Rev. F. J., presents book, 7. 
Poyntz, 45, 46, 46n, 50, 292. 
Preston, co. Somerset, 135. 
Price, 258. 
Prichett, 213. 

Prinknash Park, 4, its history, by Rev. 

W. Bazeley, 267-306. 
Probyn, 264. 
Prodhomme, 140. 
Profett, 114. 
Prowett, 180n. 
Purnell, 219. 
Pury, 291. 
Pye, 19. 

Pyritone, de, 144, 150, 151. 



Quedesley, de, 154. 
Quin, 118. 

Raddrenove, 133. 
Rag, le, 40, 41. 
Raglan Castle, 249, 274. 
Ramsdell, 204. 
Randwick, 67. 
Ratcliffe, 320. 
Rathdown, 296. 

Records, Public, defence of management 
of the department of, 211-212. 

Records of St. Giles', Cripplegate, by the 
Rev. W. Denton, noticed, 200. 

Recusants, list of, 250. 

Red vers, 210. 



IXDEX. 



351 



Reignold, 253. 
Rendcombe, 62, 64. 
Report, annual, 2-8. 
Reveland, 140. 

Reynolds, J., retires as Hon. Local Sec. 
for Hristol, 8, elected on council, ib, 
at Bristol, 213, at the Mayor's banquet 
224, thanked for services, 225. 

Ricart, 215. 

Rice fam., pedigree of, exhd., 40. 

Rice, the Rev. the Hon. H. at Stow. 

Richard II., King, 272. 

Richards, W. U. S. Glanville-Richards, his 
History of the House of Glanvi le, 
noticed, 322-325; his Registers of 
Windlesham, noticed, 325-326. 

Riddings, 353, 354. 

Rissington, 101, 106, 129n. 

Roades, 105. 

Roberts, 21. 

Robins, 114, 115. 

Robinson, 164, 169. 

Rockhampton, M., 267. 

Rogate Lodge, 266. 

Rogers, 205, 271. 

Rolleston, Dr., 71, 72, 75. 

Rolston, 265. 

" Roman Britain," by the Rev. Preb. 
Scarth, noticed, 338. 

Rose, 52, 95, 96, 100, 104, 109, 115. 

Rose, Josiah, his " Leigh in the 19th cen- 
tury," noticed, 319-322. 

Rotherwas, 118. 

Rouse, 306. 

Rowden, 105, 109, 115. 

Roxburgh, 282. 

Royce, Rev. D., local Hon. Sec. at Stow, 
1, seconds adoption ( f Report, 8, 10, 
13, 13n, guide to Church of Nether 
Swell, 14, read paper on '-Finds" 
near Stow, 15, 16, 19, guide to Icomb 
Place, 20, 21, read paper on North- 
leach Court Book, 23, thanked for 
services, 24, guide at Northleach Ch., 
26, his remarks thereon, 26-29, guide 
to Notgrove tumulus, 35, exhs. in 
museum, 40, his memoir on Church 
of Nether Swell, printed, 45-55, his 
inst. to the vicarage of Nether Swell, 
55, his memoir on "Finds" at, or 
near to, Stow, 69, his memoir on 
Northleach Court Book, 90, his mem. 
on Icomb Place, 172. 

Ruavengreene lane, 239. 

Rudd, 109. 

Rudder, 133. 

Rugge, 117. 

Rudhall, 11, 33, 68, 321. 
Rudvnge, 140, 150, 153. 
Rugweye, 148. 
Rupert, Prince, 22, 292. 
Rus, le, 150. 

Rushton, J., exhs. in museum, 40. 
Rushworth, 205. 
Russell, 95, 102, 303. 
Ryun, le, 150, 154. 



Sackville, 207. 

Saintbridge, 273n, 274, 290, 296. 
Salcomb, 269. 
Salford, 176, 178. 

Salmondesbury Camp, 16, visited, 24. 
Salmondesbury Hund., 174n, 175n. 
Salperton, 134. 
Salridge Wood, 269. 
Salcomesbroc, 268. 



Salter, 284. 

Salymede, 150. 

Sampson, 150, 151, 154. 

Sandby, 54. 

Sandford, 41, 210. 

Sandys, 282, 284, 298, 303. 

Saperton, 14, 63, 67. 

Sartoris, A., at Stow, 1, 14, 15, 50. 

Saul, 67. 

Saunderts, 237. 

Sauveur, St., Abbey of, 210. 

Savaker, 162, 169. 

Scales, 304. 

Scarth, Rev. Preb., 2, 3, 15; his Roman 

Britain, noticed, 338. 
Scay, 174n. 

Schurdyngton, de, I74n. 
Scors, 26. 

"Scotland in Pagan Times," by Dr. 

Anderson, noticed, 327-334. 
Scott, 213. 
Scrimshaw, 194. 
Scrope, 178n. 
Scudamore, 265, 284. 
Seals, Armorial, 36, 42. 
Sedbury Park, 3. 
Selkirk, 317. 
Selle, 233. 
Senior, 259. 

Senlac, battle of, 103, 1 36. 
Selwyn, 15, 289, 293, 293n, 298. 
Sevenhampton, 64. 
Severn, River, 3, 131. 
Sewell, J., 50. 
Seyer, 277. 

Seymour, 237, 238, 243, 244, 256, 278, 283, 
301, 305. 

Seys, W. M., 3. In memoriam, 340. 
Seyselhaye, 140. 

Sharpe, Rev. J. W., at Stow, 1, thanked, 

24 ; 26, exhs. in Meseum, 43 ; 116n. 
Shayler, 11. 
Sheepscombe, 299. 
Sheperd, 180n. 
Sherborne, 62, 63, 101. 
Shipton Moyne, 63, 65. 
Shipton Solers, 174n. 
Shipward, 312. 
Shobbley, 239. 
Shorte, 106. 
Siddington, 62, 66. 
Sigeswick, 95, 99, 109. 
Simon, 288. 
Simpson, 115. 

Skillicome, W. H., re-elected on Council, 8. 
Skinner, 266. 
Skinscroft, 238. 
Skynne, 234, 235. 
Skynner, 233. 

Slaughter Hundred, 36, 184. 

Slaughter, Upper, 9, 14, Manor House 
and Church visited, 14 ; 21, 22, 60, 
61, 69, 77, 80, 80n, memoir on the 
Church of, by J. E. K. Cutts, 126, 
plan of the same, plate XVII. 

— Nether, 40, 41, 60, 61, 62, 

69, 80, 101, 118n. 

Slaughtre, de, 36, 41. 

Slye, 95, 99, 109, 240, 241. 

Slyuibridge Church, 4. 

Smarte, 110, 255. 

Smith, 26, 125, 202, 213, 260, 303, 321. 
Smithier, llOn. 

Smyth, 5, 86, 115, 238, 239, 241, 252, 285. 

286n. 
Sneedham, 296. 
Snodhill, 137. 



352 



INDEX. 



Snowe, 36. 
Snowshill, 66, 67. 
Solace, 108n. 

Somers family, ped. of, exh. 43. 

Somerset, 238,^241, 242, 243, 244, 265. 

Somery, 158. 

Sommers, 169. 

Southfield, 251. 

Southwark, 259. 

" Speech House," 3. 

Spenser, 25, 41, 174n, 267, 284. 

Spicer, 52, 52n. 

Spike, 98. 

" Spinning Jenny " introduction of, 322. 
Spoonbed, tithing of, 299. 
Stackhouse, 181. 

Stafford, 205, 206, 207, 208, 281, 312. 

Standish, 63, 65, 236. 

Stanley, 265, 281, 303. 

Stanley St. Leonards, 64, 276. 

Stanton, Rev. W. H., at Stow, 1. 

State Papers, Calendar of, edited by W. 
D. Hamilton, noticed, 204. 

Staunton, Advow., 246, 250, 266. 

Staunton, de, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 
235, 236, 239, *40, 247, 254, 255, 256. 

Staunton Chapel, 240. 

Staunton, 4, 65, 67, history of the manor 
and advowson of, by Sir John Maclean 
227, derivation of name, ib., Roman 
coins found at, ib., Longstone at, ib., 
rectors of, 229, church, 245, 246, 
advowson of the church, 250, popu- 
lation, 250, value of benefice, 251, 
terriers and inventories, 251-^54, 
charities, 259, the church,262,Bells,i&. 

Staunton Manor House, 241. 248. 

Staunton, Rectors of, 229, 253, 254. 

Staunton Rectory, 252, 265, 266. 

Staverton, 65, 66. 

Stephens, 110, 174n. 

Sternhold, 259 264.' 

Stethe, 51. 

Stevens, 224, 240. 

Stoke, 222. 

Stoke d'Abernon, r 28>. 
Stoke Giffard, 63, 66. 
Stoke M., 267. 
Stokes, 125, 181. 
Stone, 109, 115, 116n. 
Stow, de, 52 

Stow-on-the-Wold, meeting at, 1, 9, visit 
to the church, 10, inscriptions on 
bells, 11, chantries, 11, comnmnion 
plate, 13, remarks on village cross, 
13 ; 40, 41, 60, 68, 72, 98, 174n ; insti- 
tutions of rectors to, 254-259. 

Stowe, Rectors of, 54, 54n, 187, 253, 254- 
259. 

Stradel Castle, 137, 143, 171. 
Stratford, 115. 
Strathclyde, 199. 

Strickland, E., Hon. Local Sec. for Bristol, 8. 
Stripling, 257, 257n. 
Sroud, 3, 290. 
Stuart rising, 322. 
Stubbs, 222 

Stubbs, T. W., at Stow, 1. 

Stynchcombe , 168, 169. 

Sudelcy Castle, 21, 22, 67, 137, 282. 

Sudeley, de, 304. 

Sudelu'y M., 58, 277, 283, 304. 

Swayne, 213, 224. 

Swell Nether, 2, 9, visit to Church of, 14, 
memoir, on church of, by Rev. D. 
Royce, 45-55, parish registers of, 55 ; 
rector, 51, 69, 72, 74, 75, 76, 77. 



Swell Nether, vicars of, 49, 52-55. 
Swell, Upper, 2, 48, 69, 72, 74, 77, 80n. 
Swetenote, 41. 
Swifte, 115. 
Swindon, 64. 
Syde, 65, 67. 
Symonds, 174n. 
Symms, 252. 



Talbot, 304. 
Tanner, 101, 104. 
Tany, de, 154. 
Tarbolton, 196. 
Tasburgh, 245, 266. 
Taylor, 25, 240, 286. 

Taylor, John, his "Bristol, Past and 
Present," noticed, 202, at Bristol, 213, 
214, 218, 219, acted as guide to Church 
of Westbury-on-Trym, 220, his re- 
marks on tbe same, 221 ; 223, at the 
Mayor's banquet, 224, 334. 

Ta> loe, 293. 

Templer, 174n. 

Tewkesbury, 21, 2', 45, 60, 96n. 
Tewkesbury Abbey, 224, 276, 277. 
Tewkesbury Court-Book, 93n, 94n, 98n, 

103n, 104n. 
Theodore, or Thuer, 306. 
Theokesburi, de, 153. 
Theyer, 164, 165, 166. 
Thistlethwaite, 203. 
Thomas, C. J., elected V. President, 8. 
Thompson, 213. 
Thorigni, Lordship of, 329. 
Thornbury Castle, 205, 206, 277, 277n,312. 
Thombury, M., 277. 
Thornhaugh, 303. 

Throckmorton, 118, 120, 123, { ed. 194 ; 

260, 285, 286. 
Thruxton, 248. 
Thursly, P., at Stow, 1. 
Thynne, 62. 
Tiberton, 62. 
'lillington, 180. 
Tinctor, 51n, 52. 
Todeni, de, 45, 209, 228. 
Tokynt n, M., 46n. 
Tomkyns, 168. 
Topp, 108. 
Tornac, de, 138. 
Tomnys, 41. 

Tortworth, 65, 67, 194, 228, 285, 286. 

Tottenham, 301. 

Towneshend, 93, 95, 109, 115. 

Toy, 292. 

Tracy, 55, 283. 

Treharron, 239, 240. 

Trevor, 289. 

Trewpenny, 52. 

Trillowe, le, 41, 178, 185. 

Trippenkenett, 260, 261. 

Troitsa, Moscow, 192. 

Trubshawe, 256. 

Trye, 273. 

Tryngam, 115. 

Tudor, 281. 

Tuffthorne, 240. 

Tummy, 253, 254. 

Turbervillc, 228, 265. 

Turchil, 133, 267. 

Turkdean, 62, 63. 

Turner, 295. 

Turre, de, 143. 

Turville, 303. 

Tweedmouth, 176. 

Iwyver, Riv., 270, 



i 



INDEX. 



353 



Tybaray, 184. 
Tyderington, de, 157. 
Tylton, 115. 



Ufford, 325. 
Uleybury, 35, 69. 
Ullingswick, 271. 
41 Under the Rose," 316. ' 
Up on, 223, 240. 

Upton, Mr., exhs. in museum, 43. 
Upton, St. Leonard, M., 269, 273, 277, 278, 

284, 290, 293, 294, 296, 298, 299, 299n, 

300, 302, 306. 
Uren, 213. 
Usk, Riv., 228. 
Uske, de, 151. 



Val de Dunes, battle of, 322. 
Valley Farm, 269. 
Vaughan, 118, 123, 194, 316n. 
Vavasour, 11. 
Vele, 292. 
Verdon, de, 144. 
Verney, 286. 
Vesey, de, 324, 325. 

Vigers, Rev. W., at Stow, 1, thanked, 24. 
Villeyn, 174n. 
Vineyard Hill, 274. 
Virtue, 289. 



Wadley, 104. 

Wadley, Rev. T. P., 215. 

Wailes and Strang', 11. 

Wait, W.K., at Bristol, 213, at the Mayor's 

banquet, 224, proposes vote of thanks, 

225. 

Wakeman, 250, 265. 
Walbridge, 96. 
Walden, 238, 242. 
Waldvng, see Staunton. 
Wales, Marches, of, 286, 289. 
Wall, 169. 

Waller, F. W., guide to Icomb Place, 20, 

exhs. in museum, 42. 
Walpole, 301, 301n. 
Walsh, 234. 
Walter, 218. 
Walton, 168. 
Walwyn, 118. 
Wanswell Court, 4. 
Wantner 90, 92. 
Waplev, 64, 65, 66. 
Warde, 115, 321. 
Wardour, 210. 
Wardour Castle, 208. 
Waryner, 6, 41. 
Washington, 162. 
Wassheborne, 36. 
Watermede, 140. 
Water, 86. 
Watkins, 240. 
Watts, 169, 170. 
Wawyn. 156, 171. 
Webb, 240, 242. 
Webley, 150. 
Webster, 53. 
Weellere, 115. 
Welford, 178n. 
Well, St. Winifred's 287. 
Welleche, 100. 
Welles, 168. 
Wentworth, 305. 
Werburgh, St., Bristol, 63. 
Wessyngtone, 101. 



Westbury-on-Severn, 243, 298. 
Westbury. co. Hants, 266. 
Westbury, 256, 256n. 
Westbury-on-Trym, 214. 
Westerley, 63. 

"Western Antiquary," noticed, 200. 

Westfield tumulus, 70, 71, 140, 150, 155. 

Westmacott, 105, 115. 

Westminster Abbey, 273, 274, 297. [ 

Westmuncote, 36. 

Weston, 213, 218, 224, 225. 

Westwood, 107. 

West Wvddel, M., 282. 

Weyman, 95, 95, 108. 

Wheeler, 242. 

" Whistleston, The," 75. 

White, 104, 169. 

Whitmore, 108n, 181n, 184n. 

Whitmore, C. A., at Stow, 1, proposes 

toast, 15, exhs. in Museum, 36, the 

late Mr., 60, 62 ; 80. 
Whitney, 180, 181, 181n, 182. 
Whittesleys, 251. 
Wife, sale of, 190. 

Wiggin, Rev. W., at Stow, 1, his remarks 
on Oddington, 21, thanked, 24 ; exhs. 
in Museum, 40. 

Wigmor, 231n. 

Wilcotes, 178, 185n. 

Wilde, 54, 54n. 

Wilderness, 285. 

Wilkens, 95, 115. 

Wilkyns, 274n. 

Willan, 301. 

Williams, 95, 97, 116, 124, 256, 257, 259. 

288, 289n, 302. 
Williams, Rev. A., Stow, 1. 
Williamscote, de, 174, I74n. 
Williamscote M., 174. 
Wills, 213. 

Wincbcombe, 95, 101, 105, 107, 109, 119, 

134, 248, 264, 265, 276, 277. 
Winchcombe Abbey, 58, 67. 
Wincbcombe, Abbots of, 59. 
Winchcombe Church, 20, 60, 67. 
Winchester, Bp. of, 289. 
Winchester, Abbey of S. Mary, 134. 
Windebank, 207.- 

Windlesham, Parish Registers of, noticed, 
325 326. 

Windmill field, 241, 242. 

Wingfield, E. Rhys., Esq., at Stow, 2, 
elected President, 9, his inaugural 
address, ib, presides at dinner, 15, 
piesides at Council Meeting and pro- 
pose resolutions, 23, thanked for 
hos itality, 24, for his kindness in 
becoming President, ib. 

Winstone, 61, 64, 65. 

Winterbornmain, I77n. 

Wisanes, 238. 

Witcombe, 132, 267. 

Witham, 194. 

Withyndon M., 52. 

Witts, Rev. E. F., Hon. Local Secretary, 
at Stow, 1, receives Society, ib., 
2, receives the Society at Upper 
Slaughter, 14, 15, returns thanks, 23, 
thanked for services, 24 ; 26 ; exhs. 
in Museum, 364. 

Witts, Rev. F. E. Broom, 15, read notes 
on the Old Bells in Gloucestershire, 
Belfries, 16; thanked for services, 24, 
his memoir on Old Bells in Gloucester- 
shire Belfries, printed, 56. 

Witts, F. R. V., at Stow, 1, thanked. 



354 



INDEX. 



Witts, G. B., at Stow, 1, 2, his "Hand- 
Book on British and Roman Remains " 
announced, 7 ; 10 ; 15, his address on 
the March of Essex, 21, exhihs. in 
Museum, 36, 37, 80 ; 131, 270, his 
Archaeological Hand-book of Glou- 
cestershire, noticed, 326-327. 

Woborne, 255. 

Wodeford, 52. 

Wodeyate, 140. 

Wood, 291. 

Woodchester, 63, 69. 

Woodchurch, 193. 

Woodcroft, 177. 

Woodstock, 68, 255. 

Woodward, 234, 235, 254, 271, 285. 

Woods, Forests and Land Revenues, 
Commissioners of, 246, 250. 

Woolaston, 63. 

Worcester Abbey of, 173. 

Worcester, Bishops of, 17, 45, 46, 46n, 138, 
139, 140, 141, 142, 166, 168, 220, 221, 
222, 269. 

Worcester, de, 141. 

Wrayes, 298. 

Wright, 53, 54, 295. 

Wroughton, 178, I79n, 185. 

Wydecombe, de, 144, 171. 

Wydecomsede, 268. 

Wydewiccroft, 153. 

Wyddville, 233, 303. 

Wye, 180, 236. 



Wye, river, 3, 228, 252. 
Wygginton, 161. 
Wvke, 41, 168. 
Wyld, 194. 
Wyldblode, 116. 
Wymon, 109. 
Wyndley, 53. 
Wynesewell, de, 145. 
Wynsford, 41. 

Wynter, 123, 125, 194, 237, 238, 239, 240, 
241, 242, 243, 244, 244n, 248, 256, 256n. 
Wyrrall, 240. 

Wysham, 242, 252, 253, 254, 261. 
Wytchurch, de, 52. 
Wyther, 230. 

Yate, 63, 66, 116. 
Yeme, 242. 

Yeatman, J. Pym, his early Genealogical 
History of the House of Arundel, 
noticed, 208-212; 322, 323, 325. 

Yeoman, 315. 

Yerroth, 240. 

Yerworth, 240. 

Yonge, 47, 53. 

Yewcon, Lordship of, 210. 

York, Archbishop of, 150, 150n, 269. 

York, de, 139. 

York, R. J., retires as V. P., 8. 



Zouch, 115, 116n, 286. 



JEFFERIES AXD SOXS, PRINTERS, CANYNOE BUILDINGS, BRISTOL. 



BKISTOL & GLOUCESTEKSHIEE 'ARCHAEOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY 



AUGUST 10th, 1883 



Names of Life Membees aee given in Small Capitals 

The Secretaries will feel' obliged by any correction of error in List. 

Ackers, B. St. John, Prinknash Park, Painswick 
Adlam, William, J. P., F.S.A., Manor House, Chew Magna, Bristol 
Agg-Gardner, James Tynte, J.P., Farnley Lodge, Cheltenham 
Allard, W., Tewkesbury 

Allen, Rev. William Taprell, M.A., St. Briavel's Vicarage, Coleford 
Ames, Reginald, 2, Albany Terrace, Park Square, East, London, N.W. 
Ancrum, M. Rutherford, M.D., J.P., Upton St. Leonards, Gloucester 
Arnold, Rev. Wm., M.A., The Vicarage, Chepstow 
Arrowsmith, J. W., 99, White Ladies' Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Asher and Co., Bedford Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 
Austin, E., Rodney Place, Clifton, Bristol 

Bailey, T. Canning, " Cornish Telegraph" Office, Penzance 

Baillie, Colin Campbell, Glenure House, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 

Baker, Arthur, Henbury Hill House, Bristol 

Baker, Granville E. Lloyd, J.P., Hardwicke, Gloucester 

Baker, James, The Mall, Clifton,. Bristol 

Baker, W. Proctor, J.P., Broomwell House, Brislington, Bristol 

Baker, William Mills, Stoke Bishop, Bristol 

Ball, A. J. Morton, Whitehall, Stroud 

Bamford, Rev. E., Temple Guiting Vicarage, Winchcombe 

Bamford, Rev. R., Poulton Vicarage, Fairford 

Bain, W. Lovett, Cheltenham 

Barker, Rev. Canon H. C. Raymond, M.A., Daglingworth Rectory, Ciren- 
cester 

Barkly, Sir Henry, 1, Bina Gardens, South Kensington, W. 

Barnett, F. Gilmore, 15, Vyvyan Terrace, Clifton, Bristol 

Bartleet, Rev. S. E., M.A., Brockworth Vicarage, Gloucester 

Bartleet, W. H., Lyndon Lodge, Tivoli, Cheltenham 

Bartholomew F., M., B.A., Clifton College, Clifton, Bristol 

Barthropp, Rev. Nathaniel S., M.A., Itton Rectory, Chepstow, Monmouthshire 

Bathurst, The Right Hon. the Earl, Cirencester 

Baynes, C. R., The Lammas, Minchinhampton 

Bazeley, Rev. William, M.A., Matson Rectory, Gloucester (Hon. Sec.) 
Bazley, Thomas S., D.L., Hatherop Castle, Fairford 



11 



Beach, The Rt.Hon. Sir Michael Hicks, Eart.,D.L., M.P., Williamstrip 
Park, Fairford 

Beedham, B. H., Ashfield House, Kimbolton, Huntingdonshire 
Beddoe, John, M.D., F.R.S., Mortimer House, Clifton, Bristol 
Bell, Rev. Canon Charles Dent, D.D., The Rectory, Cheltenham 
Bengough, John Charles, D.L., The Ridge, Wotton-under-Edge 
Bennett, C. T., Terra Nova, Tyndall's Park, Bristol 
Bennett, Mrs. C. T., Terra Nova, Tyndall's Park, Bristol 
Berkeley, Francis, Woodside, Ripon 

Bevir, E. J., Q.C., 9, Old Square, Lincoln's Inn, London, W. C. 

Biddell, Sidney, New University Club, St. James' Street, London, S.W. 

Birchall, J. Dearman, J.P., Bowden Hall, Gloucester 

Blackburne, G-. I. Montague, Bude Villa, Cromwell Road, Montpellier, Bristol 

Blacker, Rev. B. H., M.A., 26, Meridian Place, Clifton, Bristol 

Blandy, F., Birchamp House, Coleford 

Blathwayt, Rev. Wynter T., M.A., Dyrham Rectory, Chippenham 
Blathwayt W. E., Dyrham, Chippenham 
Blathwayt, Geo. W." Wynter, 35 Church Street, Manchester 
Blathwayt, Colonel, Batheaston, Bath 

Boevey, A. Crawley, East India United Service Club, 14, St. James' 

Square, London, S.W. 
Boevey, Sir T. H., Crawley, Bart., J.P., Flaxley Abbey, Newnham 
Boevey, Rev. R., Haslingden, Manchester 
Booth, Abraham, Bellevue House, Gloucester 
Boulger, G. S., F.G.S., 9, Norfolk Terrace, London, W. 
Bourne, Rev. G. Drinkwater, M.A., D.L., Weston-sub-Edge, Broadway 
Bowly, Christopher, Siddington House, Cirencester 
Braikenridge, W. Jerdone, J. P., Newton House, Clevedon 
Bramble, James Roger, Cleeve House, near Yatton, Somerset 
Breen, Rev. J. D., Somerset Place, Cheltenham 
Bravender, T. B., The Firs, Cirencester 
Bridgman, Isaac Thomas, Berkeley 
Briggs, William, St. Stephen Street, Bristol 
Bruton, H. W., Bewick House, Wotton, Gloucester 
Brydges, E. T., Burghill, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 
Buchanan, James, " Standard" Office, Gloucester 
Buckler, Rev. E. 

Buckman, Professor, F.S.A., Bradford Abbas, near Sherborne, Dorset 

Budgett, William Henry, Stoke House, Stoke Bishop, Bristol 

Burd, Rev. Percy, Tidenham Vicarage, Chepstow 

Burder, G. F., M.D., F.M.S., 7, South Parade, Clifton, Bristol 

Burroughs, Jno. Beamies Cooper, 24, Bridge Street, Bristol 

Bush, Edward, Alveston, near Bristol 

Bush, James Day, Mount Beacon House, Bath 

Bush, John, 9, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Bush, T. S., Cheese Lane, St. Philips, Bristol 

Bute, The Most Hon. The Marquis of, Cardiff Castle, Glamorganshire 
Butlin, Rev. W. H., B.A., The Vicarage, Leonard Stanley, Stonehouse 
Butterworth, Rev. George, M.A. , Deerhurst Vicarage, Tewkesbury 

Caldicott, Rev. J.W., D. D., Shipston-on-Stour Rectory, Worcestershire 
(Hon. Sec.) 

Campbell, Sir James, Bart., J.P., Whitemead Park, Coleford 

Cardew, G. A., Keynshambury House, Cheltenham 

Cardew, Rev. John Haydon, M.A., Keynshambury House, Cheltenham 

Carr, A., Placerville, Wells Road, Bristol 

Cartwright, F. F., 1, St. Stephen's Street, Bristol 

Cashmore, Samuel, Norton Malreward, near Pensford 

Castle, Major C, J.P., Frome Lodge, Stapleton, Bristol 

Cave, Charles D., M.A., D.L., Stoneleigh House, Clifton Park, Bristol 



t 



Chamney, Rev. E. M., M.A., Training- College, Cheltenham 

Chance, T. H., " Jonrnal" Office, Gloucester 

Chapman, Eev. William, Whitehall, Stroud 

Cheltenham Library, 5, Royal Crescent, Cheltenham 

Chilton, George Horace David, Cambridge Park, Redland, Bristol 

Cholmondeley, Hon. and Rev. H. P., Adlestrop Rectory, Chipping Norton 

Chuech, A. H., M.A., F.G.S., Royston House, Richmond Road, Kew 

Clark, Alfred Alex., Wells, Somerset 

Clark, George T., F.S.A., Dowlais House, Dowlais 

Clark, Thomas B., M.D., Victoria Square, Clifton, Bristol 

Clarke, Rev. Canon, D.D., Park Place, Clifton, Bristol 

Clarke, Miss, Dinas House, Wells Road, Bristol 

Clarke, John A. Graham, Frocester, Stonehouse 

Clegram, William Brown, Saul Lodge, near Stonehouse 

Clifton College Library (A. T. Martin Librarian) 

Clifford, The Hon. and Rt. Rev. Bishop, Bishop's House, Clifton, Bristol 

Clough, R. L., 13, Bellevue, Clifton, Bristol 

Clutterbuck, Rev. R. H., Enham Knights Rectory, Andover 

Coates, Dr., 10, The Circus, Bath 

Cockshotb, Miss, Hazlehurst, Ross 

Colby, Rev. Frederick Thomas, Litton Cheney Rectory, Dorset 

Coles, W. C, M.D., Bourton-on-the-Water 

Collins, J. C, M.D., Steanbridge House, Slad, Stroud 

Colman, Stuart, The Colonnade, Gt. George Street, Bristol 

Cook, Francis, M.D., 1, Suffolk Lawn, Cheltenham 

Cooke, J. Herbert, F.S.A., Berkeley 

Cooke, W. H., Q.C., F.S.A., 42, Wimpole Street, London 

Cornford, Rev. Edward, M.A., Lansdown Lodge, Cheltenham 

Cornwall, Rev. Alan Ktngscote, M.A., Ashcroft, Wotton-under-Edge 

Cossham, Handel, Mayor of Bath, Weston Park, Bath 

Cowburn, Major J. Brett, Dennil Hill, near Chepstow 

Cox, Alfred, Shannon Court, Bristol 

Crawshay, Edwin, J. P., Blaisdon Hall, Newnham 

Cripps, Wilfred, J. P., Barrister-at-Law, Cirencester 

Crisp, H., West Park, Redland, Bristol 

Croggan, Edmund, Beaufort House, Clifton, Bristol 

Grossman, George D., Frieze wood, near Bristol 

Crothers, Wallace G., Capt., Highfields, Chew Magna 

Daniel, Rev. Henry Arthur, M.A., Stockland-Bristol, Bridgwater 
Davenport-Hill, Miss Florence, 25, Belsize Avenue, London, N.W. 
Davies, Henry, Montpellier, Cheltenham 
Davis, Cecil Tudor, The Court House, Painswick 

D' Argent, Edward Augustus, Bibury Cottage, London Road, Cheltenham 

Davy, Rev. C. R., J.P., Tracy Park, Bath 

Day, Francis, Kenilworth House, Cheltenham 

De Ferrieres, Baron, M.P., Bayshill House, Cheltenham 

Denne, Henry, Burleigh House, Brimscombe, Stroud 

Dent, John Coucher, Sudeley Castle, Winchcombe 

Denton, C. Lord, St. Briavels, Coleford 

Derham, Henry, The Manor House, Frenchay, near Bristol 

Derham, James, Sneyd Park, Bristol 

Derham, Samuel, Henleaze Park, Westbury-on-Trym 

Derham, Walter, M.A., F.G.S., Henleaze Park, Westbury-on-Trym 

Devereux, D., M.D., J.P., Tewkesbury 

Dobell, C. Faulkner, Whittington Court, Andoversford, Cheltenham 
Dobell, Clarence Mason, The Grove, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 
Doggett, E. G., 31, Richmond Terrace, Clifton, Bristol 
Doggett, Hugh Greenfield, Willsbridge, near Bristol 



iv. 

Dominican Priory, Eev. Prior of, Woodchester, Stonehouse 
Doeington, J. E., J.P., Lypiatt Park, Stroud 
Downing, William, Springfield House, Olton, near Birmingham 
Dredge, Rev. John Ingle, Buckland Brewer Vicarage, Bideford 
Ducie, The Right Hon. the Eael of, P.C., F.R.S., Tortworth, Wotton- 
under-Edge 

Dynevor, The Right Hon. Lord, Dynevor Castle, Llandilo, S. Wales 



Eager, Reginald, M.D., Northwoods, Winterbourne, Bristol 
Edkins, William, 12, Charlotte Street, Park Street, Bristol 
Edwaeds, Aldeeman G-eoege W., Sea-wall Villas, Sneyd Park, Bristol 
Egerton, J. W., 9, Beaufort Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Ellacombe, Rev. H. T., M.A., P.S.A., The Rectory, Clyst St. George, 
Topsham 

Ellacombe, Rev. H. N., M.A., Vicarage, Bitton, Bristol 
Ellett, Robert, Oakley Cottage, Cirencester 

Emeets, Rev. John, M.A., The Rectory, Upton St. Leonard's, Gloucester 
Escourt, Rev. Edgar E., M.A., F.SA., Highlands, Leamington 
Evans, Sparke, Trinmore, Clifton Down, Clifton, Bristol 
Evans, I. B., 6, Douro Villas, Cheltenham 
Evans, Edward C, Brimscombe, Stroud 



Fargus, Henry R., 4, Clare Street, Bristol 

Fawn, James, 18, Royal Promenade, Queen's Road, Bristol 

Fendick, R. G., 3, Claremont, White Ladies' Road, Bristol 

Fenwick, Rev. J. E. A., M.A., Thirlestaine House, Cheltenham 

Fisher, Major C. Hawkins, The Castle, Stroud 

Flux, Edwaed Hitchings, 144, Leadenhall Street, London, E.C. 

Forbes, Lieut.-Col. G. H. A., R.A., Rockstowes, Dursley 

Foster, Rev. B. K, 2, Russell Street, Gloucester 

Foster, R. G., Madeley House, Gloucester 

Fox, Alderman Francis Frederick, J.P., Yate House, Chipping Sodbury 
Fox, Rev. William Charles, M.B., 60, Talbot Road, Westbourne Park, 
London, W. 

Fox, Charles Henry, M.D., The Beeches, Brislington 

Foxcroft, E. T. D., D.L., Hinton House, Hinton Charterhouse, Bath 

Francis, George Edward, Buckstone Cottage, near Coleford 

Francis, R. G., Broadwell Villa, Broadwell, Stow-on-the-Wold 

Fry, Francis J., 104, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Fey, Lewis, M.P., Goldney House, Clifton, Bristol 

Fryer, Kedgwin Hoskins, Maitland House, Gloucester 

Fuller, Rev. E. A., M.A., St. Barnabas Vicarage, Ashley Road, Bristol 



Gael, Samuel H., J.P., The Knoll, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 

Gardiner, T. C, 2, Cotham Park, Bristol 

Gallenga, Antonio, The Fall, Llandogo, Coleford 

Geeves, William J., Cedar Lodge, Cheltenham 

Geoege, W. E., Howe Croft, Stoke Bishop 

George, William, 20, Park Street, Bristol 

Gibson, Rev. John, M.A., King Stanley Rectory, Stonehouse 

Giles, Oliver, If!, Belle vue Crescent, Clifton, Bristol 

Giller, William Thomas, County of Gloucester Bank, Gloucester ( Hon. Treasr.) 

Godman, E. T. Banksfee, Moreton-in-Marsh 

Godwin, George, F.R.S., fi, Cromwell Place, London, S.W. 

Godwin, J. G., Chiswick House, Chiswick, London, W. 



1 



V. 

Golding, Charles, 9, Crouch Street, Colchester 

Golightly, Rev. Canon, T. G-., M.A., Shipton Moyne Rectory, Tetbury 
Gotch, Rev. F. W., LL.D., Stoke's Croft, Bristol 
Grafton, Mrs., Southfield, Cheltenham 
Green, Rev. J. F., M.A., Whiteshill, Stroud 
Green, D., Unity Street, Bristol 

Greenfield, Benjamin Wyatt, 4, Cranbury Terrace, Southampton 
Gregory, George S., The Green, Stroud 
Gregory, W. H., Small Street Court, Bristol 
Griffith, Robert W., The Old House, Llandaff «> • 
Grist, William Charles, Brookside, Chalford, Stroud 
Grove, Commander, R.N., The Grove, Taynton, Gloucester 
Guise, Sir William Veenon, Baet., D.L., F.L.S., F.G.S., Elmore Court,. 
Gloucester 

Gwinnett, Wm. Henby, Gordon Cottage, Cheltenham 

Haines, John Poole, J.P., 13, Lansdown Crescent, Cheltenham 

Hale, Robeet, B., J.P., Alderley, Wotton-under-Edge 

Halsall, Edward, 4, Somerset Street, Kingsdown, Bristol 

Hall, Rev. J. M., M.A., The Rectory, Harescombe, Stroud 

Hall, Rev. R., M.A., Flaxley, Newnham 

Hallett, Palmee, M.A., Claverton Lodge, Bath 

Hallett, Mes., Claverton Lodge, Bath 

Hallewell, Joseph Watts, D.L., Stratford House, Stroud 

Haeding, Rev. John Tayloe, Pentwyn, Monmouth 

Hardy, Rev. H. H., M.A., Mitcheldean Rectory, Gloucester 

Hare, Sholto Vere, Knole Park, Almondsbury, Bristol 

Hartland, Ernest, M.A. , The Oaklands, Cheltenham 

Harvey, Charles Octavius, Clifton Park House, Clifton, Bristol 

Haeyey, Edwaed, Bedford Villa, Richmond Hill, Clifton, Bristol 

Harvey, John, Glenside, Leigh Woods, Clifton, Bristol 

Hazeldine, Rev. William, The Priory, Tyndall's Park, Clifton, Bristol 

Heane, William, High View, Cinderford 

Heane, William Crawshay, The Lawn, Cinderford 

Heffernan, Surgeon-General, Eton Villa, The Park, Cheltenham 

Helps, Arthur S., Gloucester 

Hemming, Rev. B. F., M.A., Bishop's Cleeve Rectory, Cheltenham 
Herepath, Howard, Penleigh, Canynge's Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Hill, Charles, Clevedon Hall, Somerset 

Hill, Rey. Reginald P., M.A., Bromsberrow Rectory, Ledbury 
Hippisley, Rev. R. W., The Rectory, Stow-on-the-Wold 
Holbrow, Rev. Thomas, B.A., Sandhurst Rectory, Gloucester 
Holfoed, Robeet S., D.L., Weston Birt House, Tetbury 
Holloway, G., Farm Hill, Stroud 

Holmes, Colonel, Whithorne, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 
Hopgood, P., Stow-on-the-Wold 

How, Rev. Augustus G., B.D., Doynton Rectory, near Bath 

Howard, Edward Stafford, M.P. Thornbury Castle, Gloucestershire 

Howell, Rev. W. C, M.A., Holy Trinity Vicarage, Tottenham, London, ISL 

Howsin, E. Arthur, M.D., 11, Rowcroft, Stroud 

Hudd, Alfbed E., 96, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Hudden, William Paul, 11, Windsor Terrace, Bristol 

Hughes, W. -W., Downfield Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Hulbert, Edward, Enfield Cottage, Stroud 

Hulme, Rev. S. J., M.A., The Rectory, Bourton-on-the-Water 

Hunt, J., Palace Yard, Gloucester 

Hyett, F. A., J.P., Painswick House, Painswick 

Jacques, Thomas W., 46, Apsley Road, Clifton, Bristol 



vi. 



James, Francis, J.P., Edgeworth Manor, Cirencester 

James, Rev. John, M.A., Highfield, Lydney 

Jefferies, James E. , Yeo Bank, Congresbury, Bristol 

Jenkins, R. Palmer, J.P., Beechley, Chepstow 

Jenkinson, Sir George S., Bart., D.L., Eastwood Park, Falfield 

Jenner, Montague Herbert, Churchdown, Gloucester 

Jones, J. Avery, Pembroke Road, Clifton. Bristol 

Jones, John Henry, 8, College Green, Gloucester 

Jones, W. Edward, West View House, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol 

Kane, Miss, The Grange, Monmouth 

Kay, Sir Brook, Bart., Stanley Lodge, Battledown, Cheltenham 

Keble, Rev. Thomas, M.A., Bisley Vicarage, Stroud 

Keeling, George Baker, J.P., Severn House, Lydney 

Keeling, George William, Lydney 

Kerr, Russell J., The Haie, Newnham 

Kerslake, Thomas, 14, West Park, Clifton, Bristol 

King, William Poole, Avonside, Clifton Down, Bristol 

Knight, J. S., Mendip Villa, Ashley Road, Bristol 

Knight, James P., Phoenix Lodge, Montpellier, Cheltenham 

Lamb, Rev. Matthias Mawson, M.A., Swinbrook Vicarage, Burford, Oxon 

Lancaster, Thomas, J. P., Bownham House, Stroud 

Lane, C. H., Guildhall, Bristol 

Lang, Robert, Mancombe, Henbury, Bristol 

Latimer, John, " Mercury" Office, Bristol 

Lavars, John, 3, Saville Villas, Clifton, Bristol 

Lavicount, T. W., Elm Villa, Cheltenham 

Lay, Capt., Staverton Court, Cheltenham 

Le Blanc, Arthur, Prestbury House, near Cheltenham 

Leigh, William, J.P., Woodchester Park, Stonehouse 

Leigh, E. Egerton, Broadwell Manor House, Chipping Norton 

Lewis, Archibald M., Upper Byron Place, Bristol 

Lewis, Harold, B.A., ''Mercury " Office, Bristol 

Lingwood, R. M., 6, Park Villas, The Park, Cheltenham 

Little, E. Caruthers, J.P., Field Place, Pakenhill, Stroud 

Little, E. P., Pitchcombe House, Stroud 

Llewellin, John, jun. , Redland Green, Bristol 

Lloyd, Captain Owen, 4, Oxford Parade, Cheltenham 

London Library, 12, St. James' Square, London 

Long, William, F.S.A., West Hay, Wrington 

Lovesy, C. W., J.P. 

Low, Charles Hoskins, Leigh Woods, Clifton, Bristol 

Lowe, Major A. E. Lawson, J.P., F.S.A., Shirenewton Hall, Chepstow 

Lower, Nynian, H., Olveston, Almondsbury 

Loxley, Rev. Arthur, Vicarage, Fairford 

Lucy, William C, J.P., Brookthorpe, Gloucester 

Lucy, William C, jun., M.A., J.P., 5, Queen's Parade, Cheltenham 

Lynes, The Rev. W., M.D., Cinderford Vicarage, Newnham 

Lysaght, John, Springfort, Stoke Bishop 

Maclalne, Wm. Osborne, D.L., Kington, Thornbury 
Maclean, Sir John, F.S.A., Bicknor Court, Coleford 
Macpherson, J., Aylesmore House, St. Briavels, Coleford 
Madan, Falconer, 4, Radcliffe Square, Oxford 
Majendie, Rev. S., Palace Yard, Gloucester 
Margetson, William, Brightside, Stroud 
Marling, Sir S. S., Bart., D.L., Stanley Park, Stroud 



vii. 



Marling-, W. H., J.P., Stanley House, Stonehouse 

Marmont, Mrs., King Stanley, Stonehouse 

Martin, A. T., M.A., Clifton College, Clifton, Bristol 

Martin, Henry D., Endcliff, Cheltenham 

Mathews, Augustus, Pitchcombe View, Stroud 

May, T. F. C, Gotham Park, Bristol 

Medland, James, Clarence Street, Gloucester 

Medland, Henry, Kingsholm, Gloucester 

Merrick, Frank, 7, King's Parade, Clifton, Bristol 

Metford, Joseph Seymour, 31, Berkeley Square, Bristol 

Middleton, John, Westholme, Cheltenham 

Middleton, J. H, F.S.A., 4, Storey's Gate, St. James' Park, London 

Middlemore, Whithard Revd. T. M., Teighmore, Cheltenham 

Miles, Cruger, Pen Pole, Shirehampton 

Miles, Rev. Henry E., M.A., Huntley Rectory, Gloucestershire 

Millar, Rev. Canon J. Ogilvy, LL.D., Christian Malford, Chippenham 

Mills, H. Hamilton, The Field, Stroud 

Monk, C. J., M.P. 5, Buckingham Gate, London 

Moore, John, Bourton-on-the-Water 

Moore, Rev. C. M., B.A., All Saints Vicarage, Cheltenham 
Morgan, Sir Walter, Naish House, Nailsea, Somerset 
Morley, Samuel, M. P., 34, Grosvenor Street, London, W. 
Morse, John, Bourton-on-the-Water 
Mott, Albert J., F. G. S., Crick] ey Hill, Cheltenham 
Mullings, John, Park Street, Cirencester 
Murch, Jerom, Cranwells, Bath 
Murrell, J., Gloucester 

Nairn, Charles J., Temple Guiting, Winchcombe 

Naish, Louis Edmund, Kirkless, Ashley Hill, Bristol 

Nash, Charles, J. P., 3, Oakfield Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Nash, Rev. Canon R. S., M.A., J. P., Old Sodbury, Chipping Sodbury 

Needham, Frederick, M.D., Barnwood House, Gloucester 

Nevins, Rev. Willis Probyn, M.A., 8, Oxford Parade, Cheltenham 

New, Herbert, Green Hill, Evesham 

Newbery, J. V., Bigsweir House, Coleford 

Niblett, J.D.T., M, A., F.S. A., J. P., Haresfield Court, Stonehouse 
Nicholls, J. F., F. S. A., Public Library, Bristol 
Nisbett, Rev. Matthew A., M. A., Ringwould Rectory, Dover 
Noel, Colonel, D. L., Clanna House, Alvington, Lydney 
Norman, George, High Street, Cheltenham 

Norris, Venerable Archdeacon, D.D., 3, Great George Street, Bristol 

Oakeley, Rev. W. Bagnall, M. A., Newland, Coleford 

Paine, Wm. Henry, M. D., F. G. S., Corbett House, Stroud 

Palmer, Rev. Feilding, M. A., Eastcliffe, Chepstow 

Palmer, Charles, Newland House, Coleford 

Pardoe, George, The Priory, Cheltenham 

Parker, Rev. Charles J., M. A., Apsley House, Gloucester 

Parry, Thomas Gambier, D. L., Highnam Court, Gloucester 

Pass, Alfred, Rushmere House, Durdham Down, Bristol 

Paul, Alfred H., The Close, Tetbury 

Paul, Walter S., Unity Street, College Green, Bristol 

Peach, Rev. C, Evenlode Rectory, Moreton-in-Marsh 

Perkins, Vincent, R. Wooton-uncler-Edge 

Perry, John F., 3, Tyndall's Park, Bristol 

Peters, Rev. Thomas, J. P. , Eastington Rectory, Stonehouse 

Phillimore, W. P. W., M. A., B.C.L., 28 Budge Row, London, E.C. 

Phillips, W. F., Coniston Lodge, Clifton, Bristol 



viii. 

Phillipps, J. 0., Halliwell, F. E. S., F. S. A., Hollingsbury Copse, 

Brighton 
Philipps, Miss, Hazelhurst, Boss 

Phillott, G. H., Trevor House, Leckhampton Eoad, Cheltenham 
Philp, Capt. J. Lamb, Pendoggett, Timsbury, Bath 
Pitcairn Eevd. D. Lee, Monkton Combe Vicarage, Bath 
Pitt, Theophilus, King's College, London 
Playne, Charles, Nailsworth 

Playne, Arthur T., J. P., Longfords, Minchinhampton 
Poole, C. H., A.M., F. G-.S., Pailton, near Eugby 
Pope, T. S., Unity Street, Bristol 

Potter, Eev. F. H. Neville, M.A., Ham House, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 

Powell, John Joseph, Q. C, Fountain Court Temple, London, E. C. 

Poynton, The Eev. Francis John, Kelston Eectory, Bath 

Prankerd, P. D., The Knoll, Sneyd Park, Bristol 

Price, William P., D.L., Tibberton Court, Gloucester 

Price, Eev. H. T., M.A., Elkstone Eectory, Cheltenham 

Pritchard, Augustin, F.B.C.S., 4, Chesterfield Place, Clifton, Bristol 

Prickett, Eev. T. W., M.A., F.S.A., 11, Lypiatt Terrace, Cheltenham 

Pritchett, Charles Pigott, 5 Hillside, Cotham, Bristol 

Protheroe, Frank, 18, Alfred Place West, Thurloe Square, London, S.W. 

Eainey, James T. St. George's Lodge, Bath 
Eeynolds, John, Manor House. Eedland, Bristol 

Eice, The Honourable Maria Elizabeth Eice, Mat-son House, Gloucester 
Eichards, G. P., Lydney 

Eichardson, Charles, 10, Berkeley Square, Bristol 
Eiddiford, George Francis, Barnwood Lodge, Gloucester 
Eobinson, Wm. Le Fleming, Hillesley House, Wotton-under-Edge 
Eogers, E. Eogers Coxwell, D.L., F.S.A., Dowdeswell Court, Cheltenham 
Eogers, William Frederick, Tetbury 
Eolt, Mrs. S., Oakhanger, Berkeley 

Eoyce, Eev. David, M.A., Netherswell Vicarage, Stow-on-the-Wold 
Sadler, G. W., Keynsham Villa, Cheltenham 

Salmon, E. Everard, Broom well Lodge, Westfield Park, Eedland, Bristol 
Saunders, Joshua, Sutton House, Clifton Down, Bristol 
Savory, C. H., St. John Street, Cirencester 

Scarth, Eev. Prebendary, M.A., Wrington Eectory, E.S.O., Somerset 

Scott, Charles, 52, London Eoad, Gloucester 

Scrope, Mrs. Emily, Danby-upon-Yore, Bedale, Yorkshire 

Seaton, Eev. Douglas, The Vicarage, Goodrich, Eoss 

Selwyn, Eev. E. J., M.A., Pluckley Eectory, Ashford, Kent 

Seys, Wm. iEneas, J.P.. Winwoods Green, Chepstow 

Sewell, Edward C, Elmlea, Stratton, Cirencester 

Shand, Miss., Old Hill House, near Eoss 

Shaw, J. E., M.B., 11, Lansdown Place, Victoria Square, Clifton, Bristol 
Shaw, Eev. George F. E., M.A., Edgeworth Eectory, Cirencester 
Sheppard, Charles E., Wotton House, Gloucester 
Sherborne, Et. Hon. Lord Sherborne Park 
Shipley, Alfred, Westbury-on-Trym 

Short, Thomas G., 5, Exeter Buildings, Eedland, Bristol 
Shum, Frederick, F.S.A. Belcombe Brook, Bradford-on-Avon 
Simpson, J. J., Glen Llyn, Lynwood, Cotham Gardens, Bristol 
Skillicorne, W. Nash, D.L., 9, Queen's Parade, Cheltenham 
Skrine, Henry Duncan, J.P., Warleigh Manor, Bath 
Slater, Alexander, Waynnete, Hampton Eoad, Bristol 
Smith,. T. Sherwood, Baldwin Street, Bristol 



Smith, J. Somerville, Tyndalls Park, Bristol 
Smith, Alfred Edward, The Hollies, Nailsworth 
Smith, Richard Henry, Grigshot, near Stroud 

Smith, R. H. Soden, Science and Art Department, South Kensington 

Museum, London, S. W. 
Smith, Rev. William, M. A., Newland Vicarage, Coleford 
Smith, William, Sundon House, Clifton Down, Bristol 
Society of Merchant Venturers, Bristol 
Sommerville, William, J. P., Bitton Hill, near Bristol 
Spafford. Gr. O., Clifton Down Hotel, Clifton, Bristol 

Spencer, W. H.,M.A.,M.B., (Cantab), F. L. S. ,Lansdown Place, Clifton. Bristol 
Stanton, Charles Holbrow, 65, Redcliffe Gardens, London, S. W. 
Stanton, Rev. Joseph John, M.A., North Barrow Rectory, Castle Cary, 
Somerset 

Stanton, Waltee John, M.P., The Culls, Stroud 

Stanton, J. Y., The Leaze, Stonehouse 

Stanton, Rev. W. H., Hasleton Rectory, Cheltenham 

Stock, B. S., Cote Lodge, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol 

Stokes, Miss, Tyndale House, Cheltenham 

Stone, John, 12, Royal Crescent, Bath 

Stoughton, Thomas A., D. L., Owlpen, Dursley 

Stratford, Joseph, 6, Arthur Street, Gloucester 

Street, Ernest, 43, Oakfield Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Strickland, Edwaed, 13, Victoria Square, Clifton, Bristol 

Strickland, Algernon, Coleford 

Stroud, Frederick, Lewisland, Cheltenham 

Stubbs, T. W., Quarwood, Lower Swell, Moreton -in -the -Marsh 

Sturg-e, Joseph Young, Thornbury 

Swayne, Joseph Griffiths, M. D., 74, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Swayne, Miss, 129, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Swayne, S. H., 129, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Swinburne, T. W., Corndean Hall, Winchcombe 
Symonds, Rev. W. S., Pendock Rectory, Tewkesbury 

Tait, C. W. A., M.A., College Gate, Clifton College, Clifton, Bristol 
Tanner, William, Frenchay, Bristol 

Tagart, Francis, J.P., F.L.S., F.R.G.S., Old Sneyd Park, Bristol 

Taylor, John, Bristol Museum and Library, Queen's Road, Bristol 

Thomas, Christophee James, J.P. , Drayton Lodge, Durdham Park, Bristol 

Thomas, William, 7, Charlotte Street, Queen Square, Bristol 

Thompson, Rev. H. L., M.A., Iron Acton Rectory, Bristol 

Thoepe, Disney Laundee M.D., (Cantab.,) Lypiatt Lodge, Cheltenham 

Thuesb-y, Piees, Broad well Hill, Moreton-in-the-Marsh 

Tomkins, Revd. H. A. C. . Wick Vicarage, Bath 

Townsend, Charles, Avenue House, Gotham Park, Bristol 

Trinder, Edward. Perrots' Brook, Cirencester 

Trollope, Rev. S. S., The Vicarage, Lydney 

Trotman Rev. S. F. Marshfield Vicarage, Chippenham 

Tuckett, Feancis Fox, F.R.G.S., Frenchay, Bristol 

Tudway, Clement, Cecily Hill, Cirencester 

Turner, A. M. Sydney, 5, College Green, Gloucester 

Turner, T., Ashley House, Kingsdown, Bristol 

Twells, The Right Rev. Bishop, Pembroke Gate, Clifton, Bristol 

•Uren, William, Crofton House, Clifton Down, Clifton, Bristol 

Vassar-Smith, R. Vassar Esq., Ashfield, Great Malvern 

Viner, Rev. A. W. Ellis, B.A., Badgeworth Vicarage, Cheltenham 



X. 

Wadding-ham, John, J.P., Guiting Grange, Winchcombe 

Wait, W. Killigrew, St. Vincent's Hall, Clifton Park, Clifton, Bristol 

Waldy, Rev. J. E., B.A., Claverton Bectory, Bath 

W t alker, Lieut. -General Sir C. P. Beauchamp, K.C.B. 97, Onslow 

Square, London, S.W. 
Walker, C. B., Norton Court, near Gloucester 
Walker, John, M.A., Westbourne House, Pittville, Cheltenham 
Wallace, Rev. C. H., M.A., 3, Harley Place, Clifton, Bristol 
Waller, Frederick S., F.R.I.B.A., 18, College Green, Gloucester 
Walters, Charles Astley, Mona House, Cheltenham 
Warren, Algernon W., 4, Lanesfield Villas, Clifton, Bristol 
Warren, Robert Hall, Sunnyside, Apsley Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Wasbrough, H. S., 7, Gloucester Row, Clifton, Bristol 
Waters Rev. Thomas, M.A., The Vicarage, Thornbury, Gloucestershire 
Wemyss-Colchester, Maynard Willoughby, The Wilderness, Mitcheldean 
Weston, J. D., Dorset House, Clifton, Bristol 
Weston, John, Leslie Court, Barnwood Gloucester 
Wethered, Charles, West Grange, Stroud 
Wethered, Joseph, Guthrie Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Wheeler, A. C, J.P., Upton Hill, Gloucester 
Whitehead, Mrs., Amberley Court, Nailsworth 
Whitmore, C. A., Lower Slaughter, Moreton-in-the-Marsh 
Whitwill, Mark, J.P., Redland House, Durdham Park, Bristol 
Wickenden, Rev. Canon, M.A., Stoke Green, Stoke Bishop, Bristol 
Wiggin, Rev. William, M.A., Hampnett Rectory, Northleach 
Willett, M., M.D., Ashley House, Ashley Road, Bristol 
Williams, Rev. Augustin, Todenham Rectory, Moreton-in-Marsh 
Williams, Adin, Lechlade 

Williams, John, 16, Alma Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Wills, Frederick, Avonwood House, Clifton Down, Clifton, Bristol 

Wills, George, J.P., 3, Worcester Villas, Clifton, Bristol 

Willmott, H. J., J .P., Hatherley Lawn, Cheltenham 

Wilson, Rev. C. H., M.A., Cubberley Vicarage, Cheltenham 

Wilton, John P., 10, College Green, Gloucester 

Wingfield, E. Rhys, Barrington Park, Burford 

Winning, Rev. R., M.A., Gretton Fields, Winchcombe 

Winterbotham, Lauriston, Arundel House, Bays Hill, Cheltenham 

Wintle, Charles, Queen Square, Bristol 

Winwood, Rev. H. H., M.A., 11, Cavendish Crescent, Bath 

Wiseman, Rev. H. J., M.A., Clifton College, Clifton, Bristol 

Witchell, Edwin, F.G.S., The Acre, Stroud 

Witts, G. B., C.E., Hill House, Leckhampton, Cheltenham 

Witts, Rev. E. F., M.A., D.L., Upper Slaughter, Stow-on-the-Wold 

Witts, F. R. V., Fos Cottage, Stow-on-the-Wold 

Witts, Rev. S. E. Broome, M.A., Norton Vicarage, Gloucester 

Woodward, J. H., Richmond Park, Clifton, Bristol 

Wright, J., Marlborough Lodge, Marlborough Hill, Bristol 

Wright, Thomas, M.D., F.R.S., 4, St. Margarets Terrace, Cheltenham 

Yabbicom, Thomas Henry, C.E., 23, Oakfield Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Yatman, William Hamilton, J.P., Highgrove, Tetbury 



Zachary, Henry, Cirencester 



xi. 



TEEMS OF ADMISSION TO THE SOCIETY. 



Those who are desirous of joining the Society, can be admitted, after 
election by the Council, on the following conditions : 

I. As Life Members, for a Composition of £5 5s., and an Admission 

Fee of 10s. 6d. which will entitle them to receive gratuitously 
for life, the annual volumes of Transactions of the Society that 
may be issued after the date of payment. 

II. As Annual Members, upon payment of 10s. Gd. Entrance Fee, and 

an annual subscription of 10s. 6d., which will entitle them to 
receive gi atuitously, the annual volumes of Transactions for 
every year for which their subscriptions are paid. 

The annual subscription becomes due on the 22nd of April, and the 
Treasurer, Mr. W. T. Giller, will be obliged if members will 
send their subscriptions to him at the County of Gloucester 
Bank, Gloucester. 

By order of Council, the Transactions of the Society are only issued 
to those Members who have paid their subscriptions for the 
corresponding year. 

Application for admission as Members to be made to the Rev. r ;W. 
Bazeley, M.A., Matson Rectory, Gloucester, and the Rev. J. W. 
Caldicott, D.D., Shipston-on-Stour, Rectory, Worcestershire, 
Honorary Secretaries. 



JOHN BELLOWS, GLOUCESTER 123005 



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